Entrepôt

An entrepôt (English: /ˈɑːntrəpoʊ/ French: [ɑ̃tʁəpo]) or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded, usually to be exported again. These commercial cities spawned due to the growth of long-distance trade.[1] Such centers played a critical role in trade during the days of wind-powered shipping. In modern times customs areas have largely made such entrepôts obsolete, but the term is still used to refer to duty-free ports with a high volume of re-export trade. This type of port should not be confused with the modern French usage of the word entrepôt, meaning warehouse.

Entrepot dok Kadijksplein Amsterdam
The entrepot dock of Amsterdam completed in 1830 as a warehouse to store goods "entrepot", or tax-free in transit

History

Entrepôt were especially relevant in the Middle Ages and in the early modern period, when mercantile shipping flourished between Europe and its colonial empires in the Americas and Asia. For example, spice trade in Europe, coupled with the long trade routes necessary for their delivery, led to a much higher market price than the original buying price. Traders often did not want to travel the whole route, and thus used the entrepôts on the way to sell their goods. This could conceivably lead to more attractive profits for those who were suited to travel the entire route. The 17th-century Amsterdam Entrepôt provides an example of such an early-modern entrepôt.[2]

Examples

Examples of specific entrepôts at various periods include:

Africa

Asia

Americas

Europe

Oceania

See also

References

  1. ^ Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds TOgether Worlds Apart. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-393-92207-3.
  2. ^ Organized Markets in Pre-industrial Europe (draft chapter of The Origins of Western Economic Success: Commerce, Finance, and Government in Pre-Industrial Europe) – Kohn, Meir, Department of Economics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, 12 July 2003, p. 3
10th arrondissement of Paris

The 10th arrondissement of Paris (Xe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as dixième ("10th arrondissement of Paris" = "dixième arrondissement de Paris").

The arrondissement, called Entrepôt (warehouse), is situated on the right bank of the River Seine. The arrondissement contains two of Paris's six main railway stations: the Gare du Nord and the Gare de l'Est. Built during the 19th century, these two termini are among the busiest in Europe.

The 10th arrondissement also contains a large portion of the Canal Saint-Martin, linking the northeastern parts of Paris with the River Seine.

Amsterdam Entrepôt

The Amsterdam Entrepôt is the shorthand term that English-language economic historiographers use to refer to the trade system that helped the Dutch Republic achieve primacy in world trade during the 17th century. (The Dutch prefer the term stapelmarkt, which has less currency in the English language.)

Araouane

Araouane or Arawan is a small village in the Malian part of the vast Sahara Desert, lying 243 km (151 mi) north of Timbuktu on the caravan route to the salt-mining centre of Taoudenni. The village once served as an entrepôt in the trans-Saharan trade.

Arts Lab

The Arts Lab was an alternative arts centre, founded in 1967 by Jim Haynes at 182 Drury Lane, London. Although only active for two years, it was influential in inspiring many similar centres in the UK, continental Europe and Australia, including the expanded Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA) in London, the Milky Way/Melkweg in Amsterdam (where Jack Henry Moore was one of the founders), the Entrepôt in Paris and the Yellow House Artist Collective founded by Martin Sharp in Sydney.

British occupation of Manila

The British occupation of Manila was an episode in Philippine colonial history when the British Empire occupied the Spanish colonial capital of Manila and the nearby principal port of Cavite for twenty months between 1762 and 1764.

The British wanted to use Manila as an entrepôt for trade in the region, particularly with China. In addition, a ransom for the city was delivered to the British on the basis that the city would not continue to be sacked or burnt. The resistance from the provisional Spanish colonial government established by members of the Royal Audience of Manila led by Lieutenant Governor Simón de Anda y Salazar and their Filipino allies prevented British forces from taking control of territory beyond the neighbouring towns of Manila and Cavite. The British occupation ended as part of the peace settlement of the Seven Years' War.

Cap-Vert

Cap-Vert or the Cape Verde Peninsula is a peninsula in Senegal, and the westernmost point of the continent of Africa and of the Old World mainland. Portuguese explorers called it Cabo Verde or "Green Cape", but it is not to be confused with the Cape Verde islands, which are some 560 kilometres (350 mi) further west. Dakar, the capital of Senegal, is located near the southern tip.

