Epaulette (/ˈɛpəlɛt/; also spelled epaulet)[1] is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of rank by armed forces and other organizations. In the French and other armies, epaulettes are also worn by all ranks of elite or ceremonial units when on parade. It may bear rank or other insignia, and should not be confused with a shoulder mark - also called an shoulder board, rank slide, or slip-on - a flat cloth sleeve worn on the shoulder strap of a uniform (although the two terms are often used interchangeably).[2]

Epaulettes are fastened to the shoulder by a shoulder strap or passenten,[3] a small strap parallel to the shoulder seam, and the button near the collar, or by laces on the underside of the epaulette passing through holes in the shoulder of the coat. Colloquially, any shoulder straps with marks are also called epaulettes. The placement of the epaulette, its color and the length and diameter of its bullion fringe are used to signify the wearer's rank. At the join of the fringe and the shoulderpiece is often a metal piece in the form of a crescent. Although originally worn in the field, epaulettes are now normally limited to dress or ceremonial military uniforms.

French Republican Guard Bastille Day 2007 n2
Officer of the French Republican Guard with epaulettes
Components and structure of epaulette
Components and structure the epaulette of an Imperial Russian lieutenant colonel, 46th Artillery Brigade
1. Lining
2. Button
3. Spine?
4. Attente/shoulder strap
5. Stars (or pips)
6. Branch insignia
7. Field
8. Unit number
9. Neck (bezel)
10. Fringe


Épaulette is a French word meaning "little shoulder" (diminutive of épaule, meaning "shoulder").


Louis XIV, King of France, after Lefebvre - Les collections du château de Versailles
Louis XIV wearing shoulder ribbons, an early type of epaulette of the late 17th century

Epaulettes bear some resemblance to the shoulder pteruges of ancient Roman military costumes. However their direct origin lies in the bunches of ribbons worn on the shoulders of military coats at the end of the 17th century, which were partially decorative and partially intended to prevent shoulder belts from slipping. These ribbons were tied into a knot which left the fringed end free. This established the basic design of the epaulette as it evolved through the 18th and 19th centuries.[4]

From the 18th century on, epaulettes were used in the French and other armies to indicate rank. The rank of an officer could be determined by whether an epaulette was worn on the left shoulder, the right shoulder or on both. Later a "counter-epaulette" (with no fringe) was worn on the opposite shoulder of those who wore only a single epaulette. Epaulettes were made in silver or gold for officers, and in cloth of various colors for the enlisted men of various arms. Certain categories of cavalry wore flexible metal epaulettes referred to as shoulder scales, rarely worn on the field.

By the early 18th century, epaulettes had become the distinguishing feature of commissioned rank. This led officers of military units still without epaulettes to petition for the right to wear epaulettes, to ensure that their status would be recognized.[5] During the Napoleonic Wars and subsequently through the 19th century, grenadiers, light infantry, voltigeurs and other specialist categories of infantry in many European armies wore cloth epaulettes with wool fringes in various colours to distinguish them from ordinary line infantry. "Flying artillery" wore "wings", similar to an epaulette but with only a bit of fringe on the outside, which matched the shoulder seam. Heavy artillery wore small balls representing ammunition on their shoulders."

An intermediate form in some services, such as the Russian Army, is the shoulder board, which neither has a fringe nor extends beyond the shoulder seam. This originated during the 19th century as a simplified version for service wear of the heavy and conspicuous full dress epaulette with bullion fringes.

Modern derivations

Today, epaulettes have mostly been replaced by a five-sided flap of cloth called a shoulder board, which is sewn into the shoulder seam and the end buttoned like an epaulette.

From the shoulder board was developed the shoulder mark, a flat cloth tube that is worn over the shoulder strap and carries embroidered or pinned-on rank insignia. The advantages of this are the ability to easily change the insignia as occasions warrant.

Airline pilot uniform shirts generally include cloth flattened tubular epaulettes having cloth or bullion braid stripes, attached by shoulder straps integral to the shirts. The rank of the wearer is designated by the number of stripes: Traditionally four for captain, three for first officer (copilot), two for second officer (flight engineer). However, rank insignia are airline specific. For example, at some airlines, two stripes denote junior first officer and one stripe second officer (cruise or relief pilot). Airline captains' uniform caps usually will have a braid pattern on the bill.


