An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named. The adjectives derived from eponym include eponymous and eponymic. For example, Elizabeth I of England is the eponym of the Elizabethan era, and "the eponymous founder of the Ford Motor Company" refers to Henry Ford. Recent usage, especially in the recorded-music industry, also allows eponymous to mean "named after its central character or creator".
Periods have often been named after a ruler or other influential figure:
For examples, see the comparison table below.
|Prevalent dictionary styling today||Stylings that defy prevalent dictionary styling||Comments|
|Addison disease||*Addison Disease
|Allemann syndrome||*Allemann Syndrome
cesarean also cesarian [but no cap variant]
cesarean, "often capitalized" or caesarean also cesarian or caesarian
|More information on this word's orthographic variants is at Wiktionary: caesarean section.|
|diesel (n/adj/vi) [no cap variant]
draconian often Draconian
eustachian often Eustachian
eustachian tube [only]
eustachian tube often Eustachian tube
eustachian tube or Eustachian tube
fallopian often Fallopian
fallopian tube [only]
fallopian tube often Fallopian tube
fallopian tube also Fallopian tube
|mendelian [only] or Mendelian [only]
mendelian inheritance [only] or Mendelian inheritance [only]
Parkinson disease [only]
Parkinson's disease [only]
|AMA Manual of Style lowercases the terms roman numerals and arabic numerals. MWCD enters the numeral sense under the headword Roman but with the note "not cap" on the numeral sense.|
By person's name
The campaign for the neologism "santorum" started with a contest held in May 2003 by Dan Savage, a sex columnist and LGBT rights activist. Savage asked his readers to create a definition for the word "santorum" in response to then-U.S. Senator Rick Santorum's views on homosexuality, and comments about same sex marriage. In his comments, Santorum had stated that "[i]n every society, the definition of marriage has not ever to my knowledge included homosexuality. That's not to pick on homosexuality. It's not, you know, man on child, man on dog, or whatever the case may be." Savage announced the winning entry, which defined "santorum" as "the frothy mixture of lube and fecal matter that is sometimes the byproduct of anal sex". He created a web site, spreadingsantorum.com (and santorum.com), to promote the definition, which became a top internet search result, displacing the senator's official website on many search engines, including Google, Yahoo! Search, and Bing.In 2010 Savage said he would take the site down if Santorum donated US$5 million plus interest to Freedom to Marry, a group advocating legal recognition of same-sex marriages. In September 2011 Santorum asked Google to remove the definition from its search engine index. Google refused, responding that the company does not remove content from search results except in very limited circumstances.Cephissus (mythology)
Cephissus (Greek: Κηφισός, kephisos) is a river god of ancient Greece, associated with the river Cephissus in Attica, Greece. He was a son of Pontus and Thalassa.The same author names as daughters of this Cephissus:
the naiad Lilaea (10.33.4) the eponym of Lilaea at its source,
Daulis (10.4.7) the eponym of the city of Daulis,
Melaeno (10.6.4) mother of Delphus by Apollo, though he also gives two other accounts of Delphus' mother. However one of these alternate versions is that Thyia daughter of the aboriginal Castalius was Delphus' mother, almost certainly the same Thyia whom Herodotus (7.178.1) claims was daughter of Cephissus to whom the Delphians built an altar to the winds and who was eponym of the Thyiades.A mortal son of Cephissus was Eteocles by Euippe, daughter of Leucon, son of Athamas. This Euippe was wife of King Andreus of Orchomenus and Eteocles inherited Andreus' throne (9.34.9). Eteocles or Eteoclus, son of Cephissus, is confirmed from Hesiod's Catalogue (Fr. 70) and Pindar (Ol. 14). He first made offering to the Charites by the side of the river Cephissus.
