Environment and Climate Change Canada

Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (French: Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10 ), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources. The powers, duties and functions of the Minister of the Environment extend to and include matters relating to: "preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment, including water, air, soil, flora and fauna; conserve Canada's renewable resources; conserve and protect Canada's water resources; forecast daily weather conditions and warnings, and provide detailed meteorological information to all of Canada; enforce rules relating to boundary waters; and coordinate environmental policies and programs for the federal government."[1] Its ministerial headquarters is located in les Terrasses de la Chaudière, Gatineau, Quebec.[2][3]

Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act[4] (CEPA 1999) (R.S., 1999, c. 33), Environment Canada became the lead federal department to ensure the cleanup of hazardous waste and oil spills for which the government is responsible, and to provide technical assistance to other jurisdictions and the private sector as required. The department is also responsible for international environmental issues (e.g., Canada-USA air issues). CEPA was the central piece of Canada's environmental legislation but was replaced when budget implementation bill (C-38) entered into effect in June 2012.[5]

Under the Constitution of Canada, responsibility for environmental management in Canada is a shared responsibility between the federal government and provincial/territorial governments. For example, provincial governments have primary authority for resource management including permitting industrial waste discharges (e.g., to the air). The federal government is responsible for the management of toxic substances in the country (e.g., benzene). Environment Canada provides stewardship of the Environmental Choice Program, which provides consumers with an eco-labelling for products manufactured within Canada or services that meet international label standards of (GEN) Global Ecolabelling Network.

Environment Canada continues (2005–present) to undergo a structural transformation to centralize authority and decision-making, and to standardize policy implementation.

Environment and Climate Change Canada
Environnement et Changement climatique Canada
Environment and Climate Change Canada logo
Department overview
Formed1971
TypeDepartment responsible for coordinating environmental policies and programs
JurisdictionCanada
Employees~6800[1]
Minister responsible
Deputy Minister responsible
  • Stephen Lucas
Child agencies
Websiteec.gc.ca

Hierarchy

  • Minister
    • Deputy Minister
      • Associate Deputy Minister
        • Assistant Deputy Minister
          • Associate Assistant Deputy Minister
            • Director General
              • Director
                • Managers
                  • Supervisors
                    • Staff

Division

Environment Canada is divided into several geographic regions:

The department has several organizations which carry out specific tasks:

The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency is an arms-length agency that reports to the Minister of Environment[16]

Parks Canada, which manages the Canadian National Parks system, was removed from Environment Canada and became an agency reporting to the Minister of Heritage in 1998. In 2003, responsibility for Parks Canada was returned to the Minister of the Environment.[17]

Enforcement

ECBadge

Environment Canada Enforcement Branch is responsible for ensuring compliance with several federal statues. The Governor-in-Council appoints enforcement officers and pursuant to section 217(3) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, enforcement officers have all the powers of peace officers.

There are two designations of enforcement officers: Environmental Enforcement and Wildlife Enforcement. The former administers the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and pollution provisions of the Fisheries Act and corresponding regulations. The latter enforces Migratory Birds Convention Act, Canada Wildlife Act, Species at Risk Act and The Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act.[18] All officers wear dark green uniform with black ties and a badge (appear on the right). Environmental Enforcement Officers only carry baton and OC spray whereas Wildlife Enforcement Officers are also equipped with firearm.[19]

The Minister may also appoint members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, fishery officers, parks officers, customs officers and conservation officers of provincial and territorial governments as enforcement officers and to allow them to exercise the powers and privilege of Environment Canada officers.

