The Entente Cordiale (French pronunciation: [ɑ̃tɑ̃t kɔʁdjal]) was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the French Republic which saw a significant improvement in Anglo-French relations. Beyond the immediate concerns of colonial expansion addressed by the agreement, the signing of the Entente Cordiale marked the end of almost a thousand years of intermittent conflict between the two states and their predecessors, and replaced the modus vivendi that had existed since the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 with a more formal agreement. The Entente Cordiale was the culmination of the policy of Théophile Delcassé, France's foreign minister from 1898, who believed that a Franco-British understanding would give France some security against any German system of alliances in Western Europe. Credit for the success of the negotiation belongs chiefly to Paul Cambon, France's ambassador in London, and to the British foreign secretary Lord Lansdowne.
The most important feature of the agreement was that it granted freedom of action to the UK in Egypt and to France in Morocco (with the proviso that France's eventual dispositions for Morocco include reasonable allowance for Spain's interests there). At the same time, the UK ceded the Los Islands (off French Guinea) to France, defined the frontier of Nigeria in France's favour, and agreed to French control of the upper Gambia valley, while France renounced its exclusive right to certain fisheries off Newfoundland. Furthermore, French and British zones of influence in the not to be colonialized Siam (Thailand) were outlined, with the eastern territories, adjacent to French Indochina, becoming a French zone, and the western, adjacent to Burmese Tenasserim, a British zone. Arrangements were also made to allay the rivalry between British and French colonists in the New Hebrides.
By the Entente Cordiale both powers reduced the virtual isolation into which they had withdrawn—France involuntarily, the UK complacently—while they had eyed each other over African affairs. The UK had no ally but Japan (1902), of little use if war should break out in European waters; France had none but Russia, soon to be discredited in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05. The agreement was upsetting to Germany, whose policy had long been to rely on Franco-British antagonism. A German attempt to check the French in Morocco in 1905 (the Tangier Incident, or First Moroccan Crisis), and thus upset the Entente, served only to strengthen it. Military discussions between the French and the British general staffs were soon initiated. Franco-British solidarity was confirmed at the Algeciras Conference (1906) and reconfirmed in the Second Moroccan Crisis (1911).
|Signed||8 April 1904|
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
|Foreign alliances of France|
The French term Entente Cordiale (usually translated as "cordial agreement" or "cordial understanding") comes from a letter written in 1843 by the British Foreign Secretary Lord Aberdeen to his brother, in which he mentioned "a cordial, good understanding" between the two nations. This was translated into French as Entente Cordiale and used by Louis Philippe I in the French Chamber that year. When used today the term almost always denotes the second Entente Cordiale, that is to say, the written and partly secret agreement signed in London between the two powers on 8 April 1904.
The agreement was a change for both countries. France had been isolated from the other European powers, mostly as a result of the efforts of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to estrange France from potential allies, as it was thought that France might seek revenge for its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. The United Kingdom had maintained a policy of "splendid isolation" on the European continent for nearly a century, intervening in continental affairs only when it was considered necessary to protect British interests and to maintain the continental balance of power. The situation for both countries changed in the last decade of the 19th century.
The change had its roots in a British loss of confidence after the Second Boer War, and a growing fear that the country was isolated in the face of a potentially aggressive Germany. As early as March 1881, the French statesman Léon Gambetta and the then-Prince of Wales, Albert Edward, met at the Château de Breteuil to discuss an alliance against Germany. The Scramble for Africa prevented the countries from coming to terms, however. On the initiative of Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain, there were three rounds of British-German talks between 1898 and 1901. The UK decided not to join the Triple Alliance, broke off the negotiations with Berlin, and revived the idea of a British-French alliance.
When the Russo-Japanese War was about to erupt, France and the UK found themselves on the verge of being dragged into the conflict on the side of their respective allies. France was firmly allied with Russia, while the UK had recently signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. In order to avoid going to war, both powers "shucked off their ancient rivalry" and resolved their differences in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Pacific. Toward this end, French foreign minister Théophile Delcassé, and Lord Lansdowne, the British Foreign Secretary, negotiated an agreement on colonial matters, and Lord Lansdowne and Paul Cambon, the French Ambassador to the UK, signed the resulting convention on 8 April 1904.
