Eos

In Greek mythology, Eos (/ˈiːɒs/; Ionic and Homeric Greek Ἠώς Ēōs, Attic Ἕως Éōs, "dawn", pronounced [ɛːɔ̌ːs] or [héɔːs]; Aeolic Αὔως Aúōs, Doric Ἀώς Āṓs) is a Titaness and the goddess[1] of the dawn, who rose each morning from her home at the edge of the Oceanus.

Eos
Goddess of the Dawn
Eos
Eos by Evelyn De Morgan (1895)
AbodeSky
Symbolsaffron, chariot, cloak, roses, tiara, grasshopper, cicada, cricket
Personal information
ConsortAstraeus
ChildrenAnemoi and Astraea
ParentsHyperion and Theia
SiblingsHelios and Selene
Roman equivalentAurora

Etymology

Eos is cognate to the Vedic goddess Ushas, Lithuanian goddess Aušrinė, and Roman goddess Aurora (Old Latin Ausosa), all three of whom are also goddesses of the dawn. All four are considered derivatives of the Proto-Indo-European stem *h₂ewsṓs[2] (later *Ausṓs), "dawn", a stem that also gave rise to Proto-Germanic *Austrō, Old Germanic *Ōstara and Old English Ēostre / Ēastre. This agreement leads to the reconstruction of a Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess.[3]

Family

Eos was the daughter of the Titans Hyperion, a bringer of light, the One Above, Who Travels High Above the Earth and of Theia, The Divine,[4] also called Euryphaessa, "wide-shining"[5] and Aethra, "bright sky".[6] She was the sister of Helios, god of the sun and Selene, goddess of the moon, "who shine upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless gods who live in the wide heaven".[7] The generation of Titans preceded all the familiar deities of Olympus who largely supplanted them. In some accounts, Eos' father was called Pallas.[8][9]

Eos married the Titan Astraeus ("of the Stars") and became the mother of the Anemoi ("winds") namely Zephyrus, Boreas, Notus and Eurus;[6][10] the Morning Star, Eosphoros (Lucifer);[11] the Astra ("stars")[12] and the virgin goddess of justice, Astrae ("starry one").[13][14] Her other notable offspring were Memnon[15][16][17][18][19] and Emathion[20][21] by the Trojan prince, Tithonus. Sometimes, Hesperus,[22] Phaethon[23][24] and Tithonus[25] (different from the lover) were called the children of Eos by the Athenian prince, Cephalus.

Mythology

Goddess of the dawn

The dawn goddess Eos was almost always described with rosy fingers or rosy forearms as she opened the gates of heaven for the Sun to rise.[26] In Homer,[27] her saffron-coloured robe is embroidered or woven with flowers;[28] rosy-fingered and with golden arms, she is pictured on Attic vases as a beautiful woman, crowned with a tiara or diadem and with the large white-feathered wings of a bird.

Homer

From The Iliad:

"Now when Dawn in robe of saffron was hastening from the streams of Oceanus, to bring light to mortals and immortals, Thetis reached the ships with the armor that the god had given her." [29]
"But soon as early Dawn appeared, the rosy-fingered, then gathered the folk about the pyre of glorious Hector."[30]

She is most often associated with her Homeric epithet "rosy-fingered" (rhododactylos), but Homer also calls her Eos Erigeneia:

"That brightest of stars appeared, Eosphoros, that most often heralds the light of early-rising Dawn (Eos Erigeneia)."[31]

Hesiod

"And after these Erigeneia ["Early-born"] bore the star Eosphoros ("Dawn-bringer"), and the gleaming stars with which heaven is crowned."[32]

Thus Eos, preceded by the Morning Star, is seen as the genetrix of all the stars and planets; her tears are considered to have created the morning dew, personified as Ersa or Herse.[33]

Divine horses

Eos' team of horses pull her chariot across the sky and are named in the Odyssey as "Firebright" and "Daybright". While Quintus pictured her exulting in her heart over the radiant horses (Lampus and Phaëton) that drew her chariot, amidst the bright-haired Horae, the feminine Hours, climbing the arc of heaven and scattering sparks of fire.[34]

Lovers and children

Eos Memnon Louvre G115
Eos and the slain Memnon on an Attic red-figure cup, ca. 490–480 BCE, the so-called "Memnon Pietà" found at Capua (Louvre).

