Enrico Arrigoni

Enrico Arrigoni (pseudonym: Frank Brand) (February 20, 1894 Pozzuolo Martesana, Province of Milan – December 7, 1986 New York City) was an Italian American individualist anarchist, a lathe operator, house painter, bricklayer, dramatist and political activist influenced by the work of Max Stirner.[1][2]

Life and activism

He took the pseudonym "Brand" from a fictional character in one of Henrik Ibsen´s plays.[2] In the 1910s, he became involved in anarchist and anti-war activism around Milan.[2] From the 1910s until the 1920s, he participated in anarchist activities and popular uprisings in various countries including Switzerland, Germany, Hungary, Argentina and Cuba.[2]

He lived from the 1920s onwards in New York City, and there he edited the individualist anarchist eclectic journal Eresia in 1928. He also wrote for other American anarchist publications such as L' Adunata dei refrattari, Cultura Obrera, Controcorrente and Intessa Libertaria.[2] During the Spanish Civil War, he went to fight with the anarchists but was imprisoned and was helped in his release by Emma Goldman.[1][2] Afterwards, Arrigoni became a longtime member of the Libertarian Book Club in New York City.[2] He lived in the US as an illegal immigrant.[2]

During the 1960s, he helped Cuban anarchists who were suffering the repression of the recently established Fidel Castro´s Marxist-Leninist regime.[3] Along with the exiled Cuban anarchist Manuel Ferro, they "began a campaign in Italy itself...They turned to the most important Italian anarchist periodical, Umanita Nova (“New Humanity”), the official publication of the Federazione Anarchica Italiana, with the idea of counterbalancing the undeniable influence of L’Adunata in the Italian-American anarchist community, and more especially of responding to a series of pro-Cuban Revolution articles published in that weekly by Armando Borghi. Umanita Nova refused to publish Ferro's articles (translated by Arrigoni), saying that they didn't want to create a polemic. At that point, Arrigoni accused them of being in the pay of the Communists, and they eventually published Ferro's responses to Borghi. A few months later, Borghi — ignoring the points raised by Ferro — published a new defense of Castroism in L’Adunata, but Umanita Nova refused to publish Ferro's response to it."[4] Arrigoni also translated articles written by Ferro which were published in the anarchist press of France, Italy, Mexico, and Argentina. According to Ferro, “In the majority of our milieus [these articles] were received with displeasure,” owing to the “enthusiasm” with which the Cuban Revolution had been received in them. But in other cases, anarchists rallied to the Cuban libertarian cause. Reconstruir (“To Reconstruct”) in Buenos Aires, whose publishing house, Colectivo, fully identified with the Cuban anarchists, published all of Ferro's works."[4]

He died in New York City when he was 90 years old on December 7, 1986.[2]

American anarchist writer Hakim Bey in 1991 talked about Arrigoni in this way: "Like the Italian Stirnerites (who influenced us through our late friend Enrico Arrigoni) we support all anti-authoritarian currents, despite their apparent contradictions."[5]

Written works

  • The totalitarian nightmare (1975)
  • The lunacy of the Superman (1977)
  • Adventures in the country of the monoliths (1981)
  • Freedom: my dream First published by the Libertarian Book Club in 1937, reprinted by Western World Press in 1986, and LBC Books (Little Black Cart), March 2012.[6]


  1. ^ a b Enrico Arrigoni at the Daily Bleed's Anarchist Encyclopedia Archived May 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Paul Avrich. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America
  3. ^ "In the company of his old Italian friend Enrico Arrigoni, and urged on by him, Ferro commenced “to write several articles about the Cuban reality” which, with the help of Arrigoni’s translations, were published in the anarchist press of France, Italy, Mexico, and Argentina. According to Ferro, “In the majority of our milieus [these articles] were received with displeasure,” owing to the “enthusiasm” with which the Cuban Revolution had been received in them. But in other cases anarchists rallied to the Cuban libertarian cause. Reconstruir (“To Reconstruct”) in Buenos Aires, whose publishing house, Colectivo, fully identified with the Cuban anarchists, published all of Ferro’s works."Frank Fernández. Cuban Anarchism: The History of A Movement
  4. ^ a b Frank Fernández. Cuban Anarchism: The History of A Movement
  5. ^ Hakim Bey. "An esoteric interpretation of the I.W.W. preamble"
  6. ^ http://lbcbooks.com/freedom-my-dream/
Anarchism in Italy