On March 4, 2009, a bill to increase the enforcement capabilities of Environment Canada was introduced into the House of Commons. The Environmental Enforcement Bill would increase the fines for individuals and corporations for serious offenses, give enforcement officers new powers to investigate cases and grants courts new sentencing authorities that ensure penalties reflect the seriousness of the pollution and wildlife offences.[20]

More information: EC Enforcement Branch

Enforcement of: Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material Regulations (EIHWHRMR)

The Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material Regulations (EIHWHRMR) operates with a few basic premises, one of which being that electronic waste is either "intact" or "not intact". The various annexes define hazardous waste in Canada, and also deem any waste that is "...considered or defined as hazardous under the legislation of the country receiving it and is prohibited by that country from being imported or conveyed in transit" to be covered under Canadian regulation and therefore subject to prior informed consent procedures.[21][22]

The loophole in the regulations that allows tons of e-waste to be exported from Canada is the use of the definition of "intact" vs "functional". A non-functioning electronic device that is intact can be exported under the current legislation. What can't be exported without prior informed consent is a non-functioning but no longer intact electronic device (if the component pieces are deemed hazardous). The principal problem being, the non-functioning but intact electronic device is at high risk of being disassembled in some far away e-waste dumping ground. The Canadian government's use of a unique interpretation of the Basel Convention obligations "intact" and "not intact" opens the door to uncontrolled e-waste exports as long as the device is intact. See Canadian fact sheet and associated links.[23]

Since Canada ratified the Basel Convention on August 28, 1992, and as of August 2011, Environment Canada's Enforcement Branch has initiated 176 investigations for violations under EIHWHRMR, some of which are still in progress. There have been 19 prosecutions undertaken for non-compliance with the provisions of the EIHWHRMR some of which are still before the courts. Electronic waste by country

2012 Budget Bill C-38, the "Jobs, Growth and Long-term Prosperity Act"

Bill C-38, (June 2012), replaced the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA 1992, 1999) with the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act, Species at Risk Act, The National Energy Board Act, the Canadian Oil and Gas Operations Act, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, the Fisheries Act (for example, closing the Experimental Lakes Area) all underwent major changes under Bill-38. By placing the emphasis on jobs, growth and prosperity significant changes have been made to the federal environmental assessment regime (EA) and environmental regulatory framework. [24] [25]

Minister of the Environment and the Kyoto Accord

In December 2011, Ministry of the Environment (Canada) Peter Kent announced Canada's withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol one day after negotiators from nearly 200 countries meeting in Durban, South Africa at the 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference (November 28 - December 11), completed a marathon of climate talks to establish a new treaty to limit carbon emissions.[1] The Durban talks were leading to a new binding treaty with targets for all countries to take effect in 2020.

Environment minister Peter Kent argued that, "The Kyoto protocol does not cover the world's largest two emitters, the United States and China, and therefore cannot work." In 2010 Canada, Japan and Russia said they would not accept new Kyoto commitments. Canada is the only country to repudiate the Kyoto Accord. Kent argued that since Canada could not meet targets, it needed to avoid the $14 billion in penalties for not achieving its goals.[26] This decision drew widespread international response.[27] States for which the emissions are not covered by the Kyoto Protocol (the US and China) have the largest emissions, being responsible for 41% of the Kyoto Protocol. China’s emissions increased by over 200% from 1990 to 2009.[28]

Related legislation

Environment Canada administers and assists in the administration of nearly c. 24 acts through regulations and through "voluntary and regulated agreements with individuals or multiple parties in Canada and elsewhere to define mutual commitments, roles and responsibilities and actions on specific environmental issues."[29]

Bill C-38

Bill C-38 (2012)[30]

Canada National Parks Act

Canada National Parks Act

Canada Water Act

"Recognizing the need for better environmental management, the federal government passed the Canada Water Act in 1970 and created the Department of the Environment in 1971, entrusting the Inland Waters Directorate with providing national leadership for freshwater management. Under the Constitution Act (1867), the provinces are "owners" of the water resources and have wide responsibilities in their day-to-day management. The federal government has certain specific responsibilities relating to water, such as fisheries and navigation, as well as exercising certain overall responsibilities such as the conduct of external affairs."[31]