The Entente was composed of three documents:
It is unclear what exactly the Entente meant to the British Foreign Office. For example, in early 1911 following French press reports contrasting the virility of the Triple Alliance with the moribund state of the Entente Eyre Crowe minuted: "The fundamental fact of course is that the Entente is not an alliance. For purposes of ultimate emergencies it may be found to have no substance at all. For the Entente is nothing more than a frame of mind, a view of general policy which is shared by the governments of two countries, but which may be, or become, so vague as to lose all content."
The Triple Alliance collapsed when Italy remained neutral at the outbreak of World War I, while the Entente endured.
The hundredth anniversary of the Entente cordiale in 2004 was marked by a number of official and unofficial events, including a state visit to France in April by Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh, and a return visit by President Chirac in November. British troops (the band of the Royal Marines, the Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment, Grenadier Guards and King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery) also led the Bastille Day parade in Paris for the first time, with the Red Arrows flying overhead.
At both London Waterloo International and Paris Gare du Nord, the flags of the United Kingdom and of France were depicted connected with the words 'Entente cordiale' superimposed on posters. Some French political leaders had complained about the name "Waterloo" for the destination of trains from Paris because the British terminus is named after the 1815 battle where a British-led alliance defeated Napoleon's army, and in 1998 French politician Florent Longuepée wrote to British Prime Minister Tony Blair demanding, without success, that the name be changed. In November 2007 St Pancras International became the new London terminus for the Eurostar service.
The name "Entente Cordiale" is used for the Entente Cordiale Scholarship scheme, a selective Franco-British scholarship scheme which was announced on 30 October 1995 by British Prime Minister John Major and French President Jacques Chirac at an Anglo-French summit in London. It provides funding for British and French students to study for one academic year on the other side of the Channel. The scheme is administered by the French embassy in London for British students, and by the British Council France and the UK embassy in Paris for French students. Funding is provided by the private sector and foundations. The scheme aims to foster mutual understanding and to promote exchanges between the British and French leaders of tomorrow. The programme was initiated by Sir Christopher Mallaby, British ambassador to France between 1993 and 1996.
The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from 16 January to 7 April. The purpose of the conference was to find a solution to the First Moroccan Crisis of 1905 between France and Germany, which arose as Germany responded to France's effort to establish a protectorate over the independent state of Morocco. Germany was not trying to stop French expansion – its goal was to enhance its own international prestige, and it failed badly. The result was a much closer relationship between France and Britain, thus strengthening the Entente Cordiale, with both London and Paris increasingly suspicious and distrustful of Berlin. An even more momentous consequence was the heightened sense of frustration and readiness for war in Germany. It spread beyond the political elite to much of the press and most of the political parties except for the Liberals and Social Democrats on the left. The Pan-German element grew in strength and denounced their government's retreat as treason, stepping up chauvinistic support for war.Cause célèbre
A cause célèbre (, , French: [koz selɛbʁ], famous case; plural causes célèbres, pronounced like singular) is an issue or incident arousing widespread controversy, outside campaigning, and heated public debate. The term continues in the media in all senses. It is sometimes used positively for celebrated legal cases for their precedent value (each locus classicus or "case-in-point") and more often negatively for infamous ones, whether for scale, outrage, scandal or conspiracy theories.The term is a French phrase in common usage in English. Since it has been fully adopted into English and is included unitalicized in English dictionaries, it is not normally italicized despite its French origin.
In French, cause means, here, a legal case, and célèbre means "famous". The phrase originated with the 37-volume Nouvelles Causes Célèbres, published in 1763, which was a collection of reports of well-known French court decisions from the 17th and 18th centuries.
While English speakers had used the phrase for many years, it came into much more common usage after the 1894 conviction of Alfred Dreyfus for espionage during the cementing of a period of deep cultural ties with a political tie between England and France, the Entente Cordiale. Both attracted worldwide interest and the period of closeness or rapprochement officially broadened the English language.
