Enrico De Nicola

Enrico De Nicola, OMRI (Italian pronunciation: [enˈriːko de niˈkɔːla] (listen); 9 November 1877 – 1 October 1959)[1] was an Italian jurist, journalist, politician, and provisional Head of State of republican Italy from 1946 to 1948. Afterwards, he became the first President of Italy on 1 January 1948.[2]


Enrico De Nicola

Enrico De Nicola
1st President of Italy
In office
1 January 1948 – 12 May 1948
Prime MinisterAlcide De Gasperi
Preceded byUmberto II (King of Italy)
Title last held by Napoleon Bonaparte under the Italian Republic (Napoleonic)
Succeeded byLuigi Einaudi
Provisional Head of State of Italy
In office
1 July 1946 – 1 January 1948
Prime MinisterAlcide De Gasperi
Preceded byAlcide De Gasperi
Succeeded byPosition abolished
President of the Constitutional Court
In office
23 January 1956 – 26 March 1957
Preceded byPosition created
Succeeded byGaetano Azzariti
President of the Senate of the Republic
In office
28 April 1951 – 24 June 1952
Preceded byIvanoe Bonomi
Succeeded byGiuseppe Paratore
President of the Chamber of Deputies
In office
26 June 1920 – 25 January 1924
MonarchVittorio Emanuele III
Preceded byVittorio Emanuele Orlando
Succeeded byAlfredo Rocco
Personal details
Born9 November 1877
Naples, Campania, Kingdom of Italy
Died1 October 1959 (aged 81)
Torre del Greco, Campania, Italy
NationalityItalian
Political partyItalian Liberal Party
Alma materFrederick II University
ProfessionLawyer
Signature
Enrico De Nicola's signature

Biography

Enrico De Nicola was born in Naples and became famous as a penal lawyer. He studied law in the University of Naples, graduating in 1896.[3] As a Liberal he was elected a deputy for the first time in 1909 and, from 1913 to 1921, he filled minor governmental posts until the advent of fascism, when he retired from political life. He served as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies in the Giolitti government (November 1913-March 1914) and Under-Secretary of State for the Treasury in the Orlando cabinet (January–June 1919). On 26 June 1920, he was elected speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, holding office until January 1924. He was appointed senator by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1929, but he refused to take his seat and never took part in the workings of the Assembly.[4]

He returned to his law practice, only taking an interest in politics again after the fall of Italian Fascism. After Benito Mussolini's fall from power in 1943, king Victor Emmanuel tried to extricate the monarchy from its collaboration with the Fascist regime; De Nicola was perhaps the most influential mediator in the ensuing transition. The king's son Umberto acquired a new title of "Lieutenant-General of the Realm" and took over most of the functions of the sovereign. Victor Emanuel later abdicated; Umberto became king as Umberto II and a Constitutional Referendum was held, won by republicans. A new Constituent Assembly was elected, and prime minister Alcide de Gasperi became acting head of state for a few weeks when Umberto II was exiled and left Italy. The Constituent Assembly then elected De Nicola Provisional Head of State on 28 June 1946, with 80% of the votes, at the first round of voting. Giulio Andreotti later recalled that De Nicola — a man of great modesty — was not sure whether to accept the nomination, and underwent frequent changes of mind in the face of repeated insistence by all the major political leaders. Andreotti had then to write to him: "Your Excellency, please, decide to decide if you can accept to accept...."[5]

On 25 June 1947, De Nicola resigned from the post, citing health reasons, but the Constituent Assembly immediately re-elected him again the following day, having recognized in his act signs of nobility and humility. After the Italian Constitution took effect, he was formally named the "President of the Italian Republic" on 1 January 1948. He finally refused to be a candidate for the first constitutional election the following May, in which Luigi Einaudi was elected to the Quirinale, the formal seat of the Italian presidency.[6]

In 1956, De Nicola became a senator for life as a former Head of State, and later was elected President of the Senate, and of the Constitutional Court.

He died at Torre del Greco, in the province of Naples, in 1959. He was unmarried.

