The Erasmus Programme (EuRopean Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students) is a European Union (EU) student exchange programme established in 1987. Erasmus+, or Erasmus Plus, is the new programme combining all the EU's current schemes for education, training, youth and sport, which was started in January 2014.
The Erasmus Programme, together with a number of other independent programmes, was incorporated into the Socrates programme established by the European Commission in 1994. The Socrates programme ended on 31 December 1999 and was replaced with the Socrates II programme on 24 January 2000, which in turn was replaced by the Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 on 1 January 2007.
The programme is named after the Dutch philosopher, theologian, Renaissance Humanist, monk, and devout Roman Catholic, Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Erasmus, along with his good friend Thomas More, became the center of European intellectual life during the Renaissance. Known for his satire, Erasmus urged internal reform of the Catholic Church. He encouraged a recovery of the Catholic Patristic tradition against contemporary abuses of the Sacraments and certain excessive devotional practices. He famously clashed with Protestant revolutionary Martin Luther on the subject of free will. ERASMUS is a backronym meaning EuRopean community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students.
By the time the Erasmus Programme was adopted in June 1987, the European Commission had been supporting pilot student exchanges for 6 years. It proposed the original Erasmus Programme in early 1986, but reaction from the then Member States varied: those with substantial exchange programmes of their own (essentially France, Germany and the United Kingdom) were broadly hostile; the remaining countries were broadly in favour. Exchanges between the Member States and the European Commission deteriorated, and the latter withdrew the proposal in early 1987 to protest against the inadequacy of the triennial budget proposed by some Member States.
This method of voting was not accepted by some of the opposing Member States, who challenged the adoption of the decision before the European Court of Justice. Although the Court held that the adoption was procedurally flawed, it maintained the substance of the decision; a further decision, adapted in the light of the jurisprudence, was rapidly adopted by the Council of Ministers.
The programme built on the 1981–1986 pilot student exchanges, and although it was formally adopted only shortly before the beginning of the academic year 1987-1988, it was still possible for 3,244 students to participate in Erasmus in its first year. In 2006, over 150,000 students, or almost 1% of the European student population, took part. The proportion is higher among university teachers, where Erasmus teacher mobility is 1.9% of the teacher population in Europe, or 20,877 people.
In the past twenty years, over two million students have benefited from Erasmus grants, and the European Commission aims to reach a total of 3 million by 2012.
The Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 replaced the Socrates programme as the overall umbrella under which the Erasmus (and other) programmes operate from 2007.
The Erasmus Mundus programme is another, parallel programme that is oriented towards globalising European education. Whereas the Erasmus Programme is open to Europeans, Erasmus Mundus is open to non-Europeans with Europeans being exceptional cases.
On 9 May 2012, Fraternité 2020 was registered as Europe's first European Citizens' Initiative. Its goal was to increase the budget for EU exchange programmes like Erasmus or the European Voluntary Service from 2014. To be successful it would have needed 1 million signatures by 1 November 2013. It ultimately collected only 71,057 signatures from citizens across the EU.
Erasmus+ (2014-2020), also called Erasmus Plus, is the new 14.7 billion euro catch-all framework programme for education, training, youth and sport. The new Erasmus+ programme combines all the EU's current schemes for education, training, youth and sport, including the Lifelong Learning Programme (Erasmus, Leonardo da Vinci, Comenius, Grundtvig), Youth in Action and five international co-operation programmes (Erasmus Mundus, Tempus, Alfa, Edulink and the programme for co-operation with industrialised countries). The Erasmus+ regulation was signed on 11 December 2013.
Erasmus+ [...] provides grants for a wide range of actions including the opportunity for students to undertake work placements abroad and for teachers and education staff to attend training courses.
Erasmus+ key action 1 provides a unique opportunity for teachers, headmasters, trainers and other staff of education institutions to participate in international training courses in different European countries.
The staff home institution shall apply to receive the grant to send its staff members abroad for training.
Erasmus+ also conducts projects in Central Asia's Kazakhstan. The programme funded 40 projects involving 47 universities in Kazakhstan. The total sum of the grant amounted to more than 35.5 million euro.
On 30 May, the European Commission adopted its proposal for the next Erasmus programme, with a doubling of the budget to 30 billion euros for the period 2021-2027.  Further negotiations will now take place with the European Parliament and the European Council before the final programme is adopted.
There are currently more than 4,000 higher institutions participating in Erasmus across the 37 countries involved in the Erasmus programme and by 2013, 3 million students had taken part since the programme's inception in 1987. In 2012-13 alone, 270,000 took part, the most popular destinations being Spain, Germany, Italy and France. Erasmus students represented 5 percent of European graduates as of 2012.