Belgian Grenadiers with red fringed epaulettes

In the Belgian army, red epaulettes with white fringes are worn with the ceremonial uniforms of the Royal Escort while fully red ones are worn by the Grenadiers. Trumpeters of the Royal Escort are distinguished by all red epaulettes while officers of the two units wear silver or gold respectively.


Canadian officers in mess dress or mess kit

In the Canadian Armed Forces, epaulettes are still worn on some Army Full Dress, Patrol Dress, and Mess Dress uniforms. Epaulettes in the form of shoulder boards are worn with the officer's white Naval Service Dress.

After the unification of the Forces, and prior to the issue of the Distinct Environmental Uniforms, musicians of the Band Branch wore epaulettes of braided gold cord.


Until 1914, officers of most French Army infantry regiments wore gold epaulettes in full dress, while those of mounted units wore silver. No insignia was worn on the epaulette itself, though the bullion fringe falling from the crescent differed according to rank.[6] Other ranks of most branches of the infantry, as well as cuirassiers wore detachable epaulettes of various colours (red for line infantry, green for Chasseurs, yellow for Colonial Infantry etc.) with woollen fringes, of a traditional pattern that dated back to the 18th Century. Other cavalry such as hussars, dragoons and chasseurs à cheval wore special epaulettes of a style originally intended to deflect sword blows from the shoulder.

In the modern French Army, epaulettes are still worn by those units retaining 19th-century-style full dress uniforms, notably the ESM Saint-Cyr and the Garde Républicaine. The French Foreign Legion continued to wear their green and red epaulettes, except for a break from 1915 to 1930. In recent years, the Marine Infantry and some other units have readopted their traditional fringed epaulettes in various colours for ceremonial parades. The Marine nationale and the Armée de l'Air do not use epaulettes, but non-commissioned and commissioned officers wear a gilded shoulder strap called attente, which original function was to clip the epaulette onto the shoulder. The attentes are also worn by Army generals on dress uniform.

First Battalion ESM Bastille Day 2007 n2

Cadets of the ESM Saint-Cyr in full uniform. The gold epaulettes shown are those of cadet officers, while those of ordinary cadets are red.

Fourragere 1er RIMa 2007 07 14

Yellow epaulettes of the French Marines

Fourragere 2e REI 2007 07 14

Red and green epaulette of the French Foreign Legion

Élève-officier Gendarmerie Nationale TETRA taconnet

Gendarmerie nationale cadet in full uniform. Notice the attente keeping the epaulette onto the shoulder.


Epauletten Achselstücken Offiziere 1918
Epauletten, and the corresponding shoulder knots of the German Empire 1871-1918

Until World War I, officers of the Imperial German Army generally wore silver epaulettes as a distinguishing feature of their full-dress uniforms. For ranks up to and including captain these were "scale" epaulettes without fringes, for majors and colonels with fine fringes and for generals with a heavy fringe. The base of the epaulette was of regimental colors. For ordinary duty, dress "shoulder-cords" of silver braid intertwined with state colors, were worn.[7]

During the period 1919-45, German Army uniforms were known for a four cord braided "figure-of-eight" decoration which acted as a shoulder board for senior and general officers. This was called a "shoulder knot" and was in silver with the specialty color piping (for field officers) and silver with red border (for generals). Although it was once seen on US Army uniforms, it remains only in the mess uniform. A similar form of shoulder knot was worn by officers of the British Army in full dress until 1914 and is retained by the Household Cavalry today. Epaulettes of this pattern are used by the Republic of Korea Army's general officers and were widely worn by officers of the armies of Venezuela, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Ecuador and Bolivia; all of which formerly wore uniforms closely following the Imperial German model. The Chilean Army still retains the German style of epaulette in the uniforms of its ceremonial units, the Military Academy and the NCO School while the 5th Cavalry Regiment "Aca Caraya" of the Paraguayan Army sports both epaulettes and shoulder knots in its dress uniforms (save for a platoon wearing Chaco War uniforms). Epaulettes of the German pattern (as well as shoulder knots) are used by officers of ceremonial units and schools of the Bolivian Army.