Italian anarchism as a movement began primarily from the influence of Mikhail Bakunin, Giuseppe Fanelli, and Errico Malatesta. From there it expanded to include illegalist individualist anarchism and anarcho-syndicalism. It participated in the biennio rosso and survived fascism. The synthesist Italian Anarchist Federation appeared after the war, and the old factions alongside platformism and insurrectionary anarchism continue today.

Anarchism in the United States

Anarchism in the United States began in the mid-19th century and started to grow in influence as it entered the American labor movements, growing an anarcho-communist current as well as gaining notoriety for violent propaganda by the deed and campaigning for diverse social reforms in the early 20th century. In the post-World War II era, anarchism regained influence through new developments such as anarcho-pacifism, anarcho-capitalism, the American New Left and the counterculture of the 1960s. In contemporary times, anarchism in the United States influenced and became influenced and renewed by developments both inside and outside the worldwide anarchist movement such as platformism, insurrectionary anarchism, the new social movements (anarcha-feminism, queer anarchism and green anarchism) and the alterglobalization movements.

Anarchist schools of thought

Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds ruling classes and the state to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful, or alternatively as opposing authority and hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations. Proponents of anarchism, known as "anarchists", advocate stateless societies based on non-hierarchical voluntary associations. However, anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have often been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism or similar dual classifications. Anarchism is often considered a radical left-wing ideology and much of anarchist economics and anarchist legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism, mutualism or participatory economics. At some point "the collectivist, communist, and liberal and individualist strands of thought from which anarchists drew their inspiration began to assume an increasingly distinctive quality, supporting the rise of a number of anarchist schools". Anthropologist David Graeber has noted that while the major schools of Marxism always have founders (e.g. Leninism, Trotskyism and Maoism), schools of anarchism "almost invariably emerge from some kind of organizational principle or form of practice", citing anarcho-syndicalism, individualist anarchism and platformism as examples.

Egoist anarchism

Egoist anarchism is a school of anarchist thought that originated in the philosophy of Max Stirner, a 19th-century existentialist philosopher whose "name appears with familiar regularity in historically orientated surveys of anarchist thought as one of the earliest and best known exponents of individualist anarchism".


Enrico is both an Italian masculine given name and a surname, Enrico means homeowner, or king, derived from Heinrich of Germanic origin. It is also a given name in Ladino.

Equivalents in other languages are Henry (English), Henri (French), Enrique (Spanish), Henrique (Portuguese) and Hendrik (Dutch). Notable people with the name include:

Enrico Adelelmo Brunetti (1862–1927), British musician and entomologist

Enrico Albertosi (born 1939), Italian former football goalkeeper

Enrico Alfonso (born 1988), Italian football player

Enrico Alvino (1808–1872), Italian architect and urban designer

Enrico Annoni (born 1966), retired Italian professional footballer

Enrico Arrigoni (1894–1986), Italian individualist anarchist

Enrico Baj (1924–2003), Italian artist and art writer

Enrico Banducci (1922–2007), American impresario

Enrico Barone (1859–1924), Italian economist

Enrico Berlinguer (1923–1984), Italian politician

Enrico Bertaggia (born 1964), Italian former racing driver

Enrico Betti (1823–1892), Italian mathematician

Enrico Blasi (born 1972), Canadian hockey coach

Enrico Bombieri (born 1940), Italian mathematician

Enrico Boselli (born 1957), Italian politician

Enrico Brizzi (born 1974), Italian writer

Enrico Cardoso Nazaré (born 1984), Brazilian football player

Enrico Caruso (1873–1921), Italian opera singer

Enrico Castelnuovo (1839–1915), Italian writer

Enrico Caterino Davila (1576–1631), Italian historian

Enrico Caviglia (1862–1945), distinguished officer in the Italian army

Enrico Cecchetti (1850–1928), Italian ballet dancer

Enrico Celio (1889–1980), Swiss politician

Enrico Chiesa (born 1970), Italian football striker

Enrico Cialdini (1811–1892), Italian soldier, politician and diplomat

Enrico Ciccone (born 1970), retired Canadian ice hockey defenceman

Enrico Clementi (born 1931), Italian pioneer in computational techniques for quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics

Enrico Cocozza (1921–1997), Scottish filmmaker

Enrico Colantoni (born 1963), Canadian actor

Enrico Corradini (1865–1931), Italian novelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure

Enrico Cosenz (1820–1898), Italian soldier

Enrico Cuccia (1907-2000), Italian banker

Enrico Dandolo (c. 1107–1205), Doge of the city-state of Venice

Enrico Dante (1884–1967), Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church

Enrico David (born 1966), Italian artist

Enrico De Angelis (born 1920), Italian singer

Enrico de Lorenzo (20th century), Italian bobsledder

Enrico De Nicola (1877–1959), Italian jurist, journalist, and politician

Enrico Degano (born 1976), Italian professional road bicycle racer

Enrico degli Scrovegni (14th century), Paduan nobleman

Enrico Di Giuseppe (1932–2005), American operatic tenor

Enrico Donati (1909–2008), American surrealist painter and sculptor

Enrico Fabris (born 1981), Italian long track speed skater

Enrico Fantini (born 1976), Italian footballer

Enrico Fazzini (21st century), neurologist

Enrico Fermi (1901–1954), Italian-American physicist

Enrico Ferri (1856–1929), Italian criminologist and socialist

Enrico Forlanini (1848–1930), Italian engineer, inventor and aeronautical pioneer

Enrico Franzoi (born 1982), Italian professional cyclo-cross and road bicycle racer

Enrico Gamba (1831–1883), Italian artist

Enrico Garbuglia (1900–2007), Italian centenarian

Enrico Gasparotto (born 1982), Italian professional road racing cyclist

Enrico Gasparri (1871–1946), Roman Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop

Enrico Gatti (born 1955), Italian classical violinist

Enrico Gentile (20th century), Italian singer

Enrico Gilardi (born 1957), Italian former basketball player

Enrico Giovannini (born 1957), Italian economist and statistician

Enrico Haffner (1640–1702), Italian painter

Enrico Hillyer Giglioli (1845–1909), Italian zoologist and anthropologist

Enrico Kern (born 1979), German football player

Enrico Kühn (born 1977), German bobsledder

Enrico Letta (born 1966), Italian politician

Enrico Lo Verso (born 1964), Italian actor

Enrico Lorenzetti (1911–1989), Italian professional Grand Prix motorcycle road racer

Enrico Macias (born 1938), Algerian-born French Jewish singer

Enrico Mainardi (1897–1976), Italian cellist, composer, and conductor

Enrico Marconi (1792–1863), Italian-born architect

Enrico Maria Salerno (1926–1994), Italian theatre and film actor

Enrico Marini (born 1969), Swiss comic artist

Enrico Mattei (1906–1962), Italian public administrator

Enrico Minutoli (died 1412), Italian Cardinal

Enrico Mizzi (1885–1950), Maltese politician

Enrico Nardi (1907–1966), Italian racing car driver, engineer and designer

Enrico Pace (born 1967), Italian pianist

Enrico Paoli (1908–2005), Italian chess master

Enrico Pedrini (1940–2012), Italian theorist and collector of conceptual art

Enrico Perucconi (born 1925), Italian athlete

Enrico Pieranunzi (born 1949), Italian jazz pianist

Enrico Platé (1909–1954), Italian motor racing driver and team manager

Enrico Poitschke (born 1969), German road racing cyclist

Enrico Rastelli (1896–1931), Italian juggler, acrobat and performer

Enrico Rava (born 1939), Italian avant-garde jazz musician

Enrico Rocca (1847–1915), Italian violin maker

Enrico Rosenbaum (1944–1979), American songwriter, arranger, producer, guitarist and singer

Enrico Ruggeri (born 1957), Italian singer-songwriter

Enrico Sabbatini (1932–1998), Italian-born costume designer and production designer

