Environmental Performance Index

The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies. This index was developed from the Pilot Environmental Performance Index, first published in 2002, and designed to supplement the environmental targets set forth in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.[1]

The EPI was preceded by the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), published between 1999 and 2005. Both indices were developed by Yale University (Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy) and Columbia University (Center for International Earth Science Information Network) in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The ESI was developed to evaluate environmental sustainability relative to the paths of other countries. Due to a shift in focus by the teams developing the ESI, the EPI uses outcome-oriented indicators, then working as a benchmark index that can be more easily used by policy makers, environmental scientists, advocates and the general public.[2] Other leading indices like the Global Green Economy Index (GGEI)[3] provide an integrated measure of the environmental, social and economic dynamics of national economies. The GGEI utilizes EPI data for the environmental dimension of the index while also providing a performance assessment of efficiency sectors (e.g. transport, buildings, energy), investment, green innovation and national leadership around climate change.

In January 2012 four EPI reports have been released — the Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index,[4] and the 2008, 2010, and 2012 Environmental Performance Index.[5][6] For the 2012 report, a new "Pilot Trend EPI" was developed to rank countries based on the environmental performance changes occurred during the last decade, allowing to establish which countries are improving and which are declining.[7]

In the 2014 EPI ranking, the top five countries were Switzerland, Luxembourg, Australia, Singapore, and the Czech Republic. The bottom five countries in 2014 were Somalia, Mali, Haiti, Lesotho, and Afghanistan. The United Kingdom was ranked in 12th place, Japan 26th place, the United States 33rd, Brazil 77th, China 118th, and India came in 155th.[8] The top five countries based on their 2012 Pilot Trend EPI were Estonia, Kuwait, El Salvador, Namibia and Congo.[9]

Countries by Environmental Performance Index (2018)
Countries by Environmental Performance Index (2018)


EPI calculation variables change often as can be seen below. This should be taken into account when observing country performance through several reports, as it can lead to score and ranking changes founded just on methodology modification.

2018 variables

Are largely similar to those from 2016, but have changed in details and some weights. Notably environmental Health is now weighted at 40% and Ecosystem Vitality at 60%.[10]

2016 variables[11]

EPI Objective Issue Category Indicator
Environmental Performance Index (EPI) Environmental health (40%) Health Impacts (33%) Environmental Risk Exposure (100%)
Air quality (33%) Household Air Quality (30%)
Air pollution - Average Exposure to PM2.5 (30%)
Air pollution - PM2.5 Exceedance (30%)
Air pollution - Average Exposure to NO2 (10%)
Water and sanitation (33%) Unsafe Sanitation (50%)
Drinking Water Quality (50%)
Ecosystem vitality (60%) Water resources (25%) Wastewater treatment (100%)
Agriculture (10%) Nitrogen use efficiency (75%)
Nitrogen balance (25%)
Forests (10%) Change in forest cover (100%)
Fisheries (5%) Fish stocks (100%)
Biodiversity and habitat (25%) Terrestrial Protected Areas (National Biome Weights) (20%)
Terrestrial protected areas (Global Biome Weights) (20%)
Marine protected areas (20%)
Species protection (National) (20%)
Species protection (Global) (20%)
Climate and energy (25%) Trend in carbon intensity (75%)
Trend in CO2 emissions per kWh (25%)

2010 variables

Extended content
EPI 2008: Objectives, policy categories and sub-categories, and indicators
Environmental Burden of Disease
Water (effects on humans)
Air Pollution (effects on humans)
INDICATORS 1. Environmental Burden of Disease 2. Adequate Sanitation 4. Indoor Air Pollution
3. Drinking Water 5. Urban Particulates
6. Local Ozone
Air Pollution (effects on ecosystems)
Biodiversity and Habitat
INDICATORS 7. Regional Ozone 9. Water Quality Index 11. Conservation Risk Index
8. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 10. Water Stress 12. Effective Conservation
13. Critical Habitat Protection
14. Marine Protected Areas
Productive Natural Resources
Productive Natural Resources
Productive Natural Resources
INDICATORS 15. Growing Stock 16. Marine Trophic Index 18. Irrigation Stress
17. Trawling Intensity 19. Agricultural subsidies
20. Intensive Cropland
21. Burnt Land Area
22. Pesticide Regulation
Climate Change
INDICATORS 23. Emissions per capita
24. Emissions per electricity generated
25. Industrial carbon intensity

EPI scores


EPI 2018 full list is available online.