Gold epaulettes in Haiti, were frequently worn throughout the 18th and 19th centuries in full dress.[8] During the Haitian Revolution, Gen. Charles Leclerc of the French Army wrote a letter to Napoleon Bonaparte saying, "We must destroy half of those in the plains and must not leave a single colored person in the colony who has worn an epaulette.”[9][10]

Général Toussaint Louverture

Haitian revolutionary leader Toussaint Louverture, wears a four-starred general-in-chief's uniform with epaulettes.

President Jean-Pierre Boyer of Haiti (Hispaniola Unification Regime) Portrait

Jean-Pierre Boyer, former battalion commander of the French Revolutionary Army, later became President of Haiti controlling the entire island of Hispaniola for twenty-two years.

Ottoman Empire

During the Tanzimat period in the Ottoman Empire, western style uniforms and court dresses were adopted. Gold epaulettes were worn in full dress.

Turkey, 1850-96 (NYPL b14896507-435693).tiff

Ottoman government officials in full dress

Turkey, 1850-96 (NYPL b14896507-435694).tiff

Another depiction of Ottoman government officials in full dress

Russian Empire

Both the Imperial Russian Army and the Imperial Russian Navy sported different forms of epaulettes for its officers and senior NCOs. Today the current Kremlin Regiment continues the epaulette tradition.

Types of epaulette of the Russian Empire (1855)
Types of epaulette of the Russian Empire
Types of epaulette of the Russian Empire

1. Infantry
1a. Subaltern-officer, here: poruchik of the 13th Life Grenadier Erivan His Imperial Majesty's regiment
1b. Staff-officer, here: polkovnik of the 46th Artillery brigade
1c. General, here: Field marshal of Russian Vyborg 85th infantry regiment of German Emperor Wilhelm II.
2. Guards
2a. Subaltern-officer, here: captain of the Mikhailovsky artillery school
2b. Staff-officer, here: polkovnik of Life Guards Lithuanian regiment.
2c. Flagofficer, here: Vice-Admiral
3. Cavalry
3a. Of the lower ranks, here: junior unteroffizier (junior non-commissioned officer) of the 3rd Smolensk lancers HIM Emperor Alexander III regiment
3b. Subaltern-officer, here: podyesaul of Russian Kizlyar-Grebensky 1st Cossack horse regiment.
3c. Staff-officer, here: lieutenant-colonel of the 2nd Life Dragoon Pskov Her Imperial Majesty Empress Maria Feodorovna regiment
3d. General, here: General of the cavalry.
4. Others
4a. Subaltern-officer, here: Titular councillor, veterinary physician.
4b. Staff-officer, here: flagship mechanical engineer, Fleet Engineer Mechanical Corps.
4c. General, here: Privy councillor, Professor of the Imperial Military medical Academy.


Epaulettes first appeared on Swedish uniforms in the second half of the 18th century. The epaulette was officially incorporated into Swedish uniform regulations in 1792, although foreign recruited regiments had had them earlier. Senior officers were to wear golden crowns to distinguish their rank from lower ranking officers who wore golden stars.

Epaulettes were discontinued on the field uniform in the mid-19th century, switching to rank insignia on the collar of the uniform jacket. Epaulettes were discontinued when they were removed from the general issue dress uniform in the 1930s. They are, however, still worn by the Royal Lifeguards and by military bands when in ceremonial full dress.

K1 Parad 5

Royal Lifeguards Officer in ceremonial full dress at the Royal Palace in Stockholm

King Oscar II of Sweden in uniform

Swedish king Oscar II wearing an admiral's uniform, as shown by the three stars on his epaulettes

United Kingdom

Epaulette mp3h7527
Shoulder mark of a contemporary British OG (Olive Green) pullover with RAF Sergeant insignia. The shoulder strap is attached with hook-and-loop fastener.

Epaulettes first appeared on British uniforms in the second half of the 18th century. The epaulette was officially incorporated into Royal Navy uniform regulations in 1795, although some officers wore them before this date. Under this system, flag officers wore silver stars on their epaulettes to distinguish their ranks. A captain with at least three years seniority had two plain epaulettes, while a junior captain wore one on the right shoulder, and a commander one on the left.[11]

In 1855, army officers' large, gold-fringed epaulettes were abolished[12] and replaced by a simplified equivalent officially known as twisted shoulder-cords.[13] These were generally worn with full dress uniforms until 1939. Naval officers retained the historic fringed epaulettes for full dress during this period.

