Enrico Corradini

Enrico Corradini (20 July 1865 – 10 December 1931) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist and nationalist political figure.

Enrico Corradini
EnricoCorradini
Personal details
Born20 July 1865
near Montelupo Fiorentino
Died10 December 1931 (aged 66)
Rome
Political partyItalian Nationalist Association
(1910–1923)
National Fascist Party
(1923–1931)
Occupationnovelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure

Biography

Corradini was born near Montelupo Fiorentino, Tuscany.

A follower of Gabriele D'Annunzio, he founded the right-wing newspaper Il Regno (1903-1905), together with intellectuals Giovanni Papini, Vilfredo Pareto, and Giuseppe Prezzolini. It quickly became a staple for irredentist and radical thought that was to blend into Fascism. In 1910, the Italian Nationalist Association (Associazione Nazionalista Italiana, ANI) was founded with the participation of Corradini, who was among the leaders. It made a name for itself after giving full support to Italian imperialism and the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 - Corradini wrote two political essays on the matter (Il volere d'Italia - "Italy's Desire", and L'ora di Tripoli - "Tripoli's Moment"). He expanded such bellicose theories in the weekly L'Idea Nazionale, founded by him together with Alfredo Rocco and Luigi Federzoni.

L'Idea Nazionale was turned into a daily with financing from natural advocates of militarism - military men and weapon manufacturers. Corradini and his paper created a generic nationalist theory after adopting Populism and Corporatism, while advocating Italy's entry into World War I - initially on the side of the Triple Alliance (the Central Powers, to which Italy had committed itself), then on that of the Triple Entente (the Allies - which promised to grant Italy all its territorial demands). The group also focused on a violent press campaign against Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti and other supporters of neutrality.

Corradini developed the concept of Proletarian Nationalism in 1919:

We must start by recognizing the fact that there are proletarian nations as well as proletarian classes; that is to say, there are nations whose living conditions are subject... to the way of life of other nations, just as classes are. Once this is realized, nationalism must insist firmly on this truth: Italy is, materially and morally, a proletarian nation." (Report to the First Nationalist Congress, Florence, 3 December 1919)

After the war, ANI was led by Corradini into a merger with the Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF). Nonetheless, Corradini made sure to detach himself from the more controversial actions of the Blackshirts, while being nominated by Benito Mussolini to the Italian Senate, and joining his government in 1928.

As a novelist, Corradini enjoyed success with his La patria lontana ("The Distant Fatherland"; 1910) and La guerra lontana ("The Distant War"; 1911).

He died in Rome.

Works

  • Julius Caesar: A Play in Five Acts (1929)

References

  • A. James Gregor, Phoenix: Fascism in Our Time (New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Publishers, 1999, ISBN 1-56000-422-3), pp. 30–33

External links

1865 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1865.

1910 in Italy

See also:

1909 in Italy,

other events of 1910,

1911 in Italy.

Events from the year 1910 in Italy.

1911 in Italy

See also:

1910 in Italy,

other events of 1911,

1912 in Italy.

Events from the year 1911 in Italy.

1931 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1931.

Arthur Fonjallaz

Arthur Fonjallaz (2 January 1875 – 24 January 1944) was a Swiss military figure, publisher and fascist.

The son of a vineyard owner from Lausanne (he was born in nearby Prilly) he attended the Military Academy of Modena and pursued a successful career in the Swiss Army, achieving the highest peacetime rank of brigadier general whilst commanding the 4th Infantry Brigade.Fonjallaz took an early interest in politics, although his ideas were ill-defined as he was both a radical and an admirer of Enrico Corradini, whilst also becoming involved in an agrarian progenitor of the Swiss People's Party. Leaving the party in 1932, he took up a post as principal of military sciences and war history at the École Polytechnique Féderal in Zürich Colonel Fonjallaz was, however, relieved of his duties in 1933 after it came to light that he had been a member of the governing board of the fascistic Heimatwehr as well as the National Front, both of which were noted for their virulent anti-Semitism.The wealthy Fonjallaz then set up Helvetic Action Against Secret Societies which was particularly geared towards opposing Freemasonry. Taking advantage of the initiative process, Fonjallaz attempted to pass an amendment to the Swiss Federal Constitution banning the practice, but this was defeated in 1937.In 1932, he had also led a group of his supporters to Italy for a meeting with Benito Mussolini and became a strong supporter of Italian fascism as a result. He soon founded the Swiss Fascist Federation, which received 2 million lira a year from Mussolini. A devoted follower of Mussolini, he spoke of the power of the rhetoric of Il Duce in glowing terms.