Eos fell in love several times. According to Pseudo-Apollodorus, it was the jealous Aphrodite who cursed her to be perpetually in love and have an unsatisfiable sexual desire because once had Eos lain with Aphrodite's sweetheart Ares, the god of war.[35] This caused her to abduct a number of handsome young men, most notably Cephalus, Tithonus, Orion, and Cleitus. The good-looking Cleitus was made immortal by her.[36] She also asked for Tithonus to be made immortal, but forgot to ask for eternal youth, which resulted in him living forever as a helpless old man.[37]

According to Hesiod, by Tithonus, Eos had two sons, Memnon and Emathion.[38] Memnon fought among the Trojans in the Trojan War and was slain. Her image with the dead Memnon across her knees, like Thetis with the dead Achilles are icons that inspired the Christian Pietà.

The abduction of Cephalus had special appeal for an Athenian audience because Cephalus was a local boy,[39] and so this myth element appeared frequently in Attic vase-paintings and was exported with them. In the literary myths, Eos kidnapped Cephalus when he was hunting and took him to Syria.[38][40][41][42][43]

The second-century CE traveller Pausanias was informed that the abductor of Cephalus was Hemera, goddess of Day.[44] Although Cephalus was already married to Procris, Eos bore him three sons, including Phaeton and Hesperus, but he then began pining for Procris, causing a disgruntled Eos to return him to her and put a curse on them.

In Hyginus' report, Cephalus accidentally killed Procris some time later after he mistook her for an animal while hunting.[42]

In Ovid's account, Procris, a jealous wife, was spying on him and heard him singing to the wind, but thought he was serenading his ex-lover Eos.[43]

Cult and temples

There are no known temples, shrines or altars to Eos. However, Ovid seems to allude to the existence of at least two shrines of Eos, as he describes them in plural, albeit few, in the lines:

"[Eos addresses Zeus :] ‘Least I may be of all the goddesses the golden heavens hold--in all the world my shrines are rarest.’"[45]

Ovid may therefore have known of at least two such shrines.

Interpretations

Etruscan

Among the Etruscans, the generative dawn-goddess was Thesan. Depictions of the dawn-goddess with a young lover became popular in Etruria in the fifth century, probably inspired by imported Greek vase-painting.[46] Though Etruscans preferred to show the goddess as a nurturer (Kourotrophos) rather than an abductor of young men, the late Archaic sculptural acroterion from Etruscan Cære, now in Berlin, showing the goddess in archaic running pose adapted from the Greeks, and bearing a boy in her arms, has commonly been identified as Eos and Cephalus.[47] On an Etruscan mirror Thesan is shown carrying off a young man, whose name is inscribed as Tinthu.[48]

Eos chariot 430-420 BC Staatliche Antikensammlungen
Eos in her chariot flying over the sea, red-figure krater from South Italy, 430–420 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen

Roman

The Roman equivalent of Eos is Aurora, also a cognate showing the characteristic Latin rhotacism. Dawn became associated in Roman cult with Matuta, later known as Mater Matuta. She was also associated with the sea harbors and ports, and had a temple on the Forum Boarium. On June 11, the Matralia was celebrated at that temple in honor of Mater Matuta; this festival was only for women during their first marriage.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Lycophron calls her by an archaic name, Tito (the Titaness). Kerenyi observes that Tito shares a linguistic origin with Eos's lover Tithonus, which belonged to an older, pre-Greek language. (Kerenyi 1951:199 note 637)
  2. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 492.
  3. ^ Mallory, J.P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2.
  4. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1.2.2
  5. ^ Homeric Hymn to Helios, 1
  6. ^ a b Hyginus, Fabulae Preface
  7. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 371-374
  8. ^ Ovid, Fasti 4.373 ff
  9. ^ Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 2.72 ff
  10. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6.18; 37.70 & 47.340
  11. ^ Cicero wrote: Stella Veneris, quae Φωσφόρος Graece, Latine dicitur Lucifer, cum antegreditur solem, cum subsequitur autem Hesperos; The star of Venus, called Φωσφόρος in Greek and Lucifer in Latin when it precedes, Hesperos when it follows the sun – De Natura Deorum 2, 20, 53.
    Pliny the Elder: Sidus appellatum Veneris … ante matutinum exoriens Luciferi nomen accipit … contra ab occasu refulgens nuncupatur Vesper (The star called Venus … when it rises in the morning is given the name Lucifer … but when it shines at sunset it is called Vesper) Natural History 2, 36
  12. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1.2.4
  13. ^ Aratus, Phaenomena 97–128
  14. ^ Hyginus, Astronomica 2.25
  15. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 2.549
  16. ^ Pindar, Nemean Odes 6.50 ff
  17. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.75.4
  18. ^ Callistratus, Statuaram Descriptiones 9
  19. ^ Ovid, Fasti 4.713
  20. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 984
  21. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.12.4
  22. ^ Hyginus, Astronomica 2.42.4
  23. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 1.3.1
  24. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 986
  25. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.181
  26. ^ Nonnus: "Eos had just shaken off the wing of carefree sleep (Hypnos) and opened the gates of sunrise, leaving the lightbringing couch of Kephalos." (Dionysiaca 27. 1f, in A.L. Rouse's translation).
  27. ^ Homer, Iliad viii.1 & xxiv.695
  28. ^ Odyssey vi:48 etc
  29. ^ Homer, Iliad xix.1
  30. ^ Homer, Iliad xxiv.776
  31. ^ Homer, Odyssey xiii.93
  32. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 378-382
  33. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 13.621-2
  34. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica i.48
  35. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1.4.4
  36. ^ Homer, Odyssey 15.249 ff
  37. ^ Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, 318 ff
  38. ^ a b Hesiod, Theogony 984ff
  39. ^ Mary R. Lefkowitz, "'Predatory' Goddesses" Hesperia 71.4 (October 2002, pp. 325-344) p. 326.
  40. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.14.3
  41. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 1.3.1
  42. ^ a b Hyginus, Fabulae 189
  43. ^ a b Ovid, Metamorphoses vii.703 ff
  44. ^ Pausanias remarking on the subjects shown in the Royal Stoa, Athens (i.3.1) and on the throne of Apollo at Amyklai (iii.18.10ff).
  45. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 13.576 ff (translated by Melville)
  46. ^ Marilyn Y. Goldberg, "The 'Eos and Kephalos' from Cære: Its Subject and Date" American Journal of Archæology 91.4 (October 1987, pp. 605-614) p 607.
  47. ^ Goldberg 1987:605-614 casts doubt on the boy's identification, in the context of Etruscan and Greek abduction motifs.
  48. ^ Noted by Goldberg 1987: in I. Mayer-Prokop, Die gravierten etruskischen Griffspiegel archaischen Stils (Heidelberg) 1966, fig. 61.