Enrico Sertoli (1842–1910), Italian physiologist and histologist

Enrico Sgrulletti (born 1965), Italian hammer thrower

Enrico Sibilia (1861–1948), Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal

Enrico Stefani (20th century), Italian architect and archaeologist

Enrico Tameleo (died 1985), Italian-American mobster

Enrico Teodorani (born 1970), Italian comics writer, creator of Djustine

Enrico Toccacelo (born 1978), Italian auto racer

Enrico Toselli (1883–1926), Italian pianist and composer

Enrico Toti (1882–1916), Italian patriot and hero of World War I

Enrico Valtorta (1883–1951), Italian-born first Roman Catholic bishop of Hong Kong

Enrico Verson (1845–1927), Italian entomologist

Enrico Viarisio (1897–1979), Italian theatre and cinema actor

Enrico Villanueva (born 1980), Filipino professional basketball player

Enrico Wijngaarde (born 1974), Surinamese football referee

Enrico Zuccalli (c. 1640–1724), Swiss architect

Marco Enrico Bossi (1861–1925), Italian organist and composer

Robert Enrico (1931–2001), French film director and scriptwriterFictional characters:

Enrico Marini (Resident Evil), a fictional character from the Resident Evil video game series

Enrico Maxwell, a character from the manga and anime series Hellsing

Enrico Pollini, a character played by Rowan Atkinson from the film Rat Race

Enrico Pucci, a fictional character from the Japanese manga JoJo's Bizarre Adventure


Eresia may refer to:

Eresia, a journal edited by Enrico Arrigoni

Eresia (butterfly), a genus of butterflies

Eresia (album), a 1985 album by Declino


Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, while opposing external interference upon one's own interests by society or institutions such as the government. Individualism is often defined in contrast to totalitarianism, collectivism, and more corporate social forms.Individualism makes the individual its focus and so starts "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation." Classical liberalism, existentialism, and anarchism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis. Individualism thus involves "the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization".It has also been used as a term denoting "The quality of being an individual; individuality" related to possessing "An individual characteristic; a quirk." Individualism is thus also associated with artistic and bohemian interests and lifestyles where there is a tendency towards self-creation and experimentation as opposed to tradition or popular mass opinions and behaviors, as with humanist philosophical positions and ethics.

Individualist anarchism

Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and his will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems. Individualist anarchism is not a single philosophy, but it refers to a group of individualistic philosophies that sometimes are in conflict. Benjamin Tucker, a famous 19th century individualist anarchist, held that "if the individual has the right to govern himself, all external government is tyranny".

Individualist anarchism in Europe

Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and his or her will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems. European individualist anarchism proceeded from the roots laid by William Godwin, Individualist anarchism expanded and diversified through Europe, incorporating influences from American individualist anarchism.

Early European individualist anarchism was influenced by many philosophers, including Pierre Joseph Proudhon, Max Stirner, and Henry David Thoreau. Proudhon was an early pioneer of anarchism as well as of the important individualist anarchist current of mutualism. Stirner became a central figure of individualist anarchism through the publication of his seminal work The Ego and Its Own which is considered to be "a founding text in the tradition of individualist anarchism." The philosophy of Max Stirner supports the individual doing exactly what he pleases – taking no notice of God, state, or moral rules. To Stirner, rights were spooks in the mind, and he held that society does not exist but "the individuals are its reality"– he supported property by force of might rather than moral right. Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw "Union of egoists" drawn together by respect for each other's self-ownership. Thoreau emphasized the promotion of simple living, environmental stewardship, and civil disobedience were influential in European individualist anarchists.An important tendency within European individualist anarchism in general is the emphasis on individual subjective exploration and defiance of social conventions. Individualist anarchist philosophy attracted "amongst artists, intellectuals and the well-read, urban middle classes in general." As such Murray Bookchin describes a lot of individualist anarchism as people who "expressed their opposition in uniquely personal forms, especially in fiery tracts, outrageous behavior, and aberrant lifestyles in the cultural ghettos of fin de siecle New York, Paris, and London. As a credo, individualist anarchism remained largely a bohemian lifestyle, most conspicuous in its demands for sexual freedom ('free love') and enamored of innovations in art, behavior, and clothing.". In this way free love currents and other radical lifestyles such as naturism had popularity among individualist anarchists. Other important currents common within European individual anarchism include free love, illegalism, and freethought.Influential European individualist anarchists include Albert Libertad, Bellegarrigue, Oscar Wilde, Émile Armand, Lev Chernyi, John Henry Mackay, Han Ryner, Adolf Brand, Miguel Gimenez Igualada, Renzo Novatore, and Michel Onfray.