As Mussolini began to speak presenting the goals of fascism, we Swiss understood immediately the significance of this man and responded to the radiant power of his personality. We were all directly convinced that such a leader could do more for world peace than hundreds of politicians.

A supporter of a possible Italian annexation of the country, Fonjallaz was expelled from the Heimatwehr for this position, but continued to be a devotee of Mussolini, publishing a biography of his hero, Enérgie et Volonté (Drive and Will), in 1937. Despite this, Italian funding ended in 1936 and Fonjallaz disappeared from public life.Colonel Fonjallaz returned to the public eye in January 1940 when border guards arrested him in Schaffhausen as he was attempting to enter Nazi Germany. In a subsequent trial, Fonjallaz was found guilty of being a spy for Adolf Hitler, spending over two years in prison as a result. Released in 1943, he died the following year.

Corpo Nazionale Giovani Esploratori ed Esploratrici Italiani

The Corpo Nazionale Giovani Esploratori ed Esploratrici Italiani (National Corps of Italian Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, CNGEI) is a coeducational and non-denominational Scouting and Guiding association in Italy.

CNGEI was founded by Carlo Colombo as a male-only organization in 1913 and integrated the female Unione delle Giovinette Esploratrici Italiane (UNGEI) in 1976. It is the oldest among Italian Scout associations and the third by membership, with about 13,500 members.Along with the 182,000-strong Associazione Guide e Scouts Cattolici Italiani (AGESCI), CNGEI forms the Italian Scout Federation (FIS), Italy's national member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS).

CNGEI, whose guiding principles are "secularity" (i.e. "independen[ce] from any religious creed and political ideologies"), "co-education", "associative democracy", "adult choice" and "civil commitment", aims at "educating the good citizen: a citizen capable of taking autonomous and responsible choices; [a citizen who is] personally active in promoting solidarity, universal rights, peace, environment protection; a citizen who follows a personal spiritual path oriented at giving a sense to his/her life".

Corradini

Corradini is an Italian surname that may refer to

Antonio Corradini (1688–1752), Venetian Rococo sculptor

Deedee Corradini (1944–2015), American businesswoman and politician

Enrico Corradini (1865–1931), Italian novelist, essayist, journalist and politician

Giancarlo Corradini (born 1961), Italian football manager and former player

Gino Corradini (born 1941), Italian weightlifter

Matteo Corradini (born 1975), Italian writer

Melania Corradini (born 1987), Italian paralympic alpine skier

Nicolò Corradini (composer) (c.1585–1646), Italian composer and organist

Nicolò Corradini (skier) (born 1964), Italian ski-orienteering competitor

Enrico

Enrico is both an Italian masculine given name and a surname, Enrico means homeowner, or king, derived from Heinrich of Germanic origin. It is also a given name in Ladino.

Equivalents in other languages are Henry (English), Henri (French), Enrique (Spanish), Henrique (Portuguese) and Hendrik (Dutch). Notable people with the name include:

Enrico Albertosi (born 1939), Italian former football goalkeeper

Enrico Alfonso (born 1988), Italian football player

Enrico Alvino (1808–1872), Italian architect and urban designer

Enrico Annoni (born 1966), retired Italian professional footballer

Enrico Arrigoni (1894–1986), Italian individualist anarchist

Enrico Baj (1924–2003), Italian artist and art writer

Enrico Banducci (1922–2007), American impresario

Enrico Barone (1859–1924), Italian economist

Enrico Berlinguer (1923–1984), Italian politician

Enrico Bertaggia (born 1964), Italian former racing driver

Enrico Betti (1823–1892), Italian mathematician

Enrico Blasi (born 1972), Canadian hockey coach

Enrico Bombieri (born 1940), Italian mathematician

Enrico Boselli (born 1957), Italian politician

Enrico Brizzi (born 1974), Italian writer

Enrico Cardoso Nazaré (born 1984), Brazilian football player

Enrico Caruso (1873–1921), Italian opera singer

Enrico Castelnuovo (1839–1915), Italian writer

Enrico Caterino Davila (1576–1631), Italian historian

Enrico Caviglia (1862–1945), distinguished officer in the Italian army

Enrico Cecchetti (1850–1928), Italian ballet dancer

Enrico Celio (1889–1980), Swiss politician

Enrico Chiesa (born 1970), Italian football striker

Enrico Cialdini (1811–1892), Italian soldier, politician and diplomat

Enrico Ciccone (born 1970), retired Canadian ice hockey defenceman

Enrico Clementi (born 1931), Italian pioneer in computational techniques for quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics

Enrico Cocozza (1921–1997), Scottish filmmaker

Enrico Colantoni (born 1963), Canadian actor

Enrico Corradini (1865–1931), Italian novelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure

Enrico Cosenz (1820–1898), Italian soldier

Enrico Cuccia (1907-2000), Italian banker

Enrico Dandolo (c. 1107–1205), Doge of the city-state of Venice

Enrico Dante (1884–1967), Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church

Enrico David (born 1966), Italian artist

Enrico De Angelis (born 1920), Italian singer

Enrico de Lorenzo (20th century), Italian bobsledder

Enrico De Nicola (1877–1959), Italian jurist, journalist, and politician

Enrico Degano (born 1976), Italian professional road bicycle racer

Enrico degli Scrovegni (14th century), Paduan nobleman

Enrico Di Giuseppe (1932–2005), American operatic tenor

Enrico Donati (1909–2008), American surrealist painter and sculptor

Enrico Fabris (born 1981), Italian long track speed skater

Enrico Fantini (born 1976), Italian footballer

Enrico Fazzini (21st century), neurologist

Enrico Fermi (1901–1954), Italian-American physicist

Enrico Ferri (1856–1929), Italian criminologist and socialist

Enrico Forlanini (1848–1930), Italian engineer, inventor and aeronautical pioneer

Enrico Franzoi (born 1982), Italian professional cyclo-cross and road bicycle racer

Enrico Gamba (1831–1883), Italian artist

Enrico Garbuglia (1900–2007), Italian centenarian

Enrico Gasparotto (born 1982), Italian professional road racing cyclist

Enrico Gasparri (1871–1946), Roman Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop

Enrico Gatti (born 1955), Italian classical violinist

Enrico Gentile (20th century), Italian singer

Enrico Gilardi (born 1957), Italian former basketball player

Enrico Giovannini (born 1957), Italian economist and statistician

Enrico Haffner (1640–1702), Italian painter

Enrico Hillyer Giglioli (1845–1909), Italian zoologist and anthropologist

Enrico Kern (born 1979), German football player

Enrico Kühn (born 1977), German bobsledder

Enrico Letta (born 1966), Italian politician

Enrico Lo Verso (born 1964), Italian actor

Enrico Lorenzetti (1911–1989), Italian professional Grand Prix motorcycle road racer

Enrico Macias (born 1938), Algerian-born French Jewish singer

Enrico Mainardi (1897–1976), Italian cellist, composer, and conductor

Enrico Marconi (1792–1863), Italian-born architect

Enrico Maria Salerno (1926–1994), Italian theatre and film actor

Enrico Marini (born 1969), Swiss comic artist

Enrico Mattei (1906–1962), Italian public administrator

Enrico Minutoli (died 1412), Italian Cardinal

Enrico Mizzi (1885–1950), Maltese politician

Enrico Nardi (1907–1966), Italian racing car driver, engineer and designer

Enrico Pace (born 1967), Italian pianist

Enrico Paoli (1908–2005), Italian chess master

Enrico Pedrini (1940–2012), Italian theorist and collector of conceptual art

Enrico Perucconi (born 1925), Italian athlete

Enrico Pieranunzi (born 1949), Italian jazz pianist

Enrico Platé (1909–1954), Italian motor racing driver and team manager

Enrico Poitschke (born 1969), German road racing cyclist

Enrico Rastelli (1896–1931), Italian juggler, acrobat and performer

Enrico Rava (born 1939), Italian avant-garde jazz musician

Enrico Rocca (1847–1915), Italian violin maker

Enrico Rosenbaum (1944–1979), American songwriter, arranger, producer, guitarist and singer

Enrico Ruggeri (born 1957), Italian singer-songwriter

Enrico Sabbatini (1932–1998), Italian-born costume designer and production designer