Cap-Vert is a rocky promontory extending west from the main sandy areas of Senegal. Cap-Vert has an excellent harbor, facing Gorée Island.

Formed by a combination of volcanic offshore islands and a land bridge produced by coastal currents, it projects into the Atlantic Ocean, bending back to the southeast at its tip. Exposure to southwesterly winds contributes to Cape Verde's seasonal verdant appearance, in contrast to the undulating yellow dunes to the north.

The peninsula is shaped like a triangle (about 9 miles (14 km) per side), with the base of the triangle roughly along the north and its apex on the south, near Dakar. Near Pointe des Almadies, the north-western tip of the cape, lies Dakar's international airport, famous as a transatlantic ferrying point during World War II. Twin volcanic cones, the Deux Mamelles ("Two Teats"), dominate the landscape along the coast northwest of Dakar. The peninsula embraces a bay and a natural harbour in the southwest.

The indigenous inhabitants of the peninsula, the Lebou, lived as fishermen and farmers. Since about 1444, when the Portuguese first sighted the cape, it has been an entrepôt for African-European trade. The French later established the city of Dakar on the cape in 1857.

Chiang Saen District

Chiang Saen (Thai: เชียงแสน, pronounced [t͡ɕʰīa̯ŋ sɛ̌ːn]) is a district (amphoe) in the northern part of Chiang Rai Province, northern Thailand. Chiang Saen is an important entrepôt for Thailand's trade with other countries on the upper part of Mekong River.The Chiang Saen District is to be the site of the world's tallest flagpole when it is completed in 2020. The pole, to be 189 m tall, the equivalent of a 63-storey building, will take about a year to complete at a cost of from 250 million baht to two billion baht. The originator of the project, Mr Trin Nilprasert, aims to promote "Thainess" and Thai identity. The flagpole is to be set in a park complete with a museum and a learning centre. It will fly a Thai flag measuring 60 metres wide by 40 metres and will be visible from points 20 kilometres distant.

Châtillon-sur-Marne

Châtillon-sur-Marne is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.

It lies in the valley of the Marne River, surrounded by the Parc Naturel de la Montagne de Reims. It lies in the historic province of Champagne. The village stands above sloping vineyards and fields: Épernay, the principal entrepôt of the Champagne wines, is within walking distance.

Dilmun

Dilmun, or Telmun, (Arabic: دلمون, Sumerian: 𒆠, ni.tukki = DILMUNki;) was an ancient Semitic-speaking polity in Arabia mentioned from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.

Based on textual evidence, it was located in the Persian Gulf, on a trade route between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilisation, close to the sea and to artesian springs. A number of scholars have suggested that Dilmun originally designated the eastern province of Saudi Arabia, notably linked with the major Dilmunite settlements of Umm an-Nussi and Umm ar-Ramadh in the interior and Tarout on the coast. Dilmun encompassed Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the eastern portion regions of Saudi Arabia. This area is certainly what is meant by references to "Dilmun" among the lands conquered by King Sargon of Akkad and his descendants.The great commercial and trading connections between Mesopotamia and Dilmun were strong and profound to the point where Dilmun was a central figure to the Sumerian creation myth. Dilmun was described in the saga of Enki and Ninhursag as pre-existing in paradisiacal state, where predators don't kill, pain and diseases are absent, and people don't get old.Dilmun was an important trading centre. At the height of its power, it controlled the Persian Gulf trading routes. According to some modern theories, the Sumerians regarded Dilmun as a sacred place, but that is never stated in any known ancient text. Dilmun was mentioned by the Mesopotamians as a trade partner, a source of copper, and a trade entrepôt.

The Sumerian tale of the garden paradise of Dilmun may have been an inspiration for the Garden of Eden story.