Firma della Costituzione
De Nicola signs the Italian Constitution on 27 December 1947

Honors

OSSIbis3
Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity

OSSIbis3

Cordone di gran Croce di Gran Cordone OMRI BAR
Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (1956)[7]

Cordone di gran Croce di Gran Cordone OMRI BAR

Political titles

His other political titles included President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, Temporary Chief of the Italian State and President of the Italian Senate.[8]

References

  1. ^ Profile of Enrico De Nicola
  2. ^ Favor, Lesli J. (2004). Italy: a primary source cultural guide. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 36. ISBN 0-8239-3839-5.
  3. ^ http://www.worldpresidentsdb.com/Enrico-De-Nicola/
  4. ^ S.M. Sergio, Elogio dell'Avvocato, Pironti "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) (in Italian) Accessed 27 October 2010
  5. ^ B. Vespa, Storia d'Italia da Mussolini a Berlusconi, p. 32 (in Italian)
  6. ^ Cristina Mascheroni, Enrico De Nicola, Infobergamo (2006) [1] (in Italian) Accessed 26 January 2012
  7. ^ Italian Government website: details of award to De Nicola
  8. ^ http://www.archontology.org/nations/italy/presidents_italy1/denicola.php

Bibliography

  • Andrea Jelardi, Enrico De Nicola. Il presidente galantuomo, Kairòs [2], Naples (2009). (in Italian)
Political offices
Preceded by
Umberto II as King of Italy
Title last held by Napoleon Bonaparte
President of Italy
1946–1948
Succeeded by
Luigi Einaudi
Italian Chamber of Deputies
Preceded by
Luigi Simeoni
Member of the Chamber of Deputies from Afragola
Legislatures: XXIII, XXIV
Suffrages:
1291 (57%), 8140 (87%)
1909–1919
Succeeded by
Constituency abolished
Preceded by
Constituency established
Member of the Chamber of Deputies from Campania
Legislatures: XXV, XXVI

1919–1924
Succeeded by
Title jointly held
Preceded by
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies
1920–1924
Succeeded by
Alfredo Rocco
Italian Senate
Preceded by
Title jointly held
Italian Royal Senator
Legislatures: XXVIII, XXX

1929–1943
Succeeded by
Title jointly held
Preceded by
None, Senate re-established
Italian Senator for Life
Legislatures: I, II, III

1948–1959
Succeeded by
Title jointly held
Preceded by
Ivanoe Bonomi
President of the Italian Senate
1951–1952
Succeeded by
Giuseppe Paratore
Legal offices
Preceded by
New title
President of the Italian Constitutional Court
1956–1957
Succeeded by
Gaetano Azzariti
City of Naples
Preceded by
Title jointly held
Municipal Councillor
1907–1912
Succeeded by
Title jointly held
1946 Italian presidential election

Next Election: 1948Election of the Provisional Head of the Italian State (June 28, 1946)

After the departure of King Umberto II of Italy (June 13, 1946), the functions of head of state had provisionally exercised by the Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi, to which were entrusted to the beginning of July when, following his election as Provisional Head of State, Enrico De Nicola was sworn in before the Constituent Assembly.

They should not be considered the presidential elections, as this institution does not yet exist. However, the same De Nicola assumes this title according to the first transitional provision of the Constitution in 1948.

Election of the Provisional Head of the Italian State (June 26, 1947)

Enrico De Nicola submitted his resignation in June 1947, officially for health reasons, but also to regain legitimacy after the annual term of the Constituent Assembly of Italy, to which even his term was tied, had expired.

Enrico De Nicola, however, was still re-elected as Provisional Head of State; from 1 January 1948 he assumed the title of President of the Italian Republic in accordance with the first final provision of the Constitution of Italy.

1948 Italian presidential election

The Italian presidential election of 1948 was held in Italy on 10 – 11 May 1948, following the resignation of outgoing President Enrico De Nicola. Only members of Parliament are entitled to vote and this election was the first one voted by a regular Parliament. As head of state of the Italian Republic, the President has a role of representation of national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Italian Constitution, in the framework of a parliamentary system.

At fourth round of voting, former Governor of Banca d'Italia and incumbent Minister of the Budget Luigi Einaudi was elected President with 518 votes out of 900.

Castel Capuano

Castel Capuano is a castle in Naples, southern Italy. It takes its name from the fact that it was at that point in the city walls where the road led out to the city of Capua. The castle is at the southwest end of via dei Tribunali, and until recently housed the Naples Hall of Justice, which has now moved to the new Civic Center, the Centro Direzionale.