Cephissus was also father of Narcissus according to Ovid's Metamorphoses (3.342), Hyginus (271), and Statius' Thebaid (7.340), Narcissus' mother being an otherwise unknown naiad named Liriope according to Ovid.Delboeuf illusion
The Delboeuf illusion is an optical illusion of relative size perception. In the best-known version of the illusion, two circles of identical size have been placed near to each other and one is surrounded by an annulus; the surrounded circle then appears larger than the non-surrounded circle if the annulus is close, while appearing smaller than the non-surrounded circle if the annulus is distant. A 2005 study suggests it is caused by the same visual processes that cause the Ebbinghaus illusion.Elatus
There were several figures named Elatus or Élatos (Ἔλατος) in Greek mythology.
Elatus, a Lapith chieftain of Larissa, Thessaly. He was the father, by Hippeia, of Caeneus, Polyphemus, and Ischys who was beloved by Coronis, and a daughter Dotia, possibly the eponym of Dotion (Dotium) in Thessaly (see also Dotis). He was also the father of the seer Ampycus.
Elatus, a centaur, killed during a battle with Heracles by a poisoned arrow that passed through his arm and continued to wound Chiron in the knee.The asteroid 31824 Elatus is named after this figure.
Elatus, one of the suitors of Penelope, killed by Eumaeus.
Elatus, a son of Arcas by either Leaneira, Meganeira, Chrysopeleia or Erato and the brother of Apheidas and Azan. He was allotted by Arcas the region of then-nameless Mount Cyllene as his domain, but afterwards migrated to the region which later became known as Phocis, and assisted the local inhabitants in the war against the Phlegyans; he was renowned as founder and eponym of the city Elatea. An image of him was carved on a stele in the marketplace of Elatea. He married Laodice (daughter of Cinyras) and became by her father of Stymphalus, Pereus, Aepytus, Ischys, and Cyllen.
Elatus, an ally of the Trojans from Pedasus, killed by Agamemnon.
Elatus or Elaton, a charioteer of Amphiaraus, otherwise known as Baton.
Elatus, father of Euanippe, who was the mother of Polydorus by Hippomedon.
Elatus, a son of Icarius and father of Taenarus by Erymede.Eponym Group
The Eponym Group (Persian: گروه همنام; Hamnam) was an electoral list for the Iranian legislative election, 1980 claiming "it would choose its candidates based on merit without regard to party affiliation". Close to the Freedom Movement, the group formed a minority in the parliament with approximately 15 to 23 seats. Due to internal conflicts, the Freedom Movement did not issue a list but its members were included in the Eponym list. The list had members of Freedom Movement, JAMA and Islamic Republican Party.Eponym dating system
The Eponym dating system was a calendar system for Assyria, for a period of over one thousand years. Every year was associated with the name, an eponym, of the Limmu, the individual holding office.
The dating system is thought to have originated in the ancient city of Assur, and remained the official dating system in Assyria until the end of the Assyrian Empire in the seventh century BC. The names of the Limmu who became eponyms were originally chosen by lot sortition, until the first millennium it became a fixed rotation of officers headed by the king who constituted the limmu. The earliest known attestations of a year eponyms are at Karum-Kanesh, and became used in other Assyrian colonies in Anatolia. Its spread was due to Shamshi-Adad I's unification of northern Mesopotamia.Erythema induratum
Erythema induratum is a panniculitis on the calves. It occurs mainly in women, but it is very rare now. Historically, when it has occurred, it has often been concomitant with cutaneous tuberculosis, and it was formerly thought to be always a reaction to the tuberculum bacillus. It is now considered a panniculitis that is not associated with just a single defined pathogen. The medical eponym Bazin disease was historically synonymous, but it applies only to the tuberculous form and is dated.Froment's sign
Froment's sign is a special test of the wrist. It tests for palsy of the ulnar nerve, specifically, the action of adductor pollicis. Froment's maneuver can also refer to cogwheel effect from contralateral arm movements seen in Parkinson's disease.Generic trademark