Studies have discussed issues related to the selection into the programme and the representativeness of the participants. Some studies have raised doubts about the inclusiveness of the programme, by socio-economic background, level of study, or academic performance. Thus, one study analyses the financial issues and family background of Erasmus students, showing that despite the fact that access to the programme has been moderately widened, there are still important socio-economic barriers to participation in the programme. Another study uncovered what seems to be an adverse self-selection of Erasmus students based on their prior academic performance, with higher-performing students less likely to participate than lower-performing ones. However, this case was based on a number of four hundred graduates in a Spanish university only.  Inversely, one study looking in details at French and Italian students found that the primary predictor of participation to Erasmus was students' prior academic records, not the occupation of their parents.
The Erasmus Programme had previously been restricted to applicants who had completed at least one year of tertiary-level study, but it is now also available to secondary school students.
Students who join the Erasmus Programme study at least 3 months or do an internship for a period of at least 2 months to an academic year in another European country. The Erasmus Programme guarantees that the period spent abroad is recognised by their university when they come back, as long as they abide by terms previously agreed. Switzerland has been suspended as a participant in the Erasmus programme as of 2015, following the popular vote to limit the immigration of EU citizens into Switzerland. As a consequence, Swiss students will not be able to apply for the programme and European students will not be able to spend time at a Swiss university under that programme.
A main part of the programme is that students do not pay extra tuition fees to the university that they visit. Students can also apply for an Erasmus grant to help cover the additional expense of living abroad. Students with disabilities can apply for an additional grant to cover extraordinary expenses.
In order to reduce expenses and increase mobility, many students also use the European Commission-supported accommodation network, CasaSwap, FlatClub, Erasmusinn, Eurasmus, Erasmate or Student Mundial, which are free websites where students and young people can rent, sublet, offer and swap accommodation – on a national and international basis. A derived benefit is that students can share knowledge and exchange tips and hints with each other before and after going abroad.
For many European students, the Erasmus Programme is their first time living and studying in another country. Hence, it has become a cultural phenomenon and is very popular among European students, going on to become the subject of movies such as the French film L'Auberge espagnole, and the documentary Erasmus 24 7
The programme fosters learning and understanding of the host country. The Erasmus experience is considered both a time for learning as well as a chance to socialise.
Tutors are often keen for students of subjects such as Politics or International Relations to participate in Erasmus. It is seen as a great opportunity to study abroad while not having the expense of studying outside the European Union, since the grants available to Erasmus students are not available to those opting to leave the continent to study.
Some academics have speculated that former Erasmus students will prove to be a powerful force in creating a pan-European identity. The political scientist Stefan Wolff, for example, has argued that "Give it 15, 20 or 25 years, and Europe will be run by leaders with a completely different socialisation from those of today", referring to the so-called 'Erasmus generation'.
Most of the characters in the movie L'Auberge Espagnole are enrolled in the Erasmus programme and the programme plays a central role in the plot.
Pakistani novelist Nimra Ahmed's novel "Jannat K Patte" (Leaves of Heaven) is based on the Erasmus programme, where the protagonist Haya goes to Sabancı University through Erasmus Mundus, which marks a turning point in her life.
The online public forum cafébabel was founded in 2001 by Erasmus exchange programme students, and is headquartered in Paris. The forum is based on the principle of participatory journalism. As of July 2013 it had over 16,000 registered members, up to 1,500 contributors and 20 ‘local offices’ writing about Europe as they see it. Volunteer contributors simultaneously translate the forum into six languages – French, English, German, Italian, Spanish and Polish.
In the European Union education is the responsibility of Member States; European Union institutions play a supporting role. According to Art. 165 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the Community
The EU also funds educational, vocational and citizenship-building programmes which encourage EU citizens to take advantage of opportunities which the EU offers its citizens to live, study and work in other countries. The best known of these is the Erasmus programme, under which more than 3,000,000 students have taken part in inter-university exchange and mobility over the last 20 years.
Since 2000, conscious of the importance of Education and Training for their economic and social objectives, EU Member States have begun working together to achieve specific goals in the field of Education. By sharing examples of good policy practice, by taking part in Peer Learning activities, by setting benchmarks and by tracking progress against key indicators, the 28 Member States aim to respond coherently to common challenges, whilst retaining their individual sovereignty in the field of Education policy. This strategy is referred to as the Education and Training 2020 programme (ET2020), which is an update of the Education and Training 2010 programme.