British cavalry on active service in the Sudan (1898) and during the Boer War (1899–1902) sometimes wore epaulettes made of chainmail to protect against sword blows landing on the shoulder. The blue "Number 1 dress" uniforms of some British cavalry regiments and yeomanry units still retain this feature in ornamental silvered form.[14]

With the introduction of khaki service dress in 1902, the British Army stopped wearing epaulettes in the field, switching to rank insignia embroidered on the cuffs of the uniform jacket. During World War I, this was found to make officers a target for snipers, so the insignia was frequently moved to the shoulder straps, where it was less conspicuous.

The current multi terrain pattern (MTP) and the older combat uniform (DPM) have the insignia formerly used on shoulder straps displayed on a single strap worn vertically in the centre of the chest. Earlier DPM uniforms had shoulder straps on the shoulders, though only officers wore rank on rank slides which attached to these straps, other ranks wore rank on the upper right sleeve at this time though later on regimental titles were worn on the rank slides. This practice continued into later patterns where rank was worn on the chest, rank was also added.

United States

Maj. Gen. Charles Griffin wearing epaulettes during the American Civil War

Epaulettes were authorized for the United States Navy in the first official uniform regulations, Uniform of the Navy of the United States, 1797. Captains wore an epaulette on each shoulder, lieutenants wore only one, on the right shoulder.[15][16] By 1802, lieutenants wore their epaulette on the left shoulder, with lieutenants in command of a vessel wearing them on the right shoulder;[17] after the creation of the rank of master commandants, they wore their epaulettes on the right shoulder similar to lieutenants in command.[18] By 1842, captains wore epaulettes on each shoulder with a star on the straps, master commandant were renamed commander in 1838 and wore the same epaulettes as captains except the straps were plain, and lieutenants wore a single epaulette similar to those of the commander, on the left shoulder.[19] After 1852, captains, commanders, lieutenants, pursers, surgeons, passed assistant and assistant surgeons, masters in the line of promotion and chief engineers wore epaulettes.[20]

Epaulettes were specified for all United States Army officers in 1832; infantry officers wore silver epaulettes, while those of the artillery and other branches wore gold epaulettes, following the French manner. The rank insignia was of a contrasting metal, silver on gold and vice versa.

In 1851, the epaulettes became universally gold. Both majors and second lieutenants had no specific insignia. A major would have been recognizable as he would have worn the more elaborate epaulette fringes of a senior field officer. The rank insignia was silver for senior officers and gold for the bars of captains and first lieutenants. The reason for the choice of silver eagles over gold ones is thought to be one of economy; there were more cavalry and artillery colonels than infantry so it was cheaper to replace the numerically fewer gold ones.

Shoulder straps were adopted to replace epaulettes for field duty in 1836.

Licensed officers of the U.S. Merchant Marine may wear shoulder marks and sleeve stripes appropriate to their rank and branch of service. Deck officers wear a foul anchor above the stripes on their shoulder marks and engineering officers wear a three-bladed propeller. In the U.S. Merchant Marine, the correct wear of shoulder marks depicting the fouled anchor is with the un-fouled stock of the anchor forward on the wearer.

In popular culture

In literature, film and political satire, dictators, particularly of unstable Third World nations, are often depicted in military dress with oversized gold epaulettes.

The eponymous character of Revolutionary Girl Utena along with the rest of the duelists have stylised epaulettes on their uniforms.

The members of the Teikoku Kageki-dan from Sakura Wars have epaulettes on their uniforms.