References

Canon EOS

Canon EOS (Electro-Optical System) is an autofocus single-lens reflex camera (SLR) and mirrorless camera series produced by Canon Inc. Introduced in 1987 with the Canon EOS 650, all EOS cameras used 35 mm film until October 1996 when the EOS IX was released using the new and short-lived APS film. In 2000, the D30 was announced, as the first digital SLR designed and produced entirely by Canon. Since 2005, all newly announced EOS cameras have used digital image sensors rather than film. The EOS line is still in production as Canon's current digital SLR (DSLR) range, and, with the 2012 introduction of the Canon EOS M, Canon's mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera (MILC) system.

The name "EOS" was chosen for Eos, the Titan goddess of the dawn in Greek mythology, and is often pronounced as a word (), although some spell out the letters, reading it as an initialism.

The EOS emblem was created using Handel Gothic typography.

It competes primarily with the Nikon F series and its successors, as well as autofocus SLR systems from Olympus Corporation, Pentax, Sony/Minolta, and Panasonic/Leica.At the heart of the system is the EF lens mount, which replaced the previous FD lens mount, which mainly supported only manual-focus lenses.

Canon EOS-1D X Mark II

The Canon EOS-1D X Mark II is the company's 20-megapixel full-frame DSLR flagship camera, announced on February 1, 2016, by Canon with an MSRP of US$5,999.00. It is the successor to the Canon EOS-1D X, which was released in 2012.

Canon EOS 250D

The Canon EOS 250D is an 24.1 megapixels digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) made by Canon. It was announced on 10 April 2019 with a suggested retail price of €549. It is also known as the EOS Kiss X10 in Japan and the EOS Rebel SL3 in North America.

Canon EOS 4000D

The Canon EOS 4000D is an 18.0 megapixels digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) made by Canon. It was announced on 25 February 2018 with a suggested retail price of €399 including an EF-S 18-55 f/3.5-5.6 IS II lens. It is also known as the EOS 3000D in some parts of the Asia Pacific region and the EOS Rebel T100 in North America.The 4000D is an entry-level DSLR has been optimized to achieve a very low retail price. It replaces the EOS 1300D in the respect that it is the Canon DSLR with the lowest recommended retail price.

Canon EOS 500D

The Canon EOS 500D is a 15-megapixel entry-level digital single-lens reflex camera, announced by Canon on 25 March 2009. It was released in May 2009. It is known as the EOS Kiss X3 in Japan, and as the EOS Rebel T1i in North America. It continues the Rebel line of mid-range DSLR cameras, is placed by Canon as the next model up from the EOS 450D, and has been superseded by the EOS 550D (T2i).