The Canada Water Act (proclaimed on September 30, 1970) provides the framework for cooperation with provinces and territories in the conservation, development, and utilization of Canada's water resources. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, completes the framework for the protection and of water resources. Environment Canada is the federal department (Ministry) in charge of conserving and protecting Canada's water resources. The Water Act (2000), a federal legislation, "supports and promotes the conservation and management of water, including the wise allocation and use of water.".[32] The provinces are responsible for administering the Water Act (2000). In Alberta for example, Alberta Environment and Water is responsible for administering the Water Act (2000) and the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000). Provinces environmental ministries primarily lead Water for Life (2003) programs. Provinces also implement and oversee "regulation of municipal drinking water, wastewater, and storm drainage systems."[32]

Canada Wildlife Act

Canada Wildlife Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. W-9) Amended in June 2012 by Bill C-38[33] 'allows for the creation, management and protection of wildlife areas' to preserve habitats, particularly for at risk species and requires permits for specified activities in designated wildlife areas.[34]

Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (1992, c. 37)

The Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000) "supports and promotes the protection, enhancement, and wise use of the environment. The Act's individual regulations cover a wide range of activities, from beverage container recycling and pesticide sales, potable water, to wastewater and storm drainage."[32]

Fisheries Act (pollution prevention into fish bearing waters) (R.S., 1985, c. F-14)

Federal legislation such as the Fisheries Act (1985) have relevance for water management in the provinces.[32]

Migratory Birds Convention Act

Federal legislation such as the Migratory Birds Convention Act (2000) also have relevance for water management in the provinces.[32]

Weather Modification Information Act

Weather Modification Information Act

Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Inter-provincial Trade Act

Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Inter-provincial Trade Act

Aerospace Fleet

Until 2010 Environment Canada operated several different aircraft for their environmental studies. Although Environment Canada does not have a current fleet of aircraft it contracts other branches of the government to provide airborne research facilities.

Former Fleet:

See also

Citations

  1. ^ a b Environment Canada 2013.
  2. ^ "Inquiry Centre." Environment Canada. Retrieved on February 4, 2011. "Inquiry Centre 351 St. Joseph Blvd. 8th Floor, Place Vincent Massey Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0H3" Address in French: "Informathèque 351, boul. St-Joseph 8e étage, Place Vincent Massey Gatineau (Québec) K1A 0H3."
  3. ^ "Contact Us." Environment Canada. Retrieved on February 4, 2011. "Address: Environment Canada Inquiry Centre 351 St. Joseph Boulevard Place Vincent Massey, 8th Floor Gatineau, Quebec." Address in French: "Environnement Canada Informathèque 351, boulevard St-Joseph Place Vincent-Massey, 8e étage Gatineau (Québec)."
  4. ^ "Environment Canada - Acts & Regulations - The Act". Ec.gc.ca. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
  5. ^ [1] "Federal Government Releases Draft Legislation to Reform Federal Regulatory System."
  6. ^ Canadian Wildlife Service & 2002-2010.
  7. ^ ''Msc''. Msc-smc.ec.gc.ca (April 30, 2012).
  8. ^ Monitoring Archived May 1, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ ''Predition''. Msc-smc.ec.gc.ca.
  10. ^ Aviation & Ice Services Archived May 1, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Environment Canada - Weather and Meteorology - Home. Ec.gc.ca (March 1, 2012).
  12. ^ Climate Science Archived January 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ ''Npri''. Ec.gc.ca (February 22, 2012).
  14. ^ Environment Canada - Science and Technology - Wildlife Research & Landscape Science | Environment Canada. Ec.gc.ca (March 22, 2012).
  15. ^ Environment Canada - Air - Air Science and Research Mobile Source Emissions Measurement and Research
  16. ^ (''Ceaa''). Ceaa-acee.gc.ca (May 9, 2012).
  17. ^ ''Parks Canada''. Pc.gc.ca (April 13, 2012).
  18. ^ Environment Canada - Acts, Regulations and Agreements - Enforcement - Acts and Regulations. Ec.gc.ca (June 30, 2011).
  19. ^ Canada's newest environment officers set to help turn the country green. .canada.com (July 24, 2007).
  20. ^ New Enforcement Legislation Cracks Down on Environmental Offenders. Ec.gc.ca. Archived April 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material Regulations. Laws-lois.justice.gc.ca (May 2, 2012).
  22. ^ Environment Canada - Pollution and Waste - Basel Convention. Ec.gc.ca.
  23. ^ [2] Archived October 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Shawn Denstedt Q.C.; Sander Duncanson (April 27, 2012). "Federal Government Releases Draft Legislation to Reform Federal Regulatory System". Osler. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
  25. ^ Alan Harvie; Richard King; Jean Piette; J.M. Madeleine Donahue (June 7, 2012). "Canada: Canadian Government Proposes Significant Changes To The Environmental Assessment And Regulatory Framework". Retrieved June 18, 2012.
  26. ^ "Canada pulls out of Kyoto protocol". The Guardian. UK. December 13, 2011. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  27. ^ CBC News http://www.cbc.ca/news/yourcommunity/2011/12/canadas-kyoto-withdrawal-draws-international-response.html
  28. ^ The Economist (December 15, 2011). "O Canada". Retrieved December 19, 2011.
  29. ^ "Environment Canada - Acts, regulations and agreements". Ec.gc.ca. August 28, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
  30. ^ "LEGISinfo - House Government Bill C-38 (41-1)". Parl.gc.ca. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
  31. ^ "Federal Policy and Legislation". Environment Canada. July 22, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  32. ^ a b c d e waterpolicy.ca nd.
  33. ^ "Canada Wildlife Act". Laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
  34. ^ "Environment Canada - Enforcement - Canada Wildlife Act". Ec.gc.ca. July 23, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2014.