The structure was built in the 12th century by William I, the son of Roger II of Sicily, the first monarch of the Kingdom of Naples. It was expanded by Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and became one of his royal palaces. On 19 August 1432, Sergianni Caracciolo was stabbed by four knights in the service of the queen in his room in Castel Capuano.

In the 16th century, under the Spanish viceroyship of Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, all of the city's various legal offices and departments were consolidated here and it became the Hall of Justice - known as the "Vicaria" - the basements of which served as a prison. Over the entrance to the castle, the arms of Emperor Charles V, who visited Naples in 1535, are still visible.

The castle has undergone many restorations, one as recent as 1860, and no longer retains much of its original appearance. The Colonna della Vicaria, a simple column on a pillar, once stood in front of the entrance; it was used to disgrace and punish debtors. At the rear exterior of the building, facing Piazza Enrico de Nicola, is the Fontana del Formiello.

Constituent Assembly of Italy

The Italian Constituent Assembly (Italian: Assemblea Costituente della Repubblica Italiana) was a parliamentary chamber which existed in Italy from 25 June 1946 until 31 January 1948. It had the task to write a constitution for the Italian Republic, which had replaced the Kingdom of Italy after the Italian civil war.

Enrico

Enrico is both an Italian masculine given name and a surname, Enrico means homeowner, or king, derived from Heinrich of Germanic origin. It is also a given name in Ladino.

Equivalents in other languages are Henry (English), Henri (French), Enrique (Spanish), Henrique (Portuguese) and Hendrik (Dutch). Notable people with the name include:

Enrico Adelelmo Brunetti (1862–1927), British musician and entomologist

Enrico Albertosi (born 1939), Italian former football goalkeeper

Enrico Alfonso (born 1988), Italian football player

Enrico Alvino (1808–1872), Italian architect and urban designer

Enrico Annoni (born 1966), retired Italian professional footballer

Enrico Arrigoni (1894–1986), Italian individualist anarchist

Enrico Baj (1924–2003), Italian artist and art writer

Enrico Banducci (1922–2007), American impresario

Enrico Barone (1859–1924), Italian economist

Enrico Berlinguer (1923–1984), Italian politician

Enrico Bertaggia (born 1964), Italian former racing driver

Enrico Betti (1823–1892), Italian mathematician

Enrico Blasi (born 1972), Canadian hockey coach

Enrico Bombieri (born 1940), Italian mathematician

Enrico Boselli (born 1957), Italian politician

Enrico Brizzi (born 1974), Italian writer

Enrico Cardoso Nazaré (born 1984), Brazilian football player

Enrico Caruso (1873–1921), Italian opera singer

Enrico Castelnuovo (1839–1915), Italian writer

Enrico Caterino Davila (1576–1631), Italian historian

Enrico Caviglia (1862–1945), distinguished officer in the Italian army

Enrico Cecchetti (1850–1928), Italian ballet dancer

Enrico Celio (1889–1980), Swiss politician

Enrico Chiesa (born 1970), Italian football striker

Enrico Cialdini (1811–1892), Italian soldier, politician and diplomat

Enrico Ciccone (born 1970), retired Canadian ice hockey defenceman

Enrico Clementi (born 1931), Italian pioneer in computational techniques for quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics

Enrico Cocozza (1921–1997), Scottish filmmaker

Enrico Colantoni (born 1963), Canadian actor

Enrico Corradini (1865–1931), Italian novelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure

Enrico Cosenz (1820–1898), Italian soldier

Enrico Cuccia (1907-2000), Italian banker

Enrico Dandolo (c. 1107–1205), Doge of the city-state of Venice

Enrico Dante (1884–1967), Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church

Enrico David (born 1966), Italian artist

Enrico De Angelis (born 1920), Italian singer

Enrico de Lorenzo (20th century), Italian bobsledder

Enrico De Nicola (1877–1959), Italian jurist, journalist, and politician

Enrico Degano (born 1976), Italian professional road bicycle racer

Enrico degli Scrovegni (14th century), Paduan nobleman

Enrico Di Giuseppe (1932–2005), American operatic tenor

Enrico Donati (1909–2008), American surrealist painter and sculptor

Enrico Fabris (born 1981), Italian long track speed skater

Enrico Fantini (born 1976), Italian footballer

Enrico Fazzini (21st century), neurologist

Enrico Fermi (1901–1954), Italian-American physicist

Enrico Ferri (1856–1929), Italian criminologist and socialist

Enrico Forlanini (1848–1930), Italian engineer, inventor and aeronautical pioneer