The European Union is also a partner in various inter-governmental projects, including the Bologna Process whose purpose is to create a European higher education area by harmonising academic degree structures and standards as well as academic quality assurance standards throughout EU Member States and in other European countries.Estonian Academy of Arts
The Estonian Academy of Arts (Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA) is the only public university in Estonia providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation-restoration. It is based in Tallinn.
According to the Statutes of the EAA, the main objective of activity at the Estonian Academy of Arts is to promote creativity and research, enabling the acquirement of a contemporary higher education based on integrated study, meeting the standard of higher education in the field of fine arts, design, media, architecture, art history, conservation-restoration and teacher education.
With the Estonian Minister of Education and Research' Act no.145 from February 10, 2007, the EAA was accredited by an international expert committee as an institution.
The Estonian Academy of Arts has signed around 80 bilateral agreements with universities which participate in ERASMUS programme, but has also partner institutions outside the ERASMUS higher education space – in Switzerland, United States, Russia, Australia and also with some private universities within the European Union.Eurodesk
Eurodesk is an international non-profit association created in 1990. It is a European network of European and national information centers for young people and those involved with them. It offers youth information and international learning opportunities and is an organisation supported by the Erasmus+ programme (2014–2020). In 2004, Eurodesk – with the help of its financier European Commission - launched the European Youth Portal. From 2007 to 2013, Eurodesk was part of the Youth in Action programme. Through the participation of the Erasmus+ programme in the year 2014, Eurodesk is already present in 5 countries. In the year 2015 Eurodesk celebrated its 25th anniversary.European Security and Defence College
The European Security and Defence College (ESDC) is a body of the External Action Service (EEAS) of the European Union (EU) that provides training and education at EU level in the field of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), which is part of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The ESDC has limited legal capacity.
The ESDC aims is to develop a common understanding of CSDP among civilian and military personnel, and to disseminate best practice in relation to various CSDP issues.International School of Law and Business
International School of Law and Business (ISLB, lit. Tarptautinė teisės ir verslo aukštoji mokykla, TTVAM) is a private university in Vilnius (Laisvės prospektas 58, Viršuliškės), Lithuania. The ISLB runs over 700 students with a growing share of international students from 8 different countries of the world and nearly 100 academicians and practitioners. ISLB provides a range of courses taught in English. ISLB has signed over 100 Bilateral Agreements with partner institutions in the frames of LLP/Erasmus programme and Nordplus Framework Programme as well as Master studies in Europe and South Korea.
ISLB was founded on September 1, 1998 as Daugvilienė High Business School (Daugvilienės aukštesnioji verslo mokykla) and 2001 as the Vilnius Law and Business College (Vilniaus teisės ir verslo kolegija). Director was Daiva Daugvilienė.Kazimierz Pułaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom
Kazimierz Pułaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom is a public university in Radom. It was the biggest university of the former Radom Voivodeship. The university was established in 1950 as a School of Engineering of General Technical Organization. For more than 50 years its name was often changed. The University of Technology and Humanities in Radom comprises 8 faculties, 4 of which are of technical profile: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Transport and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Materials Science, Technology and Design, and Faculty of Computer Science and Mathematics, whereas Faculty of Art, Faculty of Economics, Faculty of Philology and Pedagogics, and Faculty of Health Sciences and Physical Culture represent the Humanities. Students may choose from 27 degree courses (27 undergraduate and 12 graduate) and more than 100 specializations (majors). Many of them are unique in Poland. The University also provides 6 doctoral programmes (economics, fine arts, transport, electrical engineering, mechanics and mechanical engineering and machine building ). The ECTS system is fully implemented and used in each Faculty. Thus, students of the University have the possibility to study abroad at different European universities within the 3 Erasmus Programme. The study period at a foreign university is fully recognized at the Technical University of Radom. The University also accept foreign students within the Erasmus Programme, too. Students can join students organizations, self-government, any of 36 student scientific associations, sports clubs and the horse-riding club.Koszalin University of Technology
Koszalin University of Technology (Politechnika Koszalińska) is a public technical university located in Koszalin and other cities, i.e. Chojnice.
The institution was established in 1968 as Higher School of Engineering. The university obtained its present name and status in 1996.The university consists of the following faculties and institutes:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental engineering
Faculty of Economics and Management
Faculty of Electronics and Computer Science
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Institute of Mechatronics, Nanotechnology and Vacuum TechniqueThe University is taking part in international exchange programmes, including Erasmus Programme.L'Auberge Espagnole
L'Auberge Espagnole (; literally: "the Spanish inn"), also known as Pot Luck (UK), The Spanish Apartment (Australia) and Euro Pudding (US), is a 2002 French-Spanish film directed and written by Cédric Klapisch. It is a co-production of Mate Production, Via Digital, BAC Films, Ce qui me meut, France 2 Cinéma and Studio Canal).The movie is about an economics graduate student studying for a year in Barcelona, Spain, as part of the Erasmus programme, where he learns from a group of students from all over Western Europe in a student share-house.