Enrico Sertoli (1842–1910), Italian physiologist and histologist

Enrico Sgrulletti (born 1965), Italian hammer thrower

Enrico Sibilia (1861–1948), Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal

Enrico Stefani (20th century), Italian architect and archaeologist

Enrico Tameleo (died 1985), Italian-American mobster

Enrico Teodorani (born 1970), Italian comics writer, creator of Djustine

Enrico Toccacelo (born 1978), Italian auto racer

Enrico Toselli (1883–1926), Italian pianist and composer

Enrico Toti (1882–1916), Italian patriot and hero of World War I

Enrico Valtorta (1883–1951), Italian-born first Roman Catholic bishop of Hong Kong

Enrico Verson (1845–1927), Italian entomologist

Enrico Viarisio (1897–1979), Italian theatre and cinema actor

Enrico Villanueva (born 1980), Filipino professional basketball player

Enrico Wijngaarde (born 1974), Surinamese football referee

Enrico Zuccalli (c. 1640–1724), Swiss architect

Marco Enrico Bossi (1861–1925), Italian organist and composer

Robert Enrico (1931–2001), French film director and scriptwriterFictional characters:

Enrico Marini (Resident Evil), a fictional character from the Resident Evil video game series

Enrico Maxwell, a character from the manga and anime series Hellsing

Enrico Pollini, a character played by Rowan Atkinson from the film Rat Race

Enrico Pucci, a fictional character from the Japanese manga JoJo's Bizarre Adventure

Fascism in Europe

Fascism in Europe was composed of numerous ideologies that were present during the 20th century and they all developed their own differences with each other. Fascism was born in Italy, but subsequently several fascist movements emerged across Europe and they borrowed influences from the Italian Fascism. The origins of fascism in Europe began outside of Italy and can be observed in the combining of a traditional national unity and revolutionary anti-democratic rhetoric espoused by integral nationalist Charles Maurras and revolutionary syndicalist Georges Sorel in France. The first foundations of fascism can be seen in the Italian Regency of Carnaro, many of its politics and aesthetics were taken from Gabriele D'Annunzio's rule and they were subsequently used by Benito Mussolini and his Italian Fasci of Combat which he had founded as the Fasci of Revolutionary Action in 1914. Despite the fact that its members referred to themselves as "fascists", the ideology was based around national syndicalism. The ideology of fascism would not fully develop until 1921 when Mussolini transformed his movement into the National Fascist Party which then in 1923 incorporated the Italian Nationalist Association. The INA was a nationalist movement that established fascist tropes, colored shirt uniforms for example, and also received the support of important proto-fascists like D'Annunzio and nationalist intellectual Enrico Corradini.

The first declaration of the political stance of fascism was the Fascist Manifesto written by national syndicalist Alceste De Ambris and futurist poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti published in 1919. Many of the contents of the manifesto such as centralization, the abolition of the senate, formation of national councils loyal to the state, expanded military and support for militias (Blackshirts for example) were adopted by Mussolini's regime whilst other calls such as universal suffrage and a peaceful foreign policy were abandoned. De Ambris would later become a prominent anti-fascist. In 1932 The Doctrine of Fascism was published written by Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile providing an outline of fascism that better represented Mussolini's regime.

Francesco Coppola

Francesco Coppola (September 27, 1878 – 1957) was prominent Italian journalist and politician in the twentieth century who associated with Italian nationalism and later Italian Fascism.From 1904 to 1908 Coppola wrote for Il Giornale d'Italia, a Rome newspaper in which he was known for expressing anti-democratic and anti-socialist sentiments. In 1908, Coppola moved to writing for the Rome newspaper La Tribuna where he began to strongly support Italian nationalism and imperialism. Two years later Coppola became one of the founders of the nationalist political party called the Italian Nationalist Association and with the support of two other prominent nationalists, Enrico Corradini and Luigi Federzoni, he launched the party's official newspaper, L'Idea Nazionale. Coppola strongly supported Italy's actions in the Italo-Libyan War which resulted in the capture of Libya from the Ottoman Empire.During World War I, Coppola demanded that Italy join the war. In 1916, Coppola fought on the front in the Italian army. From 1917 to 1918 he undertook various nationalist propaganda missions. Coppola attended the Paris Peace Conference and was enraged with the territorial settlement that Italy received, accusing the Italian government and the Allies of giving Italy a "mutilated victory".In the aftermath of World War I, Coppola joined Benito Mussolini's Fascist movement in 1919. Coppola by this time was known for advocating racist philosophy within the Fascist movement. In 1923, Coppola participated in influencing the Italian Nationalist Association to join the National Fascist Party. In 1923 and 1925, Coppola served the Fascist government as an Italian delegate to the League of Nations. In 1929 when he was made a professor at the University of Perugia, Mussolini made him a member of the Royal Academy of Italy in 1929.