Enrico Franzoi (born 1982), Italian professional cyclo-cross and road bicycle racer

Enrico Gamba (1831–1883), Italian artist

Enrico Garbuglia (1900–2007), Italian centenarian

Enrico Gasparotto (born 1982), Italian professional road racing cyclist

Enrico Gasparri (1871–1946), Roman Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop

Enrico Gatti (born 1955), Italian classical violinist

Enrico Gentile (20th century), Italian singer

Enrico Gilardi (born 1957), Italian former basketball player

Enrico Giovannini (born 1957), Italian economist and statistician

Enrico Haffner (1640–1702), Italian painter

Enrico Hillyer Giglioli (1845–1909), Italian zoologist and anthropologist

Enrico Kern (born 1979), German football player

Enrico Kühn (born 1977), German bobsledder

Enrico Letta (born 1966), Italian politician

Enrico Lo Verso (born 1964), Italian actor

Enrico Lorenzetti (1911–1989), Italian professional Grand Prix motorcycle road racer

Enrico Macias (born 1938), Algerian-born French Jewish singer

Enrico Mainardi (1897–1976), Italian cellist, composer, and conductor

Enrico Marconi (1792–1863), Italian-born architect

Enrico Maria Salerno (1926–1994), Italian theatre and film actor

Enrico Marini (born 1969), Swiss comic artist

Enrico Mattei (1906–1962), Italian public administrator

Enrico Minutoli (died 1412), Italian Cardinal

Enrico Mizzi (1885–1950), Maltese politician

Enrico Nardi (1907–1966), Italian racing car driver, engineer and designer

Enrico Pace (born 1967), Italian pianist

Enrico Paoli (1908–2005), Italian chess master

Enrico Pedrini (1940–2012), Italian theorist and collector of conceptual art

Enrico Perucconi (born 1925), Italian athlete

Enrico Pieranunzi (born 1949), Italian jazz pianist

Enrico Platé (1909–1954), Italian motor racing driver and team manager

Enrico Poitschke (born 1969), German road racing cyclist

Enrico Rastelli (1896–1931), Italian juggler, acrobat and performer

Enrico Rava (born 1939), Italian avant-garde jazz musician

Enrico Rocca (1847–1915), Italian violin maker

Enrico Rosenbaum (1944–1979), American songwriter, arranger, producer, guitarist and singer

Enrico Ruggeri (born 1957), Italian singer-songwriter

Enrico Sabbatini (1932–1998), Italian-born costume designer and production designer

Enrico Sertoli (1842–1910), Italian physiologist and histologist

Enrico Sgrulletti (born 1965), Italian hammer thrower

Enrico Sibilia (1861–1948), Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal

Enrico Stefani (20th century), Italian architect and archaeologist

Enrico Tameleo (died 1985), Italian-American mobster

Enrico Teodorani (born 1970), Italian comics writer, creator of Djustine

Enrico Toccacelo (born 1978), Italian auto racer

Enrico Toselli (1883–1926), Italian pianist and composer

Enrico Toti (1882–1916), Italian patriot and hero of World War I

Enrico Valtorta (1883–1951), Italian-born first Roman Catholic bishop of Hong Kong

Enrico Verson (1845–1927), Italian entomologist

Enrico Viarisio (1897–1979), Italian theatre and cinema actor

Enrico Villanueva (born 1980), Filipino professional basketball player

Enrico Wijngaarde (born 1974), Surinamese football referee

Enrico Zuccalli (c. 1640–1724), Swiss architect

Marco Enrico Bossi (1861–1925), Italian organist and composer

Robert Enrico (1931–2001), French film director and scriptwriterFictional characters:

Enrico Marini (Resident Evil), a fictional character from the Resident Evil video game series

Enrico Maxwell, a character from the manga and anime series Hellsing

Enrico Pollini, a character played by Rowan Atkinson from the film Rat Race

Enrico Pucci, a fictional character from the Japanese manga JoJo's Bizarre Adventure

Fontana del Formiello, Naples

The Fontana del Formiello (Fountain of the Formiello) is a historic public fountain located at the rear exterior of the Castel Capuano, facing Piazza Enrico de Nicola, and across the street from the church and convent of Santa Caterina a Formiello in Naples, Italy. The term Formiello comes from the forms or containers for water spouts found in the convent. The fountain had been placed in storage during the late 19th century, and reconstructed at this site in 1930.