References

External links

Alert Ready

The National Public Alerting System (French: Système national d'alertes à la population), branded as Alert Ready (French: En Alerte), is the national warning system in Canada. The system consists of infrastructure and standards for the presentation and distribution of public alerts issued by government authorities (including Environment and Climate Change Canada and other provincial public safety agencies), such as weather emergencies, AMBER Alerts, and other emergency notifications, by all broadcasters and Last mile distributors in the affected region, including television stations, radio stations, television providers, and LTE mobile networks in the affected region.

The system is based upon the Common Alerting Protocol, and uses the National Alert Aggregation and Dissemination system (NAAD) operated by Pelmorex Media as its backend for distributing alerts to broadcasters, in consort with a style guide that dictates when and how alerts are to be broadcast. Pelmorex also handles public marketing of the system.

In development since 2010, the system officially launched on March 31, 2015; under Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) rules, all radio and television broadcasters, as well as all digital broadcast distribution undertakings, are required to relay emergency messages issued through NAAD. As of April 2018, wireless providers are also required to participate (Wireless Public Alerting System), utilizing a Canadian variant of the Wireless Emergency Alerts framework utilized in the United States. WPAS is promoted by Pelmorex as part of Alert Ready.

Environment and Climate Change Canada also maintains Weatheradio Canada, which transmits weather information and hazard alerts. Unlike Alert Ready, it utilizes Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME)—the same protocol used by the two systems' U.S. counterparts (NOAA Weather Radio and the Emergency Alert System).