It has been noted that the public attention given to a particular case or event can obscure the facts rather than clarify them. As one observer states, "The true story of many a cause célèbre is never made manifest in the evidence given or in the advocates' orations, but might be recovered from these old papers when the dust of ages has rendered them immune from scandal".Celia Graham
Celia Graham (born in 1976) is a musical theatre actor. She began her career at the age of 11 performing in Scottish Opera's Street Scene by Kurt Weill, at Glasgow's Theatre Royal.She is mostly known for playing Christine Daaé in The Phantom of the Opera in 2008 with John Owen-Jones and she took over the role from Sierra Boggess in Love Never Dies in 2011 in London's West End. Celia Graham has done recording for films and television programmes. Celia Graham was the last Christine Daaé in Love Never Dies.
She has done recording for Easy Virtue and Johnny English Reborn and Young Victoria.
As part of the celebrations in honour of the centenary of the Entente Cordiale, Celia Graham took part in a performance of Les Misérables at Windsor Castle with Ramin Karimloo and Michael Ball in the presence of Queen Elizabeth II and French President Jacques Chirac.Celia has toured England with Ramin Karimloo where they stopped at main cities such as Southampton and Birmingham where they sang songs from Les Misérables, The Phantom of the Opera, Miss Saigon, South Pacific and Love Never Dies where it ended at the Southampton Mayflower Theatre.
Celia recently toured the U.K. And Europe playing Jellylorum in "Cats".Entente (type of alliance)
Entente – a type of treaty or military alliance where the signatories promise to consult each other or to cooperate with each other in case of a crisis or military action. An example of an entente is Entente Cordiale between France and United Kingdom.It has been found that signatories of ententes are less likely to assist each other during wars than signatories of defense pacts, but more likely than signatories of non-aggression pacts. It has also been found that great powers are less likely to start wars against their partners in ententes than against their partners in non-aggression and defensive pacts, or states with no alliance with them.Entente Cordiale (opera)
Entente Cordiale is a comic opera in one act by Ethel Smyth with an English-language libretto by Smyth, who describes the work as "a post-war comedy in one act (founded on fact)". It was first performed by students at the Royal College of Music in London on 22 July 1925.Entente Cordiale Scholarships
The Entente Cordiale Scholarship scheme (Bourses Entente Cordiale) is a selective Franco-British scholarship scheme. It provides funding for British and French students to study for one academic year on the other side of the Channel. The scheme is administered by the French embassy in London for British students, and by the British Council France and the UK embassy in Paris for French students. Funding is provided by the private sector and foundations.
The scheme aims to favour mutual understanding and to promote exchanges between the British and French leaders of tomorrow.Entente cordiale (film)
Entente cordiale is a 1939 French drama film directed by Marcel L'Herbier and starring Gaby Morlay, Victor Francen and Pierre Richard-Willm. The film depicts events between the Fashoda crisis in 1898 and the 1904 signing of the Entente Cordiale creating an alliance between Britain and France and ending their historic rivalry. It was based on the book King Edward VII and His Times by André Maurois. It was made with an eye to its propaganda value, following the Munich Agreement of September 1938 and in anticipation of the outbreak of a Second World War which would test the bonds between Britain and France in a conflict with Nazi Germany.Entente frugale
Entente frugale is the cooperation between the British and French governments, particularly in military procurement, which is driven by cost constraints, which was announced in November 2010 as part of the Lancaster House Treaties.
The name is a wry reference to the Entente Cordiale of 1904.Together, France and the UK account for half of all military spending in the EU, and two thirds of research and development.France and the Commonwealth of Nations
Relations between the French Republic and the Commonwealth of Nations have undergone successive periods of change since the Commonwealth's creation.
The Commonwealth's predecessor, the British Empire, was a notable rival to France's own empire. Even through eras of Entente cordiale, decolonisation, and political integration with the United Kingdom (the leading Commonwealth member) in the European Union, there has been conflict between French and Commonwealth interests, particularly in Africa. The Fashoda syndrome has shaped French attitudes to prevent Commonwealth influence in French-speaking countries, believing their interests to be mutually-exclusive.