Mastro Joseppe and Michel De Guido were commissioned in 1573 to reconstruct a medieval fountain, originally called Fontana Reale con Abeveratoio, suggesting it was a watering station for horses. Three lion masks disgorge water, while the superior structure has a heraldic shield of the viceroy. The Shield is that of Don Pedro Tellez Giron, Duke of Osuna. A plaque in Latin states that: "While Philip II (of Spain) governed, here stopped travelers to venerate the waters of the Sebeto River, that the choirs of the Aonidi, and the waves of Parnassus, here provide you the source of Melpomene, who sings the aria of the works of the king."

It is rumored that in the 17th century the viceroy Don Pedro Antonio of Aragon added a statue of Philip IV of Spain, but the placement was rebuffed by the people of Naples.

Giovanni Porzio

Giovanni Porzio (6 October 1873 – 22 September 1962) was an Italian politician and lawyer. He served as Deputy Prime Minister of Italy from 1948 to 1950.

Giuseppe Paratore

Giuseppe Paratore (31 May 1876 – 26 February 1967) was an Italian attorney and politician. He was President of the Italian Senate from 26 June 1952 to 24 March 1953. President Giovanni Gronchi appointed him senator for life on 9 November 1957.

Italian Liberal Party

The Italian Liberal Party (Italian: Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was a liberal and conservative political party in Italy.

The PLI, which is the heir of the liberal currents of both the Historical Right and the Historical Left, was a minor party after World War II, but also a frequent junior party in government, especially since 1979.

List of Presidents of Italy

Below is a list of the Presidents of the Italian Republic with the title Presidente della Repubblica since 1948. The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Quirinale) in Rome is the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic. The 12 Presidents came from only six of the 20 Regions: three each from Campania (all born in Naples) and Piedmont, two each from Sardinia (both born in Sassari) and Tuscany and one each from Liguria and Sicily.

List of heads of state of Italy

This is a list of the heads of state of Italy, from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the present day.

From 1861 to 1946 the head of state was the King of Italy, who was the same person as the King of Sardinia according to the Constitution. Italy became a republic under the Constitution of 1948 and the monarch was replaced by a President.

List of wives of the President of the Italian Republic

The Wife of the President of the Italian Republic (Italian: consorte del Presidente della Repubblica italiana; sometimes simply known as donna) often plays a protocol role at the Quirinal Palace and during official visits.

Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity

The Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity (Italian: Stella della solidarietà italiana) was founded as a national order by the first President of the Italian Republic, Enrico De Nicola, in 1947, to recognise civilian and military expatriates or foreigners who made an outstanding contribution to the reconstruction of Italy after World War II.In 2011, the order was reformed as the Order of the Star of Italy by the 11th President, Giorgio Napolitano. The emphasis of the reformed award was shifted from post-war reconstruction to the preservation and promotion of national prestige abroad, promoting friendly relations and co-operation with other countries and ties with Italy.

Palazzo Giustiniani, Rome

Palazzo Giustiniani or the Piccolo Colle (Little Hill) is a palace on the Via della Dogana Vecchia and Piazza della Rotonda, in Sant'Eustachio, Rome.

The palace contains the official residence of the President of the Senate of the Republic, the Sala Zuccari, the offices of the Life senators and former Presidents of Italy, and some administrative offices. From 1901 until 1985, it was also the seat of the Masonic order of the Grand Orient of Italy.

Permanent Representative of Italy to the United Nations

Permanent Representatives of Italy to the United Nations from October 1, 1947

Santa Caterina a Formiello

Santa Caterina a Formiello is a church in Naples, in southern Italy, located at the extreme eastern end of the old historic center of the city, on Via Carbonara and Piazza Enrico de Nicola, near the gate called Porta Capuana. The term Formiello comes from the forms or containers for water spouts found in the convent. Diagonally across the street and South is the Fontana del Formiello against the rear wall of the imposing Castel Capuano.

Umberto Terracini

Umberto Elia Terracini (27 July 1895 – 6 December 1983) was an Italian politician.

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