Individualist anarchism in the United States

Individualist anarchism in the United States was strongly influenced by Josiah Warren, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Lysander Spooner, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Max Stirner, Herbert Spencer and Henry David Thoreau. Other important individualist anarchists in the United States were Stephen Pearl Andrews, William Batchelder Greene, Ezra Heywood, M. E. Lazarus, John Beverley Robinson, James L. Walker, Joseph Labadie, Steven Byington and Laurance Labadie. The first American anarchist publication was The Peaceful Revolutionist, edited by Josiah Warren, whose earliest experiments and writings predate Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.

Libertarian League

Libertarian League was a name used by two American anarchist and libertarian socialist organisations during the twentieth century.

The first Libertarian League was founded in Los Angeles between the two World Wars. It was established mainly by Cassius V. Cook, Charles T. Sprading, Clarence Lee Swartz, Henry Cohen, Hans F. Rossner and Thomas Bell.The second Libertarian League was founded in New York City in 1954 as a political organisation building on the Libertarian Book Club. Members included Sam Dolgoff, Russell Blackwell, Dave Van Ronk, Enrico Arrigoni and Murray Bookchin. This league had a narrower political focus than the first, promoting anarchism and syndicalism. Its central principle, stated in its journal Views and Comments, was "equal freedom for all in a free socialist society". Branches of the League opened in a number of other American cities, including Detroit and San Francisco. It was dissolved at the end of the 1960s.


Libertarianism (from Latin: libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that claim to uphold liberty as a core principle. Libertarians seek to maximize political freedom and autonomy, emphasizing freedom of choice, voluntary association and individual judgment. Libertarians share a skepticism of authority and state power, but they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power, often calling for the restriction or dissolution of coercive social institutions.Traditionally, "libertarianism" was a term for a form of left-wing politics. Such left-libertarian ideologies seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production, or else to restrict their purview or effects, in favor of common or cooperative ownership and management, viewing private property as a barrier to freedom and liberty. Classical libertarian ideologies include—but are not limited to—anarcho-communism, anarcho-syndicalism, mutualism and egoism, alongside many other anti-paternalist, New Left schools of thought centered around economic egalitarianism. In the United States, modern right-libertarian ideologies, such as minarchism and anarcho-capitalism, co-opted the term in the mid-20th century to instead advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights such as in land, infrastructure and natural resources.

Philosophy of Max Stirner

The philosophy of Max Stirner is credited as a major influence in the development of individualism, nihilism, existentialism, post-modernism and anarchism (especially of egoist anarchism, individualist anarchism, postanarchism and post-left anarchy). Max Stirner's main philosophical work was The Ego and Its Own, also known as The Ego and His Own (Der Einzige und sein Eigentum in German, or more accurately The Individual and his Property). Stirner's philosophy has been cited as an influence on both his contemporaries, most notably Karl Marx (who was strongly opposed to Stirner's views) as well as subsequent thinkers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Enrico Arrigoni, Steven T. Byington, Benjamin Tucker, Émile Armand, Albert Camus and Saul Newman.

The Ego and Its Own

The Ego and Its Own (German: Der Einzige und sein Eigentum; meaningfully translated as The Individual and his Property, literally as The Unique and His Property) is an 1844 work by German philosopher Max Stirner. It presents a radically nominalist and individualist critique of Christianity, nationalism, and traditional morality on one hand; and on the other, humanism, utilitarianism, liberalism, and much of the then-burgeoning socialist movement, advocating instead an amoral (although importantly not inherently immoral or antisocial) egoism. It is considered a major influence on the development of anarchism, existentialism, nihilism, and postmodernism.

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