Despite these rivalries and dual structures, at times, it has been suggested that France join the Commonwealth. In 1956, during the Suez Crisis, during which France and the United Kingdom's interests in the Middle East aligned, it was proposed by French Prime Minister Guy Mollet that France and the UK create a Franco-British Union, with common citizenship and Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. His British counterpart, Anthony Eden, instead proposed that France join the Commonwealth, with Commonwealth citizenship rights and recognising the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth. However, this was rejected by Mollet.France–United Kingdom relations
France–United Kingdom relations are the relations between the governments of the French Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK). The historical ties between France and the UK, and the countries that preceded it, are long and complex, including conquest, wars, and alliances at various points in history. The Roman era saw both areas, except Ireland and much of Scotland, conquered by Rome, whose fortifications exist in both countries to this day, and whose writing system introduced a common alphabet to both areas; however, the language barrier remained. The Norman conquest of England in 1066 decisively shaped English history, as well as the English language. In the medieval period, the countries were often bitter enemies, with both nations' monarchs claiming control over France. The Hundred Years' War stretched from 1337 to 1453 resulting in French victory. Britain and France fought a series of five major wars, culminating in the Coalition victory over Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815. After that there were some tensions, especially after 1880 over such issues as the Suez Canal and rivalry for African colonies. Despite some brief war scares, peace always prevailed. Friendly ties between the two began with the 1904 Entente Cordiale, particularly via the alliances in World War I and World War II, wherein both countries fought against Germany, and in the latter conflict British armies helped to liberate occupied France from the Nazis. Both nations opposed the Soviet Union during the Cold War and were founding members of NATO, the western military alliance led by the United States. Charles de Gaulle distrusted the British for being too close to the Americans, and for years he blocked British entry into the European common market, now called the European Union. De Gaulle also pulled France out of active role in NATO because that alliance was too heavily dominated by Washington. After his death, Britain did enter the European Union, and France returned to NATO.
In recent years the two countries have experienced a quite close relationship, especially on defence and foreign policy issues; the two countries tend, however, to disagree on a range of other matters, most notably the European Union. France and Britain are often still referred to as "historic rivals" or with emphasis on the perceived ever-lasting competition that still opposes the two countries.French author José-Alain Fralon characterised the relationship between the countries by describing the British as "our most dear enemies". Unlike France, the United Kingdom plans to leave the European Union in 2019, after the United Kingdom voted so in a referendum held on 23 June 2016. It is estimated that about 350,000 French people live in the UK, with approximately 400,000 Britons living in France.Franco-British Exhibition (1908)
The Franco-British Exhibition was a large public fair held in London between 14 May and 31 October 1908. The exhibition attracted 8 million visitors and celebrated the Entente Cordiale signed in 1904 by the United Kingdom and France. The chief architect of the buildings was John Belcher.The Exhibition was held in an area of west London near Shepherd's Bush which is now called White City: the area acquired its name from the exhibition buildings which were all painted white. The 1908 Summer Olympics fencing events were held in the district alongside the festivities.French Shore
The French Shore, also called the Treaty Shore, resulted from the 1713 ratification of the Treaty of Utrecht. The provisions of the treaty allowed the French to fish in season along the north coast of Newfoundland between Cape Bonavista and Point Riche. This area had been frequented by fishermen from Brittany since the early 16th century, which they called "le petit nord" (little North).In the 1783 Treaty of Versailles, the boundary points of the French Shore were changed to Cape St. John and Cape Ray, as shown in the accompanying map.
In 1904, as a result of the Entente cordiale, the French relinquished their rights on the French Shore.
The history of the French Shore is depicted on the French Shore Tapestry, finished in 2010 and now on display in Conche, Newfoundland. It measures 67.4 metres (221 ft) in length.Lord Derby Cup
The Lord Derby Cup (French: Trophée Lord Derby), also known as French Rugby à XIII Cup, is the premier knockout competition for the sport of rugby league football in France. It is open to all French rugby league clubs.
It was first contested in 1934, the same season as the French Rugby League Championship got under way. The first winner of the cup was US Lyon-Villeurbanne on 5 May 1935 in Toulouse.
