Ephydroidea

The Ephydroidea are a superfamily of muscomorph flies.

Shore flies and relatives
Notiphila watanabei male01
Notiphila watanabei
Scientific classification
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Ephydroidea
Families
Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Atissa

Atissa is a genus of shore flies in the family Ephydridae.

Camilla (fly)

Camilla is a genus of flies, from the family Camillidae. Species are small slender, dark flies generally 2–3.5 millimetres (0.1–0.1 in) in length.

Camillidae

The Camillidae are a family of flies, or Diptera. The family has five genera (four living; one fossil).

Campichoetidae

Campichoetidae is a small family of acalyptrate Diptera with only one genus Campichoeta Macquart, 1835. They are regarded by most authors as Diastatidae as subfamily Campichoetinae.

Curtonotidae

The Curtotonidae or quasimodo flies are a small family of small grey to dark brown humpbacked flies (Diptera) with a worldwide distribution, but with very few species in the Nearctic, Australasian/Oceanian, and Palaearctic regions. Most members of the family are found in tropical to subtropical latitudes in Africa and the Neotropics. Many remain undescribed in collections, since little work on the family has been done since the 1930s.

Diastata

Diastata is a genus of flies, and are in the family Diastatidae.

Diastatidae

Diastatidae are a family of flies, and are in the order Diptera. They occur primarily in the Holarctic Region, but several species are known from the Oriental, Neotropical, and Australasian regions. Members of the family number over 20 described species in three genera. There is an additional fossil genus.

Ephydridae

Ephydridae (shore fly, sometimes brine fly) is a family of insects in the order Diptera.

Shore flies are tiny flies that can be found near seashores or at smaller inland waters, such as ponds. About 2,000 species have been described worldwide, including Ochthera.

The petroleum fly, Helaeomyia petrolei, is the only known insect whose larvae live in naturally occurring crude petroleum. Another notable species is Ephydra hians which lives in vast number at Mono Lake.

Ephydrinae

Ephydrinae is a subfamily of shore flies in the family Ephydridae. There are about 16 genera and at least 120 described species in Ephydrinae.

Gymnomyzinae

Gymnomyzinae is a subfamily of shore flies in the family Ephydridae. There are about seven genera and nine described species in Gymnomyzinae.

Hippoboscoidea

Hippoboscoidea is a superfamily of the Calyptratae. The flies in this superfamily are blood-feeding obligate parasites of their hosts. Four families are often placed here:

Glossinidae - Tsetse flies

Hippoboscidae - Ked flies

Nycteribiidae - Bat flies

Streblidae - Bat flies(Note that the Mystacinobiidae, while also a bat fly, belongs to the superfamily Oestroidea).

The Hippoboscidae are commonly called louse flies or ked flies. The bat flies are Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (along with Mystacinobiidae); the Streblidae are probably not monophyletic. The family Glossinidae, monotypic as to genus, contains the tsetse flies, economically important as the vectors of trypanosomiasis. The enigmatic Mormotomyiidae are entirely monotypic at present, with the single species Mormotomyia hirsuta known from one locality in Kenya. Most probably, the Mormotomyiidae belong to the Ephydroidea and not to Hippoboscoidea as previously constructed.In older literature, this group is often referred to as the Pupipara ("pupa-bearers"), because, unlike virtually all other insects, most of the larval development takes place inside the mother's body, and pupation occurs almost immediately after "birth" – in essence, instead of laying eggs, a female lays full-sized pupae one at a time. In the strict sense, the Pupipara only encompass the Hippoboscidae, Nycteribiidae, and "Streblidae", which in older works were all included in the Hippoboscidae.

Hydrellia

Hydrellia is a genus of shore flies in the family Ephydridae. There are at least 240 described species in Hydrellia.

Hydrelliinae

Hydrelliinae is a subfamily of shore flies in the family Ephydridae. There are about 10 genera and at least 130 described species in Hydrelliinae.

Ilytheinae

Ilytheinae is a subfamily of shore flies in the family Ephydridae. There are about five genera and nine described species in Ilytheinae.

Mormotomyiidae

The family Mormotomyiidae (Diptera: Ephydroidea) contains only one known species, Mormotomyia hirsuta, commonly known as the frightful hairy fly or terrible hairy fly, which is found in Kenya. The fly was first described by English entomologist Ernest Edward Austen, and specimens have been collected from one location on a mountain in the Ukasi Hill (Okazzi Hills), in a cleft where a bat roost is located; this may possibly be the most restricted geographic distribution for any fly family. The larvae have been collected from bat guano. Adult flies are believed to feed on bodily secretions of bats. The fly measures about 1 cm long, with hairy legs, and, due to its nonfunctional wings and tiny eyes, looks more like a spider than a fly. Specimens have been collected only three times, in 1933, 1948, and 2010. Tested members of the population showed higher levels of genetic variation than would be expected for such a restricted range, suggesting additional undiscovered populations exist and gene flow occurs between them and the known population in Ukasi Hill.

Nostima

Nostima is a genus of shore flies in the family Ephydridae. There are about 9 described species in Nostima.

Notiphila

Notiphila is a genus of shore flies (insects in the family Ephydridae). There are at least 160 described species in Notiphila.

Ochthera

Ochthera is a genus of flies in the family of Shore flies. The genus is distinctive because of the swollen raptorial forelegs. The larvae are predaceous on midge larvae while the adults feed on midges and mosquitoes. The genus is found around the world with about 37 species. The species Ochthera chalybescens has been shown to prey on African malaria vectors .

Extant Diptera families

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