The film is told in the first-person perspective of the main character, Xavier, and is mainly in French. Some of the dialogue is in English and a significant amount is in Spanish, as well as small amounts in Catalan, Danish, German and Italian.
L'Auberge Espagnole is the first part of the Spanish Apartment trilogy, which continues in the sequels Russian Dolls (2005) and Chinese Puzzle (2013).LUCA School of Arts
Hogeschool Sint-Lukas Brussel, based in the Schaarbeek municipality of Brussels, Belgium, is allegedly still the only independent art school in Flanders. It is a predominantly Dutch-speaking institution located on the Paleizenstraat/Rue de Palais, and at another site, within reachable distance of Brussels' North Station.
The Hogeschool provides exclusively art-related university-level higher education, hence the name. It houses around 1,000 students across its academic provision, and can trace its roots back to the first foundation of a Sint-Lukas art school in 1880. The school offers master programmes (four years) across the disciplines of audio-visual arts, graphic and publicity design, photography and fine art and bachelor programmes in interior design and construction. It also organizes Transmedia, a postgraduate programme for art students.
The Hogeschool actively encourages student mobility, and maintains several links with art schools across the continent through the Socrates programme and the Erasmus programme, with language of instruction to exchange students being English in the appropriate circumstances.
It is closely associated with the Sint-Lukas gallery in the city, showcasing contemporary art and its documentation.Marmara University
Marmara University (Turkish: Marmara Üniversitesi) is a public university in the Fatih district of Istanbul, in Turkey. The rector (university president) has been M. Emin Arat since 2014.Military Erasmus
The Military Erasmus Programme, formally the European initiative for the exchange of young officers inspired by Erasmus, is an initiative undertaken by the European Union (EU) member states aimed at developing the exchanges between armed forces of future military officers as well as their teachers and instructors during their initial education and training. Due to the fact that the initiative is implemented by the Member States on a purely voluntary basis, their autonomy with regard to military training is not compromised.Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti
The Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, "New Academy of Fine Arts", also known as NABA, is a privately run university in Milan, Lombardy, Italy. It has approximately 3000 students, some of whom are from abroad; it participates in the Erasmus Programme.Poznań University of Technology
Poznań University of Technology, PUT (Polish name: Politechnika Poznańska) is a university located in Poznań, Poland. Poznań University of Technology is known as one of the best technical universities in Poland. URAP ranked PUT as in top 6% of world universities and Webometrics ranked it at no. 842 in the world by Google citations for the year 2015. In 1995 it became the first Polish university to become a member of the Conference of European Schools for Advanced Engineering Education and Research (CESAER), an organization comprising the best technical universities in Europe. The university is also a member of the Socrates-Erasmus programme for exchange students from all over Europe, promoting advanced engineering and a European dimension. The university is home to many organizations and student circles, and the radio station Afera 98.6 MHz. The university has over 21,000 students and over 1100 academic staffs.Public University of Navarre
The Public University of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa; Spanish: Universidad Pública de Navarra) is a public university created in 1987 by the government of the Spanish autonomous region of Navarre (Spanish: Navarra, Basque: Nafarroa).
The main campus is located in Pamplona, at the outskirts of the city, near the CA Osasuna's El Sadar Stadium, and a new campus was opened in Tudela, a city in southern Navarre, for the 2008-09 academic year. The Health Sciences building (Spanish: Ciencias de la Salud) was placed off-campus near the two biggest hospitals of the city.
Currently there are about 10,000 students taking fifteen different degrees, the most popular of which are business administration and several different engineering degrees.
There are also many foreign students taking part of Erasmus programme, ISEP, Virrey Palafox, or other exchange programs.Pázmány Péter Catholic University
For other universities with similar names, see Pázmáneum (disambiguation)Pázmány Péter Catholic University is a private university of the Catholic Church in Hungary, recognized by the state. Founded in 1635, the PPCU is one of Hungary's oldest and most prestigious institutions of higher education.