Emirate of Granada

The Emirate of Granada (Arabic: إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ‎, trans. Imārat Ġarnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Spanish: Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar. After Prince Idris left Iberia to take the Almohad Caliphate leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids. The Nasrid emirs were responsible for building the Alhambra palace complex as it is known today. By 1250, the Emirate was the last part of the Iberian peninsula held by the Muslims. It roughly corresponded to the modern Spanish provinces of Granada, Almería, and Málaga. Andalusian Arabic was the mother tongue of the majority of the population. For two more centuries, the region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity.

It was gradually conquered by the Crown of Castile and dissolved with the 1491 Treaty of Granada, ending the Granada War. In January 1492 Muhammad XII of Granada, the last Nasrid ruler of Granada, formally relinquished his sovereignty and surrendered his territories to Castile, eventually moving to Morocco in exile.

Essouk

Essouk (Arabic: السوق) is a commune and small village in the Kidal Region of Mali. The village lies 45 km northwest of Kidal in the Adrar des Ifoghas massif. The ruins of the medieval town of Tadmakka (Arabic: تادمكة) lie 2 km northeast of the present village. Between the 9th and the 15th centuries Tadmekka served as an important entrepôt for the trans-Saharan trade.

The commune is very large in area but sparsely populated. The 2009 census recorded only 2,383 people in an area of approximately 25,000 km2. The village of Essouk has only a small permanent population. The rainfall is too low for rain-fed agriculture and almost all the population in the area are nomadic pastoralists.

Factory (trading post)

"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; Portuguese: feitoria, Dutch: factorij, French: factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point. At a factory, local inhabitants could interact with foreign merchants, often known as factors. First established in Europe, factories eventually spread to many other parts of the world.

The factories established by European states in Africa, Asia and the Americas from the 15th century onward also tended to be official political dependencies of those states. These have been seen, in retrospect, as the precursors of colonial expansion.

A factory could serve simultaneously as market, warehouse, customs, defense and support to navigation exploration, headquarters or de facto government of local communities.

In North America, Europeans began to interact with pre-existing native American trade systems during the 16th century. Colonists created factories, known as trading posts, at which furs could be traded, in Native American territory.

List of companies of Singapore

Singapore is a global city and sovereign state in Southeast Asia and the world's only island city-state. Singapore has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan, Singapore is one of the original Four Asian Tigers, but has surpassed its peers in terms of GDP per capita. Between 1965 and 1995, growth rates averaged around 6 per cent per annum, transforming the living standards of the population. The Singaporean economy is known as one of the freest, most innovative, most competitive, most dynamic and most business-friendly. The 2015 Index of Economic Freedom ranks Singapore as the second-freest economy in the world and the Ease of Doing Business Index has also ranked Singapore as the easiest place to do business for the past decade. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Singapore is consistently ranked as one of the least corrupt countries in the world, along with New Zealand and the Scandinavian countries.

To start a business in Singapore, business owners have to register the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA). ACRA is the national regulator and company registrar of business entities, accountants and service providers in Singapore.

Manufacturing in Hong Kong

Manufacturing in Hong Kong consists of mainly light and labour-intensive industries. The manufacturing industry started in the 19th century after the Taiping Rebellion and continues today, although it has largely been replaced by service industries, particularly the finance and real estate industries.

As an entrepôt, Hong Kong had limited manufacturing development until the Second World War, when the development of manufacturing industries was discontinued due to the Japanese occupation. The manufacturing industry of the city revived after the Second World War. The 1950s saw the city's transition from an entrepôt to a manufacturing-based economy. The city's manufacturing industry grew rapidly over the next decade. The industries were diversified in different aspects in the 1970s. One of the most notable reasons of diversification was the oil crisis.

Mottama

Mottama (Burmese: မုတ္တမမြို့, pronounced [moʊʔtəma̰ mjo̰]; Mon: မုဟ်တၟအ်, [mùh mɔʔ]; formerly Martaban) is a small town in the Thaton district of Mon State, Myanmar. Located on the west bank of the Thanlwin river (Salween), on the opposite side of Mawlamyaing, Mottama was the capital of the Martaban Kingdom (later known as Hanthawaddy Kingdom) from 1287 to 1364, and an entrepôt of international repute until the mid-16th century.