Leopold of Belgium, Duke of Brabant; Nicaise de Keyser

Prince Leopold, Duke of Brabant in uniform of a grenadier

Carl von Clausewitz

Carl von Clausewitz, Prussian general

Hans Majestet Kongens Garde - soldier-edited

Royal Guardsman in Oslo, Norway


Otto von Bismarck wearing epaulettes

Simón Bolívar by Antonio Salas

Simón Bolívar, Venezuelan military leader

Skobelev Ivan

Portrait of a Russian general with epaulettes

Ahmet muhtar

Ahmed Muhtar Pasha, Ottoman field marshal

See also


  1. ^ "Definition of EPAULET". Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  2. ^ “Uniform Dress Guidelines”. Canadian Coast Guard. ver 26 06/27/08, p. 7
  3. ^ Carman, W. Y. A Dictionary of Military Uniform. p. 100. ISBN 0-684-15130-8.
  4. ^ John Mollo, page 49 "Military Fashion", ISBN 0-214-65349-8
  5. ^ Wilkinson-Latham, R: The Royal Navy 1790–1970, page 5. Osprey Publishing, 1977
  6. ^ André Jouineau, Officers and Soldiers of the French Army 1914, ISBN 978-2-352-50104-6
  7. ^ page 590, Volume XXVII, Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
  8. ^ "Education, Volume 23". New England Publishing Company. 1903. p. 281. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  9. ^ "General Leclerc in Saint-Domingue 1801–1802". Brown University. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  10. ^ Dayan, Joan. "Haiti, History, and the Gods". p. XVI. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Epaulettes at the National Maritime Museum website". NMM.ac.uk. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  12. ^ Major R.M. Barnes, page 260 "A History of the Regiments and Uniforms of the British Army", First Sphere Books edition 1972
  13. ^ Section 24 "Dress Regulations for the Army 1900
  14. ^ R.M. Barnes page 316 "Military Uniforms of Britain and the Empire", Sphere Books 1972
  15. ^ Rankin, Col. Robert H.: "Uniforms of the Sea Services", 1962
  16. ^ "Uniform Regulations, 1797". Archived from the original on 25 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
  17. ^ "Uniform Regulations, 1802". Archived from the original on 14 September 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
  18. ^ "Uniform Regulations, 1814". Archived from the original on 2010-04-07. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
  19. ^ "Uniform Regulations, 1842". Archived from the original on 2010-04-07. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
  20. ^ "Uniform Regulations, 1852". Archived from the original on 2010-04-07. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
British Army officer rank insignia

Listed in the table below are the insignia—emblems of authority—of the British Army. Badges for field officers were first introduced in 1810 and the insignia was moved to the epaulettes in 1880. On ceremonial or parade uniforms these ranks continue to be worn on the epaulettes, either as cloth slides or as metal clips, although on the modern 'working dress' (daily uniform) they are usually worn as a cloth slide on the chest. Although these insignia apply across the British Army there is variation is the precise design and colours used and it can take some time to become familiar with them all.

Officers in the ranks of lieutenant and second lieutenant are often referred to as subalterns and these and captains are also referred to as company officers. Brigadiers, colonels, lieutenant colonels and majors are field officers. All above these are considered to be of general officer rank.

For a short period, the British Army used the rank of sub-lieutenant, before that was changed to second lieutenant.

Captain (United States O-3)

In the United States Army (USA), U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), and U.S. Air Force (USAF), captain (abbreviated "CPT" in the USA and "Capt" in the USMC and USAF) is a company grade officer rank, with the pay grade of O-3. It ranks above first lieutenant and below major. It is equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the Navy/Coast Guard officer rank system. The insignia for the rank consists of two silver bars, with slight stylized differences between the Army/Air Force version and the Marine Corps version.

Carpet shark

Carpet sharks are sharks classified in the order Orectolobiformes. Sometimes the common name "carpet shark" (named so because many species resemble ornately patterned carpets) is used interchangeably with "wobbegong", which is the common name of sharks in the family Orectolobidae. Carpet sharks have five gill slits, two spineless dorsal fins, and a small mouth that does not extend past the eyes. Many species have barbels.

Checkmate pattern

In chess, several checkmate patterns occur frequently, or are otherwise of such interest to scholars, so as to have acquired specific names in chess commentary. The diagrams that follow show these checkmates with White checkmating Black.

Epaulette shark

The epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) is a species of longtailed carpet shark, family Hemiscylliidae, found in shallow, tropical waters off Australia and New Guinea (and possibly elsewhere). The common name of this shark comes from the very large, white-margined black spot behind each pectoral fin, which are reminiscent of military epaulettes. A small species usually under 1 m (3.3 ft) long, the epaulette shark has a slender body with a short head and broad, paddle-shaped paired fins. The caudal peduncle (to which the tail fin is attached) comprises over half the shark's length. Adults are light brown above, with scattered darker spots and indistinct saddles.