Canadian Wildlife Service

The Canadian Wildlife Service or CWS (French: Service canadien de la faune), is a Branch of the Department of the Environment, also known as Environment and Climate Change Canada, a department of the Government of Canada. November 1, 2012 marked the 65th anniversary of the founding of Service (originally known as the Dominion Wildlife Service).The Canadian Wildlife Service is a Branch of the federal Department of the Environment, and has been Canada's national wildlife agency since 1947. Its core areas of responsibility are the protection and management of migratory birds, species at risk, and their nationally important habitats. Functions of the Canadian Wildlife Service include scientific, regulatory, property management, policy and financial support work. Scientific monitoring of migratory bird and species at risk population sizes and distribution, wetlands and critical habitats occurs throughout the country. Biologists also review environmental assessments, and review and issue permits under the Migratory Bird Regulations, Migratory Bird Sanctuary Regulations, Wildlife Area Regulations, and Species at Risk Act. Canadian Wildlife Service also manages 54 National Wildlife Areas and 92 Migratory Bird Sanctuaries, primarily where key waterfowl and seabird nesting and staging habitats occur. Planning includes preparing Bird Conservation Region Plans under the North American Bird Conservation Initiative, and Recovery Strategies and Management Plans under the Species at Risk Act. Canadian Wildlife Service also leads or supports international and interprovincial agreements regarding biological diversity, alien invasive species, indigenous wildlife management boards, the Canadian Wildlife Directors Committee, and the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Canadian Wildlife Service delivers many substantial funding programs that support other Federal Departments, Provinces and non-governmental agencies to protect and restore wildlife habitats. Those funds include Habitat Joint Ventures under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, Interdepartmental Recovery Fund for Species at Risk, Habitat Stewardship Program for Species at Risk, Aboriginal Fund for Species At Risk, National Wetland Conservation Fund, and Species at Risk Partnerships on Agricultural Lands.

Prior to 2006, Canadian Wildlife Service was also home to wildlife research and enforcement staff. Wildlife research is now a part of the Science and Technology Branch, and Enforcement is now a separate Branch. Wildlife research is predominantly waterfowl and seabird population ecology and toxicology, with a few scientists addressing reptiles, polar bears, and caribou. Enforcement perform compliance promotion, patrols, and investigations under powers from the Migratory Birds Convention Act, Canada Wildlife Act, Species at Risk Act, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act.

Wildlife management in Canada is constitutionally a shared responsibility among the federal and provincial / territorial and aboriginal governments. Canadian Wildlife Service works closely with these governments on a wide variety of wildlife issues. The Service engages in cooperative management projects with a number of international and domestic non government agencies and funds a significant number of management and research or monitoring initiatives.

Canadian Wildlife Service in 2017 had approximately 550 staff, with offices in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. The organization has a regional structure, with a Pacific Region (British Columbia), Northern Region (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), Prairie Region (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba), Ontario Region, Quebec Region, and Atlantic Region (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland and Labrador). Headquarters in Ottawa/Gatineau has the largest number of staff.

David Grimes (meteorologist)

David Grimes is a career meteorologist who studied mathematics and nuclear and quantum physics at Brock University in Ontario, Canada. He has been assistant deputy minister of Environment and Climate Change Canada in charge of the Meteorological Service of Canada since July 2006. In 2011, he was elected president of the World Meteorological Organization by its 189 members, succeeding Alexander Bedritskiy of Russia.

Dibromotetrafluoroethane

1,2-Dibromotetrafluoroethane (C2Br2F4) is a haloalkane. It is also known under codenames R-114B2 and Halon 2402. It is a colorless liquid with a boiling point of 47.2 °C. R-114B2 is occasionally used in fire suppression systems. It is highly volatile, passes through soil to air, and allows detection in the parts-per-quadrillion range.Since July 1, 1994, the Montreal Protocol required all nations or parties that are a party to it to eliminate the production, consumption, and trade of ozone-depleting substance (ODS). Dibromotetrafluoroethane's high ozone-depleting potential (ODP) caused it to be identified as an ODS. Dibromotetrafluoroethane has been prohibited in Canada since July 1, 1994, "except for essential uses or for use as analytical standards".In November 8, 2008, an accident aboard Russian submarine K-152 Nerpa involving the unintentional activation of a fire suppressant system loaded with R-114B2, resulted in the death of 20 people.

Dr. Neil Trivett Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory

The Dr. Neil Trivett Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory is an atmospheric baseline station operated by Environment and Climate Change Canada located at Alert, Nunavut, on the north-eastern tip of Ellesmere Island, about 800 km south of the geographic north pole.