It is the third digital single-lens reflex camera to feature a movie mode and the second to feature full 1080p video recording, albeit at the rate of 20 frames/sec. The camera shares a few features with the high-end Canon EOS 5D Mark II, including movie mode, Live preview, and DiGIC 4. Like the EOS 450D and EOS 1000D, it uses SDHC media storage, and is the third EOS model to use that medium instead of CompactFlash. Like the EOS 5D Mark II, video clips are recorded as MOV (QuickTime) files with H.264/MPEG-4 compressed video and linear PCM audio.

Canon EOS 550D

The Canon EOS 550D is an 18.0 megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera, announced by Canon on February 8, 2010. It was available since 24 February 2010 and to US dealers from early March. It is known as the EOS Kiss X4 in Japan, and as the EOS Rebel T2i in the Americas. It is part of Canon's entry/mid-level digital SLR camera series, and was the successor model to the EOS 500D. It was succeeded by the EOS 600D (Kiss X5/Rebel T3i), but remained in Canon's lineup until being discontinued in June 2012 with the announcement of the EOS 650D (Kiss X6i/Rebel T4i).

Canon EOS 5DS

The Canon EOS 5DS and EOS 5DS R (known as the EOS 5Ds and EOS 5Ds R in Japan) are two closely related digital SLR cameras announced by Canon on February 6, 2015. Both are professional full-frame cameras with 50.6-megapixel sensors, the highest of any full-frame camera at the time of announcement. The only difference between the two models is that the sensor of the "R" version includes an optical filter that cancels out the effects of a standard optical low-pass filter. This distinction is roughly similar to that between Nikon's now-replaced D800 and D800E (with the E having a self-cancelling filter). Canon stated that both the 5DS and 5DS R will not replace the older EOS 5D Mark III, so therefore both the 5DS and 5DS R will have their new positions in Canon's DSLR camera lineup.

At the time of announcement, estimated prices were US$3,699.00 and US$3,899.00 (EOS 5DS and EOS 5DS R), with announced date of availability, through authorized Canon retailers, in June 2015.Despite the record-high pixel count and related storage and processing power, these cameras do not shoot 4K video or high frame rate 1080p video.Full-size demosaicked jpeg files from this camera occupy approximately 20 megabytes and exceed 8K resolution.

Canon EOS 5D Mark II

The Canon EOS 5D Mark II is a 21.1 effective megapixel full-frame CMOS digital single-lens reflex camera made by Canon, the first Canon EOS camera to have video recording capabilities. It succeeds the EOS 5D and was announced on 17 September 2008.On 2 March 2012, Canon announced the camera's successor: the Canon EOS 5D Mark III. On 24 December 2012, Canon Japan moved the camera to their "Old Products" list, effectively discontinuing the camera.

Canon EOS 5D Mark III

The Canon EOS 5D Mark III is a professional grade 22.3 megapixels full-frame digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera made by Canon.

Succeeding the EOS 5D Mark II, it was announced on 2 March 2012, the 25th anniversary of the announcement of the first camera in the EOS line, the EOS 650, and was also Canon's 75th anniversary. The Mark III went on sale later in March with a retail price of $3,499 in the US, £2999 in the UK, and €3569 in the Eurozone.On 25 August 2016, Canon announced the camera's successor, the Canon EOS 5D Mark IV.

Canon EOS 5D Mark IV

The Canon EOS 5D Mark IV is a professional-grade 30.1-megapixel full-frame digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera made by Canon.Succeeding the EOS 5D Mark III, it was announced on 25 August 2016. The Mark IV went on sale in September 2016 with a retail price of $3,499 in the US, £3,599 in the UK, and €4,129 in the Eurozone.

The 5D Mark IV is offered as a body only or in a package with a EF 24-105mm f/4L IS II USM zoom lens or an EF 24-70mm f/4L IS USM zoom lens; at introduction, the suggested retail price was $3,499, with 24-105 f/4L IS II kit $4,599, and with 24-70 f/4L IS kit $4,399.

Canon EOS 600D

The Canon EOS 600D is an 18.0 megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera, released by Canon on 7 February 2011. It is known as the EOS Kiss X5 in Japan and the EOS Rebel T3i in America. The 600D is the second Canon EOS camera with an articulating LCD screen and supersedes the 550D, although the earlier model was not discontinued until June 2012, when the successor of the 600D, the 650D, was announced.

Canon EOS 60D

The Canon EOS 60D is an 18.1 megapixels semi-pro digital single-lens reflex camera made by Canon. It was announced on August 26, 2010, with a suggested retail price of US$1099.00. As a part of the Canon EOS two-digit line, it is the successor of the EOS 50D and is the predecessor of the EOS 70D.