Italian Nationalist Association

The Italian Nationalist Association (Associazione Nazionalista Italiana, ANI) was Italy's first nationalist political movement founded in 1910, under the influence of Italian nationalists such as Enrico Corradini and Giovanni Papini. Upon its formation, the ANI supported the repatriation of Austrian held Italian-populated lands to Italy and was willing to endorse war with Austria-Hungary to do so. The party had a paramilitary wing called the Blueshirts. The authoritarian nationalist faction of the ANI would be a major influence for the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini formed in 1921. In 1922 the ANI participated in the March on Rome, with an important role, but it was not completely aligned with Benito Mussolini' party. Nevertheless, the ANI merged into the Fascist Party in October 1923.

L'Idea Nazionale

L'Idea Nazionale (Italian for "The National Idea") was an Italian political newspaper associated with the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI), which merged with the National Fascist Party in 1923. The paper was published between 1911 and 1926.

Mussolini Cabinet

The Mussolini Cabinet is longest-serving government in the history of united Italy. The Fascist dictator ruled the country from 31 October 1922 to 25 July 1943 for a total of 7572 days, or 20 years, 8 months and 25 days.On taking office, the government was composed by members from National Fascist Party, Italian People's Party, Italian Social Democratic Party, Italian Liberal Party, Italian Nationalist Association and other independent politicians. However, since 1 July 1924, all other parties were purged and the government was composed exclusively of Fascists, except for a few military officers.

National Blocs

The National Blocs (Italian: Blocchi Nazionali) was a right-wing coalition of political parties in Italy formed for the 1921 general election.

National List (Italy)

The National List (Italian: Lista Nazionale) also known as Listone (literally "Big List") was a Fascist and nationalist coalition of political parties in Italy put together for the 1924 general election, and led by Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister of Italy and leader of the National Fascist Party.

National syndicalism

National syndicalism is an adaptation of syndicalism to suit the social agenda of integral nationalism. National syndicalism developed in France, and then spread to Italy, Spain, Portugal ,Romania and Japan.

Paolo Orano

Paolo Orano (born 15 June 1875 in Rome – died 7 April 1945 in Padula) was an Italian psychologist, politician and writer. Orano began his political career as a revolutionary syndicalist in Italian Socialist Party. He later became a leading figure within the National Fascist Party.

Proletarian nation

Proletarian nation was a term used by 20th century Italian nationalist intellectuals such as Enrico Corradini and later adopted by Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini to refer to Italy and other poorer countries that were subordinate to the Western imperialist powers. These powers were described by Mussolini as "plutocratic nations" (nazioni plutocratiche). Corradini associated the proletariat with the economic function of production and believed that the producers should be at the forefront of a new imperialist proletarian nation. Mussolini considered that the military struggles unfolding in Europe in the mid-20th century could have revolutionary consequences that could lead to an improvement in the position of Italy in comparison with the major imperialist powers such as Britain.

Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of internationalist class struggle, it identified "class struggle between nations" and sought to resolve internal class struggle in the nation while it identified Germany as a proletarian nation fighting against plutocratic nations.

Scramble for Africa

The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonisation of African territory by Western European powers during the period of the New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914. In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under formal European control; by 1914 it had increased to almost 90 percent of the continent, with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and Liberia remaining independent. With the Italian occupation of Ethiopia in 1936, only Liberia remained independent. There were multiple motivations for European colonizers, including the quest for national prestige, tensions between pairs of European powers, religious missionary zeal and internal African native politics.

The Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa, is usually referred to as the ultimate point of the Scramble for Africa. Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning, or splitting up of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa. The later years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism" by military influence and economic dominance, to direct rule, bringing about colonial imperialism.

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