The observatory is the northernmost of 31 Global Stations in an international network coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) under its Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program to study the long-term effects of pollution on the atmospheric environment. Among these 31 stations, Alert is one of three greenhouse gas "intercomparison supersites", along with Mauna Loa in Hawaii and Cape Grim in Australia, which, due to their locations far from industrial activity, provide the international scientific community with a baseline record of atmospheric chemistry.

Eastern Habitat Joint Venture

The Eastern Habitat Joint Venture is a partnership established on 15 November 1989 between governments, organizations, and conservation groups in eastern Canada to protect and enhance wetlands important to migratory birds, under the auspices of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan.

The founding partners were the six easternmost provinces (Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island), the Canadian Wildlife Service (a branch of Environment and Climate Change Canada), Ducks Unlimited Canada, and Wildlife Habitat Canada. As a signatory, each province was expected to develop and implement its own program.

Foreign direct investment and the environment

Foreign direct investment and the environment involves international businesses and their interactions and impact on the natural world. These interactions can be observed through the stringency applied to foreign direct investment policy and the responsiveness of capital or labor incentive for investment inflows. The laws and regulations created by a country that focuses on environmental regimes can directly impact the levels of competition involving foreign direct investment they are exposed to. Fiscal and financial incentives stemming from ecological motivators, such as carbon taxation, are methods used based on the desired outcome within a country in order to attract foreign direct investment.External funding sources that come from foreign direct investment, stimulates the increase of innovative ideas surrounding technological advances while it also holds the potential to decrease unemployment. When financial and fiscal motives are combined with environmental consciousness, the promotion of green and sustainable innovations increases. Such environmental consciousness can result in the decrease of industrial pollutants, which contributes to infant mortality and other health issues. Policies created that attract innovative and environmentally conscious technological advancements have been stated as a great way to encourage increase in the abundance of environmentally friendly foreign direct investments. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development promotes policies that can have positive social and economic impacts.Foreign direct investment does have the potential in initiating negative effects on countries as well. Foreign direct investments allow for the chance of compromise and collaboration between policies of negotiating countries which brings the opportunity for new perspectives on green innovation. However, intensifying regulations around production costs, such as environmental effect, can decrease the attraction of foreign direct investment to that country. Businesses or governments may wish to negotiate with a country with less complicated policies therefore decreasing a country's competitive edge on the international market.

Humidex

The humidex (short for humidity index) is an index number used by Canadian meteorologists to describe how hot the weather feels to the average person, by combining the effect of heat and humidity. The term humidex is a Canadian innovation coined in 1965. The humidex is a dimensionless quantity based on the dew point.

Range of humidex: Scale of comfort:

20 to 29: Little to no discomfort

30 to 39: Some discomfort

40 to 45: Great discomfort; avoid exertion

Above 45: Dangerous; heat stroke quite possible

Ian Stirling (biologist)

Ian Grote Stirling (born September 26, 1941) is a research scientist emeritus with Environment and Climate Change Canada and an adjunct professor in the University of Alberta Department of Biological Sciences. His research has focused mostly on Arctic and Antarctic zoology and ecology, and he is one of the world's top authorities on polar bears. Stirling has written five books and more than 150 articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. He has written and spoken extensively about the danger posed to polar bears by global warming.

January–February 2019 North American cold wave

In late January 2019, a severe cold wave caused by a weakened jet stream around the Arctic polar vortex hit the Midwestern United States and Eastern Canada, killing at least 22 people. It came after a winter storm brought up to 13 inches (33 cm) of snow in some regions from January 27–29, and brought the coldest temperatures in over 20 years to most locations in the affected region, including some all-time record lows. In early February, the polar vortex moved west, and became locked over Western Canada and the Western United States. As a result, February 2019 was among the coldest and snowiest on record in these regions. In early March, the cold once again shifted east, breaking records in many areas. In mid-March, the cold wave finally retreated, but combined with above-average temperatures, precipitation, and a deep snowpack, widespread flooding ensued in the Central US.