Mottama was the terminus of the road and the railroad from Yangon, where the Thanlwin empties into the Gulf of Martaban in the Andaman Sea. Today Mawlamyaing Bridge has laid down a link from Mottama to Mawlamyaing and other city in the south Ye.

Panama as a tax haven

The Republic of Panama is one of the oldest and best-known tax havens in the Caribbean, as well as one of the most established in the region. Panama has had a reputation for tax avoidance since the early 20th century, and Panama has been cited repeatedly in recent years as a jurisdiction which does not cooperate with international tax transparency initiatives.

Panama's offshore sector is intimately tied to the Panama canal, which has made it a gateway and entrepôt for international trade. There are strong similarities between Panama and other leading tax havens like Hong Kong, Singapore and Dubai. On paper at least, Panama has the largest shipping fleet in the world, greater than those of the US and China combined, according to the Tax Justice Network.

Penang

Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait. It has two parts: Penang Island, where the capital city, George Town, is located, and Seberang Perai (formerly Province Wellesley) on the Malay Peninsula. The second smallest Malaysian state by land mass, Penang is bordered by Kedah to the north and the east, and Perak to the south. Currently, Penang is home to Southeast Asia's Longest bridge connecting the island to mainland. Penang's population stood at nearly 1.767 million as of 2018, while its population density rose to 1,684/km2 (4,360/sq mi). It has among the nation's highest population densities and is one of the country's most urbanised states. George Town, Malaysia's second largest city, is also home to a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Penang's modern history began in 1786, upon the establishment of George Town by Francis Light. Penang formed part of the Straits Settlements in 1826, which became a British crown colony in 1867. Direct British rule was only briefly interrupted during World War II, when Japan occupied Penang; the British retook Penang in 1945. Penang was later merged with the Federation of Malaya (now Malaysia), which gained independence from the British in 1957. Following the decline of its entrepôt trade towards the 1970s, Penang's economy was reoriented towards hi-tech manufacturing.Known as the Silicon Valley of the East for its industries, Penang is one of Malaysia's most vital economic powerhouses. Penang has the highest Gross Domestic Product per capita among all Malaysian states and is considered a high-income economy. In addition, Penang recorded the nation's second highest Human Development Index, after Kuala Lumpur. Correspondingly, the state has a relatively well-educated population, with a youth literacy rate of 99.5% as of 2014.Its heterogeneous population is highly diverse in ethnicity, culture, language and religion. Aside from the three main races, the Chinese, Malays and Indians, Penang is home to significant Eurasian, Siamese and expatriate communities. A resident of Penang is colloquially known as a Penangite or Penang Lâng (in Penang Hokkien).

Si Racha District

Si Racha (Thai: ศรีราชา, pronounced [sǐː rāː.t͡ɕʰāː]) is a district in Chonburi Province, Thailand. Its center is the town of Si Racha, on the Gulf of Thailand, about halfway between Chonburi and Pattaya.

Si Racha is in an industrial zone consisting of manufacturing and shipping industries, supported by the port of Laem Chabang, 20th largest in the world. With Chonburi to the north and Pattaya, Bang Lamung township, Laem Chabang to the south, it forms the bulk of the economic zone of the eastern seaboard of Thailand, a fast-growing area that is second to only greater Bangkok in population and wealth. Due to its infrastructure, Laem Chabang and the eastern seaboard in general, is the nation's leading entrepôt.The name "Si Racha" is from Sanskrit Sri Raja via Pali.

Sijilmasa

Sijilmasa (Arabic: سجلماسة‎; also transliterated Sijilmassa, Sidjilmasa, Sidjilmassa and Sigilmassa) was a medieval Moroccan city and trade entrepôt at the northern edge of the Sahara in Morocco. The ruins of the town extend for five miles along the River Ziz in the Tafilalt oasis near the town of Rissani. The town's history was marked by several successive invasions by Berber dynasties. Up until the 14th century, as the northern terminus for the western trans-Sahara trade route, it was one of the most important trade centres in the Maghreb during the Middle Ages.

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