Epaulette sharks have nocturnal habits and frequent shallow water on coral reefs or in tidal pools. This shark has evolved to cope with the severe night time oxygen depletion (hypoxia) in isolated tidal pools by increasing the blood supply to its brain and selectively shutting down non-essential neural functions. It is capable of surviving complete anoxia for an hour without ill effects, and at a much higher temperature than most other hypoxia-tolerant animals. Rather than swim, epaulette sharks often "walk" by wriggling their bodies and pushing with their paired fins. This species feeds on a wide range of small benthic invertebrates and bony fishes. Epaulette sharks are oviparous, with females depositing pairs of egg capsules around every 14 days from August to December. Due to their hardiness and small size, epaulette sharks are popular with both public and home aquaria. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed this species as of Least Concern, as outside of the small aquarium trade it is of little interest to fisheries.


The Hemiscylliidae are a family of sharks in the order Orectolobiformes, commonly known as longtail carpet sharks and sometimes as bamboo sharks. They are found in shallow waters of the tropical Indo-Pacific.

They are relatively small sharks, with the largest species reaching no more than 121 cm (48 in) in adult body length. They have elongated, cylindrical bodies, with short barbels and large spiracles. As their common name suggests, they have unusually long tails, which exceed the length of the rest of their bodies. They are sluggish fish, feeding on bottom-dwelling invertebrates and smaller fish.


Hemiscyllium is a genus of sharks in the family Hemiscylliidae.

This genus is confined to tropical waters off Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia, but an individual from this genus, possibly representing an undescribed species, has been photographed at the Seychelles. They have short snouts with the nostrils placed almost at the tip, and well-elevated eyes and supraorbital ridges. The mouth is closer to the tip of the snout than the eyes, and lacks the connecting dermal fold across the chin. The pectoral and pelvic fins are thick and heavily muscular. Either a black hood on the head or a large black spot on the sides of the body is present. (though juveniles often are strongly marked with dark spots/bars).

Nine recognized species are in this genus:

Hemiscyllium freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Indonesian speckled carpetshark)

Hemiscyllium galei G. R. Allen & Erdmann, 2008 (Cenderwasih epaulette shark)

Hemiscyllium hallstromi Whitley, 1967 (Papuan epaulette shark)

Hemiscyllium halmahera G. R. Allen, Erdmann & Dudgeon, 2013 (Halmahera epaulette shark)

Hemiscyllium henryi G. R. Allen & Erdmann, 2008 (Henry's epaulette shark)

Hemiscyllium michaeli G. R. Allen & Dudgeon, 2010 (Milne Bay epaulette shark)

Hemiscyllium ocellatum (Bonnaterre, 1788) (epaulette shark)

Hemiscyllium strahani Whitley, 1967 (hooded carpetshark)

Hemiscyllium trispeculare J. Richardson, 1843 (speckled carpetshark)

Hemiscyllium sp. Not yet described (Seychelles carpetshark)

Hemiscyllium galei

Hemiscyllium galei, the Cenderwasih epaulette shark, is a species of bamboo shark in the family Hemiscylliidae. Together with H. henryi, it was only scientifically described in 2008 by Gerald R. Allen and Mark V. Erdmann. At present, H. galei is only known from depths of 2 to 4 metres (6 ft 7 in to 13 ft 1 in) at reefs in the Cenderawasih Bay in West Papua, Indonesia. The largest known specimen was 56.8 centimetres (22.4 in) long. It can be separated from its relatives (e.g., H. freycineti) by the combination of seven relatively large dark spots along the side of the body (between the abdomen and tail-base), white markings on the edge of its dark dorsal saddles and other scattered white spots on the upper side.

Hemiscyllium halmahera

Hemiscyllium halmahera, or the Halmahera epaulette shark, is a species of bamboo shark from Indonesia. This species is described from two specimens collected near Ternate island in 2013, off the coast of larger Halmahera island. This species is most similar to Hemiscyllium galei, found in West Papua, but looks strikingly different in its pattern of spots. While H. galei has seven large, dark spots on each side of its body, H. halmahera has a brown color with clusters of brown or white spots in polygon configurations all over its body. These small sharks are like other bamboo sharks, in that they use their pectoral fins to "walk" along the ocean floor.