Rank Country EPI score Environmental

(40% weight)


(60% weight)

1   Switzerland 87.42 93.57 83.32
2  France 83.95 95.71 76.11
3  Denmark 81.60 98.20 70.53
4  Malta 80.90 93.80 72.30
5  Sweden 80.51 94.41 71.24
6  United Kingdom 79.89 96.03 69.13
7  Luxembourg 79.12 95.07 68.48
8  Austria 78.97 86.38 74.03
9  Ireland 78.77 95.92 67.34
10  Finland 78.64 99.35 64.83
11  Iceland 78.57 98.41 65.34
12  Spain 78.39 94.21 67.85
13  Germany 78.37 88.68 71.50
14  Norway 77.49 97.86 63.91
15  Belgium 77.38 89.37 69.39
16  Italy 76.96 85.88 71.02
17  New Zealand 75.96 95.96 62.63
18  Netherlands 75.46 92.26 64.25
19  Israel 75.01 94.14 62.25
20  Japan 74.69 92.99 62.48
21  Australia 74.12 97.95 58.23
22  Greece 73.60 91.03 61.98
23  Taiwan 72.84 69.85 74.83
24  Cyprus 72.60 87.96 62.37
25  Canada 72.18 97.51 55.29
26  Portugal 71.91 90.47 59.53
27  United States of America 71.19 93.91 56.04
28  Slovakia 70.60 63.87 75.08
29  Lithuania 69.33 72.57 67.18
30  Bulgaria 67.85 69.60 66.68


On 23 January 2016, the 2016 Environmental Performance Index was released at the World Economic Forum, with 180 countries being ranked.[12]

Top 30 countries and score

  1.  Finland 90.88
  2.  Iceland 90.51
  3.  Sweden 90.43
  4.  Denmark 89.21
  5.  Slovenia 88.98
  6.  Spain 88.91
  7.  Portugal 88.63
  8.  Estonia 88.59
  9.  Malta 88.48
  10.  France 88.20
  11.  New Zealand 88.00
  12.  United Kingdom 87.38
  13.  Australia 87.22
  14.  Singapore 87.04
  15.  Croatia 86.98
  16.   Switzerland 86.93
  17.  Norway 86.90
  18.  Austria 86.64
  19.  Ireland 86.60
  20.  Luxembourg 86.58
  21.  Greece 85.81
  22.  Latvia 85.71
  23.  Lithuania 85.49
  24.  Slovakia 85.42
  25.  Canada 85.06
  26.  United States of America 84.72
  27.  Czech Republic 84.67
  28.  Hungary 84.60
  29.  Italy 84.48
  30.  Germany 84.25


On 25 January 2014 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2014 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 178 countries.[8]

Top 30 countries and score

  1.   Switzerland 87.67
  2.  Luxembourg 83.29
  3.  Australia 82.4
  4.  Singapore 81.78
  5.  Czech Republic 81.47
  6.  Germany 80.47
  7.  Spain 79.79
  8.  Austria 78.32
  9.  Sweden 78.09
  10.  Norway 78.04
  11.  Netherlands 77.75
  12.  United Kingdom 77.35
  13.  Denmark 76.92
  14.  Iceland 76.5
  15.  Slovenia 76.43
  16.  New Zealand 76.41
  17.  Portugal 75.8
  18.  Finland 75.72
  19.  Ireland 74.67
  20.  Estonia 74.66
  21.  Slovakia 74.45
  22.  Italy 74.36
  23.  Greece 73.28
  24.  Canada 73.14
  25.  United Arab Emirates 72.91
  26.  Japan 72.35
  27.  France 71.05
  28.  Hungary 70.28
  29.  Chile 69.93
  30.  Poland 69.53