Kathy Martin (scientist)

Kathy Martin is a global authority on arctic and alpine grouse and ptarmigan, and on tree cavity-nesting vertebrates. She is a Professor in the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia and a senior research scientist with Environment and Climate Change Canada.Martin, who trained in ornithology, is currently President (April 2018-August 2020) of the American Ornithological Society. Over three decades, Martin has been a leader in Canada's Conservation Biology research and higher education community, serving on national and international government and society committees. Her leadership activities include representing Canada since 1996 on the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN Species Survival Commission for grouse (galliformes). In this capacity she organizes conferences, and both leads and contributes to the writing of syntheses and policy documents. During the 2000s, she served on the council of the American Ornithologists Union (2003–07), chaired the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Ecology and Evolution Grant Committee.At the national level, Martin participated in early discussions around the formation of the Canadian Society for Ecology and Evolution in 2006, and was a Founding Member of the organization, later served on its Governing Council (2008-11). In 1996, Martin and her colleagues received The Wildlife Society's Wildlife Publication award, for their paper "Impact of food and predation on the snowshoe hare cycle." In 1992, when she was an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto, Scarborough College, Martin developed and taught one of the first courses in Conservation Biology in Canada: C65S.

As of 2017, Martin continues to direct two ongoing, long-term research programs that she founded in Canada. The first, on the life history variation and ecology of alpine birds, began in 1980 and has expanded to sites in Australia, while the second, examining the structure and function of cavity-nesting vertebrate communities, commenced in 1995 and expanded to other sites across North and South America.Martin has published over 200 papers and book chapters, and has supervised international graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, who have gone on to drive wildlife conservation policy and management in their countries.

List of Migratory Bird Sanctuaries of Canada

Migratory Bird Sanctuaries are created in Canada under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994. They are administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service. The first sanctuary in North America, Last Mountain Lake Bird Sanctuary, was created by federal order-in-council in 1887.

List of tallest structures in Canada

This is a list of the tallest one hundred structures in Canada, measured from the base to the tallest point. Which may be the roof top, antenna, spire, mast or as in the case with smokestacks and bridges, the highest structural point.

This list includes buildings, towers, transmission towers, chimneys, bridges and oil platforms.

There is a separate list for guyed masts since their heights are not fully verifiable and may be inaccurate by several metres; i.e. - several are measured to the height of the tallest transmitter on the mast, but this is not necessarily the tallest point of the tower.

The pinnacle height and roof height numbers are sourced from Skyscraperpage and/or the CTBUH. Where there is a conflict in the figures both heights are listed.

Meteorological Service of Canada

The Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC; French: Service météorologique du Canada – SMC) is a division of Environment and Climate Change Canada, which primarily provides public meteorological information and weather forecasts and warnings of severe weather and other environmental hazards. MSC also monitors and conducts research on climate, atmospheric science, air quality, water quantities, ice and other environmental issues. MSC operates a network of radio stations throughout Canada transmitting weather and environmental information 24 hours per day called Weatheradio Canada.

There are currently five public weather forecast offices:

Pacific and Yukon Storm Prediction Centre in Vancouver, British Columbia

Prairie and Arctic Storm Prediction Centre, split between an office in Edmonton, Alberta and Winnipeg, Manitoba

Ontario Storm Prediction Centre (Downsview, Ontario)

Quebec Storm Prediction Centre (Montreal, Quebec)

Atlantic Storm Prediction Centre (Dartmouth, Nova Scotia). The Atlantic Storm Prediction Centre also houses the Canadian Hurricane Centre plus manages the Newfoundland and Labrador Weather Office Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador.There are two centres dedicated to aviation weather forecasting: Canadian Meteorological Aviation Centre-East, located in Montreal, and Canadian Meteorological Aviation Centre-West, located in Edmonton.