Hemiscyllium henryi

Hemiscyllium henryi, the Triton epaulette shark or Henry's epaulette shark, is a species of bamboo shark in the family Hemiscylliidae. Together with H. galei, it was only scientifically described in 2008. At present, H. henryi is only known from depths of 3 to 30 metres (9.8 to 98.4 ft) at reefs near Triton Bay on the southern coast of West Papua, Indonesia. It reaches a length of 81.5 centimetres (32.1 in), and is covered in numerous fine black spots. It has large, "double" spot on the side behind the pectoral fins.

Hemiscyllium michaeli

Hemiscyllium michaeli, the leopard epaulette shark, is a species of bamboo shark in the genus Hemiscyllium. It is a tropical shark known from the shallow ocean in the Milne Bay region of eastern Papua New Guinea. The epaulette sharks of this region have long been confused with H. freycineti, and it was only in 2010 that H. michaeli was described as a separate species by Gerald R. Allen and Christine L. Dudgeon. It can reach a maximum length of 69.5 centimetres (27.4 in).

Papuan epaulette shark

The Papuans epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium hallstromi, is a bamboo shark in the family Hemiscylliidae found around southern Papua New Guinea, between latitudes 7° S and 10° S, and longitude 144° E and 146° E. Its length is up to 75 cm.

Reproduction is oviparous.


Post-captain is an obsolete alternative form of the rank of captain in the Royal Navy.

The term served to distinguish those who were captains by rank from:

Officers in command of a naval vessel, who were (and still are) addressed as captain regardless of rank;

Commanders, who received the title of captain as a courtesy, whether they currently had a command or not (e.g. the fictional Captain Jack Aubrey in Master and Commander or the fictional Captain Horatio Hornblower in Hornblower and the Hotspur); this custom is now defunct.In the Royal Navy of the time, an officer might be promoted from commander to captain, but not have a command. Until the officer obtained a command, he was "on the beach" and on half-pay. An officer "took post" or was "made post" when he was first commissioned to command a vessel. Usually this was a rated vessel – that is, a ship too important to be commanded by a mere commander – but was occasionally an unrated one. Once a captain was given a command, his name was "posted" in The London Gazette. Being "made post" is portrayed as the most crucial event in an officer's career in both Forester's Horatio Hornblower series and O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series. Once an officer was promoted to post-captain, further promotion was strictly by seniority; if he could avoid death or disgrace, he would eventually become an admiral (even if only a yellow admiral).

A junior post-captain would usually command a frigate or a comparable ship, while more senior post-captains would command larger ships. An exception to this rule was that a very junior post-captain could be posted to command an admiral's flagship, which was almost always a large ship of the line. The admiral would usually do this to keep his most junior captain under close observation and subject to his direct supervision. Captains commanding an admiral's flagship were called "flag captains". One example of this is the appointment of Alexander Hood to the command of HMS Barfleur, flagship of his brother, Admiral Sir Samuel Hood.

Sometimes, a high-ranking admiral would have two post-captains on his flagship. The junior would serve as the flag captain and retain responsibility for the day-to-day operation of the vessel. The senior would be the fleet captain, or "captain of the fleet", and would serve as the admiral's chief-of-staff. These two captains would be listed in the ship's roll as the "second captain" and "first captain", respectively.

After 1795, when they were first introduced on Royal Navy uniforms, the number and position of epaulettes distinguished between commanders and post-captains of various seniorities. A commander wore a single epaulette on the left shoulder. A post-captain with less than three years seniority wore a single epaulette on the right shoulder, and a post-captain with three or more years seniority wore an epaulette on each shoulder. In the O'Brian series, Aubrey "wets the swab" – that is, he celebrates his promotion to commander and the acquisition of his "swab" or epaulette with the consumption of copious amounts of alcohol.

Note that the term was descriptive only: no-one was ever styled "Post-Captain John Smith".

Pterostyrax hispidus

Pterostyrax hispidus, the epaulette tree or fragrant epaulette tree, is a species of flowering plant in the family Styracaceae, native to China and Japan. Growing to 15 m (49 ft) tall by 12 m (39 ft) broad, it is a substantial, spreading, deciduous shrub with oval leaves up to 20 cm (8 in) long, and clusters of pure white, fragrant, pendent flowers in summer.The specific epithet hispidus (often given incorrectly as hispida or hispidum) refers to the small ribbed fruits which are covered in bristles. The common name "epaulette tree" refers to the fringed individual flowers.