On 25 January 2012 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2012 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 132 countries.[6]

Top 30 countries and score[6]

  1.   Switzerland 76.69
  2.  Latvia 70.37
  3.  Norway 69.92
  4.  Luxembourg 69.2
  5.  Costa Rica 69.03
  6.  France 69
  7.  Austria 68.92
  8.  Italy 68.9
  9.  United Kingdom 68.82
  10.  Sweden 68.82
  11.  Germany 66.91
  12.  Slovakia 66.62
  13.  Iceland 66.28
  14.  New Zealand 66.05
  15.  Albania 65.85
  16.  Netherlands 65.65
  17.  Lithuania 65.5
  18.  Czech Republic 64.79
  19.  Finland 64.44
  20.  Croatia 64.16
  21.  Denmark 63.61
  22.  Poland 63.47
  23.  Japan 63.36
  24.  Belgium 63.02
  25.  Malaysia 62.51
  26.  Brunei 62.49
  27.  Colombia 62.33
  28.  Slovenia 62.25
  29.  Taiwan 62.23
  30.  Brazil 60.9

Top 10 countries by Trend EPI[6][7] The EPI rank is shown in parentheses.

  1.  Latvia (2)
  2.  Azerbaijan (111)
  3.  Romania (88)
  4.  Albania (15)
  5.  Egypt (60)
  6.  Angola (90)
  7.  Slovakia (12)
  8.  Ireland (36)
  9.  Belgium (24)
  10.  Thailand (34)

Worst 10 countries by Trend EPI[6][7] The EPI rank is shown in parentheses.

  1.  Turkmenistan (131)
  2.  South Africa (128)
  3.  Iraq (132)
  4.  Kazakhstan (129)
  5.  Kyrgyzstan (101)
  6.  Estonia (54)
  7.  Bosnia & Herzegovina (124)
  8.  Saudi Arabia (82)
  9.  Kuwait (126)
  10.  Russia (106)


On 28 January 2010 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2010 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 163 countries.[5] The top performer for 2010 is Iceland due to its high scores on environmental public health, gets virtually all of its power from renewable sources (hydropower and geothermal energy), and its control of greenhouse gas emissions. The United States fell to the 61st position, as compared to 39th in the 2008 EPI, Brazil ranks 62nd, Russia 69th, China 121st, and India ranks 123rd.[5][13]

Top 30 countries and score[5]

  1.  Iceland 93.5
  2.   Switzerland 89.1
  3.  Costa Rica 86.4
  4.  Sweden 86.0
  5.  Norway 81.1
  6.  Mauritius 80.6
  7.  France 78.2
  8.  Austria 78.1
  9.  Cuba 78.1
  10.  Colombia 76.8
  11.  Malta 76.3
  12.  Finland 74.7
  13.  Slovakia 74.5
  14.  United Kingdom 74.2
  15.  New Zealand 73.4
  16.  Chile 73.3
  17.  Germany 73.2
  18.  Italy 73.1
  19.  Portugal 73.0
  20.  Japan 72.5
  21.  Latvia 72.5
  22.  Czech Republic 71.6
  23.  Albania 71.4
  24.  Panama 71.4
  25.  Spain 70.6
  26.  Belize 69.9
  27.  Antigua and Barbuda 69.8
  28.  Singapore 69.6
  29.  Serbia 69.4
  30.  Ecuador 69.3


On 23 January 2008 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2008 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 149 countries. The environmental experts at both universities concluded that "analysis of the drivers underlying the 2008 rankings suggests that wealth is a major determinant of environmental success".[14]

Top 30 countries and score[15]