MSC also operates the Canadian Meteorological Centre, which is tasked with providing forecast guidance, and the Canadian Ice Service, which provides ice observations and forecasts for mariners. In support of Canada's military, some MSC meteorologists are seconded to the Department of National Defence (Canada).

The Meteorological Service of Canada was ISO9001:2000 Certified for their Hydrometric Monitoring Program.

Minister of Environment and Climate Change (Canada)

The Minister of Environment and Climate Change (French: Ministre de l'Environnement et du Changement Climatique) is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for overseeing the federal government's environment department, Environment and Climate Change Canada. The Minister is also responsible for overseeing Parks Canada and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency.

Noted environment ministers of the past have included Jack Davis, Roméo LeBlanc, Jean Charest, Stéphane Dion, Sheila Copps, David Anderson and Peter Kent.

Known as the Minister of the Environment until 2015, the position was given its current name in 2015 upon the creation of the 29th Canadian Ministry.

National Pollutant Release Inventory

The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI), established in 1992, is the national Pollutant Release and Transfer Register of Canada. This list of pollutants contains releases from a facility to the air, water, and land along with disposals at, or from a facility. Reported information is used in the creation of pollution management plans and to inform Canadians about their environment.

Facilities which meet reporting requirements are required to report to the NPRI under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999). Over 300 substances are listed on the NPRI, and over 8,000 facilities annually report information on their pollutant releases and transfers to Environment and Climate Change Canada.

NPRI data is available through an on-line Query search, downloadable Microsoft Access (mdb) format datasets, and downloadable map layers for use with Google Earth (which were the first Google Earth map layers to be published by the Government of Canada).

Severe weather terminology (Canada)

This article describes severe weather terminology used by the Meteorological Service of Canada, a branch within Environment and Climate Change Canada. The article primarily describes various weather warnings, and their criteria. Related weather scales and general weather terms are also addressed in this article. Some terms are specific to certain regions.

Triangle Island

Triangle Island is a small island, approximately 119 hectares (290 acres) in area, located off the northwestern tip of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. It is situated approximately 45 kilometres (28 miles) from Vancouver Island and 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) from Sartine Island, Triangle Island's nearest neighbour in the Scott Islands group. The island is notable for being the location of British Columbia's largest seabird colony, hosting such species as the Cassin's auklet and the tufted puffin. The Cassin's auklet population is the world's largest. The island is administratively a part of the Scott Islands Marine Wildlife Area and is more specifically home to the Anne Vallée Triangle Island Ecological Reserve, named after a researcher who frequented the island and died there in an accident in 1982. Visiting the island requires permits from the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, and it is usually frequented only by researchers. It is the westernmost and most remote island in British Columbia save for Haida Gwaii off the northern British Columbia coast. The island takes its name from its triangular appearance on sea navigation charts.A lighthouse existed on the island from 1909 to 1919 but was abandoned due to severe fog, regular hurricane-force winds, and conditions utterly repellent to human habitation. The island is otherwise uninhabited, aside from a small cabin for research use. In 2004, the lantern room from the lighthouse was moved to the Sooke Region Museum, though the base remains on Triangle Island.The island was the site of ancient First Nations hunting and egg-collecting activities.Access to the island is tightly regulated and requires a permit. Environment and Climate Change Canada is proposing all of the Scott Islands and its adjacent waters be designated as marine national wildlife area under Canada Wildlife Act.

Water Survey of Canada

The Water Survey of Canada (WSC) is a scientific branch of Environment and Climate Change Canada, responsible for monitoring the nation's freshwater resources.

The WSC maintains Canada's hydrometric data network, widely referred to as HYDAT. Previously over 2,500 hydrometric gauges were maintained, however, currently less than 2000 stations provide active data. Stations or gauges record lake and river water levels that are used to compute river flow data.

Datasets developed by the WSC are used for water-resource management purposes in various policy programs by federal, provincial and municipal governments. This information is also available free to the public by searching Archived Hydrometric Data. These datasets also contribute to ongoing efforts to measure local, regional and national impacts from climate change.

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