A generic trademark, also known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name that, due to its popularity or significance, has become the generic name for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service, usually against the intentions of the trademark's holder. The process of a product's name becoming genericized is known as genericide.A trademark is said to become genericized when it begins as a distinctive product identifier but changes in meaning to become generic. This typically happens when the products or services with which the trademark is associated have acquired substantial market dominance or mind share, such that the primary meaning of the genericized trademark becomes the product or service itself rather than an indication of source for the product or service. A trademark thus popularized has its legal protection at risk in some countries such as the United States and United Kingdom, as its intellectual property rights in the trademark may be lost and competitors enabled to use the genericized trademark to describe their similar products, unless the owner of an affected trademark works sufficiently to correct and prevent such broad use.Thermos, Kleenex, ChapStick, Aspirin, Dumpster, Band-Aid, Velcro, Hoover, Jet Ski and Speedo are examples of trademarks that have become genericized in the US and elsewhere.Googly
In cricket, a googly is a type of deceptive delivery bowled by a right-arm leg spin bowler. In Australia, it is occasionally referred to as a Wrongun or a Bosie (or Bosey), an eponym in honour of its inventor Bernard Bosanquet. A leg spin bowler bowls in a leg spin way but it goes in the off spin direction.Jörmungandr
In Norse mythology, Jörmungandr (Old Norse: Jǫrmungandr, pronounced [ˈjɔrmunˌɡandr̥], meaning "huge monster"), also known as the Midgard (World) Serpent (Old Norse: Miðgarðsormr), is a sea serpent, the middle child of the giantess Angrboða and Loki. According to the Prose Edda, Odin took Loki's three children by Angrboða—the wolf Fenrir, Hel, and Jörmungandr—and tossed Jörmungandr into the great ocean that encircles Midgard. The serpent grew so large that he was able to surround the earth and grasp his own tail. As a result, he received the name of the Midgard Serpent or World Serpent. When he releases his tail, Ragnarök will begin. Jörmungandr's arch-enemy is the thunder-god, Thor. It is an example of an ouroboros.Llanilar
Llanilar is a village in Ceredigion, Wales, about 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) southeast of Aberystwyth. It is the eponym of the hundred of Ilar. The population at the 2011 census was 1,085.Lycomedes
The name Lycomedes (Ancient Greek: Λυκομήδης) may refer to several characters in Greek mythology, of whom the most prominent was the king of Scyros during the Trojan War.McBurney's point
McBurney's point is the name given to the point over the right side of the abdomen that is one-third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus (navel). This point roughly corresponds to the most common location of the base of the appendix where it is attached to the cecum.Mees' lines
Mees' lines or Aldrich–Mees' lines, also called leukonychia striata, are white lines of discoloration across the nails of the fingers and toes (leukonychia).Millard–Gubler syndrome
Millard–Gubler syndrome is a lesion of the pons. It is also called ventral pontine syndrome.Nymph
A nymph (Greek: νύμφη nýmphē, Ancient: [nýmpʰɛː] Modern: [nífi]) in Greek mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform.
Different from other goddesses, nymphs are generally regarded as divine spirits who animate nature, and are usually depicted as beautiful, young nubile maidens who love to dance and sing; their amorous freedom sets them apart from the restricted and chaste wives and daughters of the Greek polis. They are beloved by many and dwell in mountainous regions and forests by springs or rivers; as Walter Burkert (Burkert 1985:III.3.3) remarks, "The idea that rivers are gods and springs divine nymphs is deeply rooted not only in poetry but in belief and ritual; the worship of these deities is limited only by the fact that they are inseparably identified with a specific locality."
Other nymphs, always in the shape of young maidens, were part of the retinue of a god, such as Dionysus, Hermes, or Pan, or a goddess, generally the huntress Artemis. Nymphs were the frequent target of satyrs.Spigelian hernia
A Spigelian hernia (or lateral ventral hernia) is a hernia through the Spigelian fascia, which is the aponeurotic layer between the rectus abdominis muscle medially, and the semilunar line laterally. These are generally interparietal hernias, meaning that they do not lie below the subcutaneous fat but penetrate between the muscles of the abdominal wall; therefore, there is often no notable swelling.
Spigelian hernias are usually small and therefore risk of strangulation is high. Most occur on the right side. (4th–7th decade of life.) Compared to other types of hernias they are rare.