  1.   Switzerland 95.5
  2.  Norway 93.1
  3.  Sweden 93.1
  4.  Finland 91.4
  5.  Costa Rica 90.5
  6.  Austria 89.4
  7.  New Zealand 88.9
  8.  Latvia 88.8
  9.  Colombia 88.3
  10.  France 87.8
  11.  Iceland 87.6
  12.  Canada 86.6
  13.  Germany 86.3
  14.  United Kingdom 86.3
  15.  Slovenia 86.3
  16.  Lithuania 86.2
  17.  Slovakia 86.0
  18.  Portugal 85.8
  19.  Estonia 85.2
  20.  Croatia 84.6
  21.  Japan 84.5
  22.  Ecuador 84.4
  23.  Hungary 84.2
  24.  Italy 84.2
  25.  Albania 84.2
  26.  Denmark 84.0
  27.  Malaysia 84.0
  28.  Russia 84.0
  29.  Chile 83.9
  30.  Spain 83.4


On 26 January 2006 Yale (YCELP) and Columbia University (CIESIN) released the Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 133 countries. It was done in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.

Top 30 countries and score[16]

  1.  New Zealand 88.0
  2.  Sweden 87.8
  3.  Finland 87.0
  4.  Czech Republic 86.0
  5.  United Kingdom 85.6
  6.  Austria 85.2
  7.  Denmark 84.2
  8.  Canada 84.0
  9.  Malaysia 83.3
  10.  Ireland 83.3
  11.  Portugal 82.9
  12.  France 82.5
  13.  Iceland 82.1
  14.  Japan 81.9
  15.  Costa Rica 81.6
  16.   Switzerland 81.4
  17.  Colombia 80.4
  18.  Norway 80.2
  19.  Greece 80.2
  20.  Australia 80.1
  21.  Italy 79.8
  22.  Germany 79.4
  23.  Spain 79.2
  24.  Taiwan 79.1
  25.  Slovakia 79.1
  26.  Chile 78.9
  27.  Netherlands 78.7
  28.  United States 78.5
  29.  Cyprus 78.4
  30.  Argentina 77.7

See also


  1. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy, and Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Environmental Performance Index". Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  2. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "2008 Environmental Performance Index Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-09. Retrieved 2008-03-18. See Executive Summary, pp. 32-35 for a detailed comparison between the ESI 2005, the EPI 2006 and the EPI 2008.
  3. ^ "2016 Global Green Economy Index (GGEI)" (PDF).
  4. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index Main Report" (PDF). p. 33. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-01-05. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
  5. ^ a b c d Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "2012 Environmental Performance Index". Archived from the original on 2010-02-04. Retrieved 2010-01-27. See also official Press release
  6. ^ a b c d e Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "2010 EPI Rankings". Archived from the original on 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
  7. ^ a b c Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "EPI 2012: Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). EPI Yales. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-30. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
  8. ^ a b "Country Rankings". Yale. 25 January 2014. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
  9. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "EPI 2014: Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). EPI Yales. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
  10. ^ "EPI 2018 variables".
  11. ^ "2016 EPI Raw Data". Yale University. 2016.
  12. ^ "2016 EPI FULL REPORT" (PDF). Yale. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-04. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
  13. ^ Elizabeth Rosenthal (2010-01-27). "Iceland Leads Environmental Index as U.S. Falls". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
  14. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Switzerland Tops 2008 Environmental Scorecard at World Economic Forum". Archived from the original on 2008-02-03. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  15. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Environmental Performance Index 2008". Archived from the original on 2010-02-25. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
  16. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index". Archived from the original on 2007-06-17. Retrieved 2007-06-17.

External links

Air pollution in India

Air pollution in India is a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. In autumn and winter months, large scale crop residue burning in agriculture fields – a low cost alternative to mechanical tilling – is a major source of smoke, smog and particulate pollution. India has a low per capita emissions of greenhouse gases but the country as a whole is the third largest after China and the United States. A 2013 study on non-smokers has found that Indians have 30% lower lung function compared to Europeans.The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed in 1981 to regulate air pollution and there have been some measurable improvements. However, the 2016 Environmental Performance Index ranked India 141 out of 180 countries.In 2015, Government of India, together with IIT Kanpur launched the National Air Quality Index. In 2019, India launched 'The National Clean Air Programme' with tentative national target of 20%-30% reduction in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations by 2024, considering 2017 as the base year for comparison. It will be rolled out in 102 cities that are considered to have air quality worse than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

Climate of the Nordic countries

The climate of the Nordic countries is that of a region in Northern Europe that consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories, which include the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland. Stockholm, Sweden has on average the warmest summer of the Nordic countries, with an average maximum temperature of 23 °C (73 °F) in July; Copenhagen, Oslo and Helsinki have an average July maximum temperature of 22 °C (72 °F).