It is the first Canon EOS camera which has an articulating LCD screen. Apart from its screen, the main new features of the 60D in the two-digit Canon line include increased resolution and ISO range, full-HD video capabilities, and in-camera post-processing functions for the images. However, it uses the DIGIC 4 image processor.

Like the 50D, the camera has a LCD of settings on the top of the camera where the ISO, AF-Mode, Shooting mode, and metering mode can be controlled.

The 60D is offered for purchase as a body alone or in a package with an EF-S 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6 IS lens, EF-S 17–85mm f/4-5.6 IS USM lens, EF-S 18–135mm f/3.5-5.6 IS lens, EF-S 17-55mm f/2.8 IS USM lens, or an EF-S 18–55mm f/3.5–5.6 lens

Canon EOS 750D

The Canon EOS 750D, known as the Rebel T6i in the Americas or as the Kiss X8i in Japan, is a 24.2 megapixels entry-mid-level digital SLR announced by Canon on February 6, 2015. As a part of the Canon EOS three-digit/Rebel line, it is the successor to the EOS 700D (Rebel T5i) and the predecessor to the EOS 800D (Rebel T7i).The 750D was announced and released together with the 760D, a very similar model which adopts some of the ergonomic features of the more expensive 70D.

Canon EOS 7D

The Canon EOS 7D is a professional cropped sensor digital single-lens reflex camera made by Canon. It was announced on 1 September 2009 with a suggested retail price of US$1,699. Among its features are an 18.0 effective megapixel CMOS sensor, HD video recording, its 8.0 frames per second continuous shooting, new viewfinder which offers 1.0X magnification and 100% coverage, 19-point auto-focus system, movie mode, and built-in Speedlite transmitter.The 7D remained in Canon's model lineup without replacement for slightly more than five years—the longest product cycle for any EOS digital camera. Its successor was the Canon EOS 7D Mark II, announced on 15 September 2014.

Canon EOS 80D

The Canon EOS 80D is a digital single-lens reflex camera announced by Canon on February 18, 2016. It has a body-only MSRP of US$1199, which is the same as the Canon EOS 70D, which it replaces. The camera can be purchased as a body-only, as kit with the 18-55mm IS STM lens at US$1,049, with the new 18-135mm IS USM lens at US$1,799 or with the EF-S 18-200mm IS at US$1,899.

The camera is aimed at mid-market, semi-pro and enthusiast photographers.

Canon EOS M50

The Canon EOS M50, called Canon EOS Kiss M in Japan, is a digital mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera announced by Canon on February 26, 2018 and sale began on March 23, 2018.As with all of the Canon EOS M series cameras, the M50 uses the Canon EF-M lens mount.

EOS.IO

EOS.IO is a blockchain protocol powered by the native cryptocurrency EOS. The protocol emulates most of the attributes of a real computer including hardware (CPU(s) & GPU(s) for processing, local/RAM memory, hard-disk storage) with the computing resources distributed equally among EOS cryptocurrency holders. EOSIO operates as a smart contract platform and decentralized operating system intended for the deployment of industrial-scale decentralized applications through a decentralized autonomous corporation model. The smart contract platform claims to eliminate transaction fees and also conduct millions of transactions per second.

Eos Chasma

Eos Chasma is a chasma in the southern part of the Valles Marineris canyon system of the Coprates quadrangle and the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangles of the planet Mars.

Eos Chasma’s western floor is mainly composed of an etched massive material composed of either volcanic or eolian deposits later eroded by the Martian wind. The eastern end of the Eos chasma has a large area of streamlined bars and longitudinal striations. This is interpreted to be stream-carved plateau deposits and material transported and deposited by flowing fluid. Ganges Chasma is an offshoot of Eos Chasma. MRO discovered sulfate, hydrated sulfate, and iron oxides in Eos Chasma. According to an analysis by Vicky Hamilton of the University of Hawaii, Eos Chasma may be the source of the ALH84001 meteorite, which some believe to be evidence of past life on Mars.

However, the analysis was not conclusive, in part because it was limited to parts of Mars not obscured by dust.

HarperCollins

HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Penguin Random House, Simon & Schuster, Hachette and Macmillan. The company is headquartered in New York City and is a subsidiary of News Corp. The name is a combination of several publishing firm names: Harper & Row, an American publishing company acquired in 1987 (whose own name was the result of an earlier merger of Harper & Brothers (founded 1817) and Row, Peterson & Company), together with UK publishing company William Collins, Sons (founded 1819), acquired in 1990.

The worldwide CEO of HarperCollins is Brian Murray. HarperCollins has publishing groups in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, India, and China. The company publishes many different imprints, both former independent publishing houses and new imprints.

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