The Faculty of Theology was established by archbishop Péter Pázmány in Nagyszombat, the Kingdom of Hungary (today Trnava, Slovakia) in 1635. The university is located in three cities: the Rectors' Office, the Faculty of Theology, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Information Technology, and the Postgraduate Institute of Canon-Law are located in Budapest. The campus of the Vitéz János Faculty of Teaching is in Esztergom, around the Esztergom Basilica. The campus of the Faculty of Humanities is in Piliscsaba, in the vicinity of Budapest.
The university has several research groups and institutes. One of the most important international research programmes of the university is the Syro-Hungarian Archeological Mission, which does the restoration of Margat's crusader fortress.
Nearly 10.000 students attend the university, enrolled in several Bachelor, Master, and PhD programmes.
International cooperations include the Erasmus programme and bilateral agreements. It was named in 2009 as one of the most active members of the Erasmus programme. It is a co-establisher of the International Research Universities Network and has strong connections with Radboud University Nijmegen, Catholic University of Leuven, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogota, Saint Louis University and University of Notre Dame.Silesian University (Opava)
Silesian University in Opava, (Czech: Slezská univerzita v Opavě) is one of the youngest universities in the Czech Republic, established in 1991.
Silesian University in Opava should not be confused with a similarly named university in Polish-administered part of Silesia (University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice).
The Silesian University in Opava (Slezská univerzita v Opavě) is a university offering tertiary education and having public legal status (in Czech only). It was established by the law (Nr. 314/1991 - in Czech only) passed by the Czech National Council on July 9, 1991.
In 1999 the Mathematical Institute in Opava was established after its separation from the Faculty of Philosophy and Science, and in 2008 several other institutes were separated from the same faculty and the Faculty of Public Policies in Opava was created.
In 2011 the total number of the students was more than 9000 involved in approximately 50 study programmes.
Slezská univerzita v Opavě / Silesian University in Opava, Czech Republic, has participated in the Erasmus Programme since 1999. The number of students and employees participating in the Erasmus Programme is increasing every year.Silesian University of Technology
The Silesian University of Technology (Polish name: Politechnika Śląska; Polish pronunciation: [pɔliˈtɛxɲika ˈɕlɔ̃ska]) is a university located in the Polish province of Silesia, with most of its facilities in the city of Gliwice. It was founded in 1945 by Polish professors of the Lwow Polytechnic, who were forced to leave their native city and move to the Recovered Territories (see also Kresy). The University consistently ranks among the top most prestigious technical universities in Poland.
Silesian University of Technology is organized into 13 faculties, 1 college and 1 research institute:
Faculty of Architecture,
Faculty of Automatic control, Electronics and Computer Science,
Faculty of Civil Engineering,
Faculty of Chemistry,
Faculty of Electrical Engineering,
Faculty of Mining and Geology,
Faculty of Biomedical Engineering
Faculty of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy,
Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering,
Faculty of Applied Mathematics,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Organization and Management,
Faculty of Transport,
College of Social Sciences and Foreign Philologies,
Institute of Physics - Centre for Science and EducationEleven of these are situated in Gliwice, two in Katowice and two in Zabrze.
The university is affiliated with the following organizations:
European University Association (EUA)
European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI)
The Innovation Cluster for Entrepreneurship Education of the Erasmus+ Programme
Alliance of Universities for Democracy (AUDEM)
Trans-European Mobility Programme for University Studies (TEMPUS)
Erasmus Programme which evolved into the Socrates programme
Leonardo da Vinci programme
Central European Exchange Program for University Studies (CEEPUS)
European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)
The EUREKA intergovernmental organizationUniversity of Granada
The University of Granada (Spanish: Universidad de Granada, UGR) is a public university located in the city of Granada, Spain, and founded in 1531 by Emperor Charles V. With approximately 80,000 students, it is the fourth largest university in Spain. Apart from the city of Granada, UGR also has campuses in Northern Africa (Ceuta and Melilla).
In the academic year 2012/2013 almost 2,000 European students were enrolled in UGR through the Erasmus Programme, making it the most popular European destination. The university's Center for Modern Languages (CLM) receives over 10,000 international students each year. In 2014, UGR was voted the best Spanish university by international students.University of Ioannina
The University of Ioannina (UoI; Greek: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων, Panepistimio Ioanninon) is a university located 5 km southwest of Ioannina, Greece. The university was founded in 1964, as a charter of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and became an independent university in 1970.As of 2017, there is a student population of 25,000 enrolled at the university (21,900 at the undergraduate level and 3,200 at the postgraduate level) and 580 faculty members, while teaching is further supplemented by 171 Teaching Fellows and 132 Technical Laboratory staff. The university Administrative Services are staffed with 420 employees.University of Ioannina is one of the leading academic institutions in Greece.