The Lord Derby Trophy was donated by Edward Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby in May 1935 to the winner of the game between Castleford, English Challenge Cup champions, and US Lyon-Villeurbanne, defending French Cup champions. Edward George Villiers Stanley was the honorary president of the Rugby Football League, a politician and had also previously served as the British ambassador in Paris. The game took place on 12 May 1935 in Paris; US Lyon-Villeurbanne won it and were awarded the Trophy.
Some months after, to symbolize the English-French rugby league Entente Cordiale, US Lyon-Villeurbanne handed over the trophy to the Ligue Française de Rugby à XIII, and it was named the new emblem of the French Rugby League Cup. At the following Cup final on 19 April 1936, Côte Basque were awarded the Lord Derby Trophy and it has been competed for ever since.Pact of Cartagena
The Pact of Cartagena was an exchange of notes that took place at Cartagena on 16 May 1907 between the French Republic, the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Spain. The parties declared their intention to preserve the status quo in the western Mediterranean and in the Atlantic, especially their insular and coastal possessions. The pact aligned Spain with the Anglo-French entente cordiale against Germany's ambitions in Morocco, where both Spain and France had mutually recognised (and British-recognised) spheres of influence.During the First World War, the Pact was cited by those Spanish politicians who favoured closer ties with, or even intervention on the side of, the Entente. On 21 April 1915, the leading conservative politician in Spain, Antonio Maura, made a public statement that:
Spain has the position in northern Africa and in the western Mediterranean which was granted to her by that agreement, she has a community of interests with England and France and the reciprocal promise of maintaining and working in favor of this community, and of this status quo[,] was given by the powers concerned.Perpetual Peace (disambiguation)
Perpetual Peace or Eternal Peace may refer to:
Perpetual peace, a concept in Kantian philosophySpecific treaties:
Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty, instituting an "eternal peace" between the Hittite and Egyptian empires.
Perpetual Peace (532) (ἀπέραντος εἰρήνη), signed between the Byzantine and the Sassanid empires.
Ewiger Landfriede, a pax perpetua agreed at the Diet of Worms in 1495, which banned the right of vendetta in the Holy Roman Empire.
Treaty of Perpetual Peace between England and Scotland (1502).
Perpetual Peace (1516), signed between the Swiss Confederacy and Francis I of France.
Treaty of Perpetual Peace (1686), signed between Russia and Poland-Lithuania.
Entente Cordiale (1904), a frame agreement consisting of a number of treaties that were intended to create perpetual peace between United Kingdom and France.Splendid isolation
Splendid isolation is the term used at the time for the 19th-century British diplomatic practice of avoiding permanent alliances, particularly under the governments of Lord Salisbury between 1885 and 1902. The practice emerged as early as 1822 with Britain's exit from the post-1815 Concert of Europe and continued until the 1904 Entente Cordiale with France, when the division of Europe into two power blocs and Britain's isolation during the 1899–1902 Second Boer War led to a reversal of the policy.
The term was coined in January 1896 by a Canadian politician, George Eulas Foster, indicating his approval for Britain's minimal involvement in European affairs by saying, "In these somewhat troublesome days when the great Mother Empire stands splendidly isolated in Europe."Triple Entente
The Triple Entente (from French entente [ɑ̃tɑ̃t] "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907. The understanding between the three powers, supplemented by agreements with Japan and Portugal, was a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
However, Italy did not side with Germany and Austria during World War I and joined the Entente instead in the Treaty of London (1915).
Historians continue to debate the importance of the alliance system as one of the causes of World War I. At the start of World War I in 1914, all three Triple Entente members entered it as Allied Powers against the Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary.However, the Triple Entente, unlike the Triple Alliance or the Franco-Russian Alliance, was not an alliance of mutual defense. Thus, Britain felt free to make its own foreign policy decisions in the 1914 July Crisis.Vernet-les-Bains
Vernet-les-Bains (Catalan: Vernet) is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
It is a centre for visitors and holidaymakers. The village has a sunny climate (with, on average, 300 days of sunshine each year) and is set in a sheltered valley in the foothills of the Canigou mountain - which rises to a height of 2,785 metres (over 9,000 feet). Vernet-les-Bains is also known for its hot water spring. There is a professional spa/therapy centre in the village.