Energy in the United Kingdom

Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2,249 TWh (193.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2014. This equates to energy consumption per capita of 34.82 MWh (3.00 tonnes of oil equivalent) compared to a 2010 world average of 21.54 MWh (1.85 tonnes of oil equivalent). Demand for electricity in 2014 was 34.42GW on average (301.7TWh over the year) coming from a total electricity generation of 335.0TWh.Successive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. One such announcement was the Low Carbon Transition Plan launched by the Brown ministry in July 2009, which aimed to generate 30% electricity from renewable sources, and 40% from low carbon content fuels by 2020. Notably, the UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy, and wind power production is its fastest growing supply. Wind power contributed 15% of UK electricity generation in 2017.Government commitments to reduce emissions are occurring against a backdrop of economic crisis across Europe. During the European financial crisis, Europe's consumption of electricity shrank by 5%, with primary production also facing a noticeable decline. Britain's trade deficit was reduced by 8% due to substantial cuts in energy imports. Between 2007 and 2015, the UK's peak electrical demand fell from 61.5 GW to 52.7.GW.UK government energy policy aims to play a key role in limiting greenhouse gas emissions, whilst meeting energy demand. Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies also change the country's energy mix through changes in costs. In 2016, the United Kingdom was ranked 12th in the World on the Environmental Performance Index, which measures how well a country carries through environmental policy.

Environment of Ecuador

The Environment of Ecuador contains almost 20,000 species of plants, 1,500 species of birds, 341 species of mammals and more than 840 species of reptiles and amphibians. It includes World Heritage Sites like the Galápagos Islands, and magnificent parks such as the Yasuni National Park.

Environment of New Zealand

The environment of New Zealand is characterised by an endemic flora and fauna which has evolved in near isolation from the rest of the world. The main islands of New Zealand span two biomes, temperate and subtropical, complicated by large mountainous areas above the tree line. There are also numerous smaller islands which extent into the sub antarctic. The prevailing weather systems bring significantly more rain to the west of the country. New Zealand's territorial waters extend cover a much larger area than its landmass and extend over the continental shelf and abyssal plateau in the South Pacific Ocean, Tasman Sea and Southern ocean.

Historically having an isolated and endemic ecosystem far into modernity, the arrival of Polynesians about 1300 AD and then later European settlers began to have significant impacts on this system, with the intentional and unintentional introduction of new species and plants which often overwhelmed their natural competitors, leading to a significant loss of native ecology and biodiversity, especially in areas such as bird life.

Today, most parts of New Zealand are heavily modified by the effects of logging, agriculture and general human settlement, though large areas have also been placed under protection, combined in many cases with efforts to protect or regenerate native ecosystems (aided by the fact that especially the South Island of New Zealand has a very low population density).

Environment of South Korea

The environment of South Korea is the natural environment of the South Korean nation, which occupies the southern half of the Korean peninsula. Environment - current issues: air pollution in large cities; water pollution from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; acid rain; drift net fishing

Forests were cleared over many centuries for use as firewood and as building materials. However, they have rebounded since the 1970s as a result of intensive reforestation efforts. The country's few remaining old-growth forests are protected in nature reserves. South Korea also has 20 national parks. One of the world's most interesting wildlife sanctuaries has developed in the DMZ, having been virtually untouched since 1953. The uninhabited zone has become a haven for many kinds of wildlife, particularly migrating birds.

International rankings of Canada

These are various international rankings of Canada.

International rankings of Cuba

The following are international rankings of Cuba.

International rankings of Hungary

These are the international rankings of Hungary.

International rankings of Jordan

The following are the international rankings of Jordan.

International rankings of Serbia

The following is a list of international rankings of Serbia.

International rankings of Slovakia

These are the international rankings of Slovakia.