In cultivation the plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Queensland Fire and Emergency Services

The Queensland Fire and Emergency Services (QFES) is the primary provider of fire and emergency services in Queensland. The QFES was established in 2013 to improve the coordination and planning of emergency services, adopting an 'all hazards' approach to emergency management.

QFES headquarters are located in the Emergency Services Complex Kedron, Brisbane.

The Department of Community Safety formally had joint coordination control until the all departments merger in 2014. QFES is currently responsible to the Department of Fire and Emergency Services under the minister Craig Crawford.

Fire and Rescue Service (FRS) 2014 - Current Queensland Fire and Rescue Service (QFRS) 2001–2013, Queensland Fire and Rescue Authority 1997–2001 and Queensland Fire Service 1990–1997.

Rural Fire Service (RFSQ) 1927 - Current

Queensland State Emergency Service (QSES) 1974 - Current, Civil Defense Organisation 1961 - 1973The QFES is maintained by a mix of over 2,200 professional Fire and Rescue Service firefighters and more than 2000 Auxiliary Fire and Rescue Service Firefighters (on call) , 35,000 (6000 active)Rural Fire Brigade volunteers and 6000 State Emergency Service volunteers. QFES front-line operations is supported by a number of non-operational administration staff throughout the state.

The minister responsible is the Honourable Craig Crawford [1], Minister for Fire and Emergency Services.

QFES is led by Commissioner Katarina Carroll APM, who is the first Commissioner of the combined department model since its inception in 1990. Prior to this the department had a Director-General and each service had a Commissioner or Chief Officer.

United States Army enlisted rank insignia

The chart below shows the current enlisted rank insignia of the United States Army, with seniority, and pay grade, increasing from left to right. Enlisted ranks of corporal and higher are considered non-commissioned officers (NCOs). The rank of specialist is a soldier of pay grade E-4 who has not yet attained non-commissioned officer status. It is common that a soldier may never be a corporal and will move directly from specialist to sergeant, attaining NCO status at that time.

In the beginning, US army enlisted rank was indicated by colored epaulettes. The use of chevrons came into being in 1821, with the orientation changing from point-down to point-up and back again, to the point-down orientation seen on Civil War soldiers. Around the turn of the 20th century, point-up wear was ordained and has remained so.

United States Army officer rank insignia

United States Army Officer rank insignia in use today.

Warrant Officers (WO) and Chief Warrant Officers (CW) in the US Military rank below officers but above officer candidates and enlisted servicemen. The first warrant officer rank, WO1 does not have a "commission" associated with it, instead having a "Warrant" from the Secretary of the Army. Warrant officers are allowed the same courtesies as a commissioned officer, but may have some restrictions on their duties that are reserved for commissioned officers. Warrant officers usually receive a commission once they are promoted to Chief Warrant Officer 2 (CW2), but are usually not referred to as "commissioned officers". WO-1s may be and sometimes are appointed by commission as stated in title 10USC.

Vietnamese military ranks and insignia

Vietnamese military ranks and insignia are specified by the National Assembly of Vietnam through Law on Vietnam People's Army Officer (No: 6-LCT/HĐNN7) on 30 December 1981.The Vietnam People's Army distinguishes three careerpaths: Officers (sĩ quan), non-commissioned officers (hạ sĩ quan), and enlisted members (chiến sĩ).

Because the shoulder insignia of all ranks are represented by an elongated pentagonal epaulette, they are, hence, either detailed or colour-coded to indicate rank, branch, as well as unit.

The shoulder epaulettes from those of enlisted soldiers to field officers are detailed with a silver crest with an encircled silver star. Those of generals and admirals have fully golden epaulettes with corresponding golden crests and encircled stars.

Ranks can show information about branches of military personnel.

Hem Colour of the ranks can show branches:

Army (ground forces): red

Air Force/ Air defence: azure

Navy: dark-purple

Border Defence: green

Coast Guard: blue.Army-Air Force-Navy ranks have background are yellow.

Border Defense Force's ranks have background is dark-green and hem colour is red.

Coast Guard's ranks have background is blue and hem colour is yellow.

Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat

Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae. It is commonly found across southern Africa.

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