International rankings of Vietnam

The following are international rankings of Vietnam.

List of globalization-related indices

This article lists various economic and human development measurements related to the study of globalization.

Outline of Costa Rica

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Costa Rica:

Costa Rica – sovereign country located in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the east-southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Costa Rica was the first country in the world to constitutionally abolish its army. Among Latin American countries, Costa Rica ranks 4th on the 2007 Human Development Index, and 48th worldwide. Costa Rica is ranked 5th in the world on the 2008 Environmental Performance Index, up from the 15th place in 2006. In 2007 the government stated that it wants Costa Rica to be the first country to become carbon neutral by 2021.

Sustainability measurement

Sustainability measurement is the quantitative basis for the informed management of sustainability. The metrics used for the measurement of sustainability (involving the sustainability of environmental, social and economic domains, both individually and in various combinations) are still evolving: they include indicators, benchmarks, audits, indexes and accounting, as well as assessment, appraisal and other reporting systems. They are applied over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.Some of the best known and most widely used sustainability measures include corporate sustainability reporting, Triple Bottom Line accounting, and estimates of the quality of sustainability governance for individual countries using the Global Green Economy Index (GGEI), Environmental Sustainability Index and Environmental Performance Index. An alternative approach, used by the United Nations Global Compact Cities Programme and explicitly critical of the triple-bottom-line approach is Circles of Sustainability.


SymbioCity is the trademarked term for Sweden's approach to sustainable urban development. Established in 2008, the program's primary goal is to export Sweden's knowledge and experience with sustainable cities. It was created in order to assist Swedish environmental technology companies with their international marketing by creating a common trademark.

Gunnar Lund, Swedish ambassador to France, said in 2010, "The starting point for SymbioCity is the predicted growth of our population from six billion to nine billion in the next two decades".SymbioCity aims to "get more for less", creating synergy by integrating different technologies and city functions.

For example, waste can turn into energy, waste water can turn into fuel, and the excessive heat from an industry can warm up a household. According to the SymbioCity approach, environmental and economic gains result from unlocking synergies between urban systems. The seven building blocks of SymbioCity are: Architecture; Energy; Landscape Planning; Traffic & Transport; Waste Management; Urban Functions, Industry and Buildings; Water Supply and Sanitation. Several hundred Swedish consultants, contractors and system suppliers are connected to SymbioCity.

SymbioCity is scalable, and adaptable to any climate.SymbioCity as a trademark was launched in 2008, and is administered by the Swedish Trade Council.

The name SymbioCity is a play on words, combining "symbiosis" and "city".The 2008 Environmental Performance Index ranks Sweden third in the world.


The global freshwater model WaterGAP calculates flows and storages of water on all continents of the globe (except Antarctica), taking into account the human influence on the natural freshwater system by water abstractions and dams. It supports understanding the freshwater situation across the world’s river basins during the 20th and the 21st century, and is applied to assess water scarcity, droughts and floods and to quantify the impact of human actions on freshwater. Modelling results of WaterGAP have contributed to international assessment of the global environmental situation including the UN World Water Development Reports, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the UN Global Environmental Outlooks as well as to reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. They were included in the 2012 Environmental Performance Index which ranks countries according to their environmental performance (index for impact of human water use on ecosystems).WaterGAP (Water Global Assessment and Prognosis) has been developed at the University of Kassel (Germany) since 1996, and since 2003 also at the University of Frankfurt (Germany). It consists of both the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) and five water use models for the sectors irrigation, livestock, households, manufacturing and cooling of thermal power plants. An additional model component computes the fractions of total water use that are abstracted from either groundwater or surface waters (rivers, lakes and reservoirs). All computations are done with a temporal resolution of 1 day and a spatial resolution of 0.5° geographical latitude × 0.5° geographical longitude, which is equivalent to 55 km × 55 km at the equator. Model input includes time series of climate data (e.g. precipitation, temperature and solar radiation) and physiogeographic information like characteristics of surface water bodies (lakes, reservoirs and wetlands), land cover, soil type, topography and irrigated area.

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