Enkapune Ya Muto, also known as Twilight Cave, is a Late Stone Age site on the Mau Escarpment of Kenya. Beads made of perforated ostrich egg shells found at the site have been dated to 40,000 years ago. The beads found at the site represent the early human use of personal ornaments.
|Enkapune Ya Muto|
location in Kenya
|Alternative name||Twilight Cave|
|Location||Mau Escarpment of Kenya|
The Balzi Rossi caves (Ligurian: baussi rossi "red rocks") in Ventimiglia commune, Liguria, Italy, is one of the most important archaeological sites of the early Upper Paleolithic in Western Europe.
Riparo Mochi remains, evidence for the earliest presence of modern humans in Europe (early Aurignacian, 42,000 years ago).
Grimaldi Man (Gravettian, c. 25,000 years)
Venus figurines of Balzi Rossi (Gravettian, c. 22,000 years)Belbaşı
Belbaşı is a cave and a late Paleolithic/Mesolithic site in southern Turkey, located southwest of Antalya.Cave of Bedmar
The Cueva de Bedmar is an archaeological site ranging from the Middle Paleolithic to the Neolithic period placed at Mágina mountain range natural park, nearby the town of Bedmar, in the province of Jaén in Spain.Divje Babe
Divje Babe is a Karst cave and archaeological park overlooking the Idrijca River in Slovenia. It is noted for its Paleolithic remains, including the worked bone of cave bear known as the Divje Babe Flute, which has been interpreted as a Neanderthal musical instrument.Guanyindong
Guanyindong (Chinese: 观音洞; pinyin: Guānyīndòng) or Guanyin Cave is a Palaeolithic cave site, discovered in 1964 in Qianxi County, Guizhou, China.
It contains the earliest evidence of stone artefacts made using the Levallois technique in China.The site has been on the List of Major National Historical and Cultural Sites in Guizhou Qianxi Guanyin dong yizhi (黔西观音洞遗址) since 2001.HaYonim Cave
HaYonim Cave (Hebrew: מערת היונים, Me'arat HaYonim, lit. Cave of the Pigeons) is a cave located in a limestone bluff about 250 meters above modern sea level, in the Upper Galilee, Israel.Harimaru
Harimau or Tiger Cave is a limestone cavern in the Indonesian island of Sumatra where the island's first known rock art has been discovered. The cave also held 66 skeletons of farmers from 3,000 years ago.Hato Caves
Hato Caves are show caves, publicly accessible since 1991 and a popular tourist attraction on the Caribbean island of Curaçao. The caves consist of marine coral limestone, which accumulated over millions of years and after sea levels had dropped were exposed to atmospheric corrosion and karstic processes. They are approximately 240 m (790 ft) long and cover an area of 4,900 m2 (53,000 sq ft) .Hunugalagala Limestone Cave
Hunugalagala is a Limestone cave, which is located in Haldummulla, Badulla District of Sri Lanka. It is assumed that this rock formation has been formed millions of years ago. The cave and the surrounding area has been used between 5,000 and 4,000 years ago. Archaeological excavations have been started in July 2013 and revealed grind-stones, painted potsherds, a stone statue of a man's upper body and bones of humans and animals.Stone utensils or grind-stones revealed that the prehistoric community was used to process food and allow to conclude basic pottery knowledge among the cave inhabitants.Kelif el Boroud
Kelif el Boroud, also known as Kehf el Baroud, is an archaeological site in Morocco. It is located to the south of Rabat, near Dar es Soltan.Human fossils excavated in the area have been radiocarbon-dated to the Late Neolithic, around 3,000 BCE. Ancient DNA analysis of these specimens indicates that they carried the broadly-distributed paternal haplogroup T-M184 as well as the maternal haplogroups K1, T2 and X2, the latter of which were common mtDNA lineages in Neolithic Europe and Anatolia.Koongine Cave
Koongine Cave is located in the Limestone Coast of South Australia.
The cave is situated in a limestone ridge approximately 4 km (2.5 mi) from the coastline. It was occupied approximately 10,000 years ago for a period of approximately 1,500 years leaving up to 2 m (7 ft) of sediments behind, rich in artefacts and ecofacts.Finger markings made by Indigenous Australians can be found on the walls of the cave.Ksar Akil
Ksar Akil (also Ksar 'Akil or Ksar Aqil) is an archeological site 10 km (6.2 mi) northeast of Beirut in Lebanon. It is located about 800 m (2,600 ft) west of Antelias spring on the north bank of the northern tributary of the Wadi Antelias. It is a large rock shelter below a steep limestone cliff.It was first noticed by Godefroy Zumoffen in 1900 and first studied by A. E. Day in 1926 then first systematically excavated by J.G. Doherty, S.J., and J.F. Ewing, S.J., in 1937-1938 and again in 1947-1948, then later by Jacques Tixier in 1969-1975 before research was interrupted by the Lebanese Civil War.
Excavations showed occupational deposits reaching down to a depth of 23.6 m (77 ft) with one of the longest sequences of Paleolithic flint industries ever found in the Middle East. The first level of 8 m (26 ft) contained Upper Levalloiso-Mousterian remains with long and triangular Lithic flakes. The level above this showed industries accounting for all six stages of the Upper Paleolithic. An Emireh point was found at the first stage of this level (XXIV), at around 15.2 m (50 ft) below datum, in association with the hominin mandible Ksar Akil 2. Studies by Hooijer showed Capra and Dama were dominant in the fauna along with Stephanorhinus in later Levalloiso-Mousterian levels.It is assumed to be one of the earliest known sites containing Upper Paleolithic technologies including Aurignacian cultural objects. Artifacts recovered from the site include Ksar Akil flakes, the main type of tool found at the site, along with pierced shells and chipped edge modifications that suggest these have been used as pendants or beads. This indicates that the inhabitants were among the first in Western Eurasia to use personal ornaments. Results from radiocarbon dating indicate that the early humans may have lived at the site approximately 45,000 years ago or earlier. The presence of personal ornaments at Ksar Akil is suggestive of modern human behavior. The findings of ornaments at the site are contemporaneous with ornaments found at Late Stone Age sites such as Enkapune ya muto.The site was rescued from burial under the sludge of gravel-making machines in 1964 by the Department of Antiquities, although is mostly unrecognizable due to quarrying operations with its talus buried under tons of soil.Aside from 10 teeth from Üçağızlı Cave in southern Turkey, Ksar Akil is the only site with hominin remains from the Early Upper Paleolithic and Initial Upper Paleolithic in the Levant.Last Supper Cave
The Last Supper Cave, near Denio, Nevada, United States, is an archeological site that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was listed on the National Register in 1975, for its potential to yield information in the future.Archeologists found that it had "evidence of substantial Paleoindian occupations including 44 Paleoindian points".Long Hole Cave
Long Hole, also spelled Longhole, is a limestone cave on the south coast of the Gower Peninsula between Paviland and Port Eynon. It is relatively small, measuring about 15 m (49 ft) deep after several excavations. It was first excavated in 1861 by Colonel E. R. Wood. Wood found evidence of a lithic assemblage and faunal remains. The faunal remains included cave hyena, reindeer, Woolly rhinoceros, mammoth, straight-tusked elephant and wild horse.A second excavation was conducted in 1969 by J. B. Campbell. Analysis of the evidence from the two excavations, including sediment and pollen as well as the lithic evidence, has identified Long Hole as an Aurignacian site contemporary with and related to the site at Paviland, evidence of the first modern humans in Britain.Mau Escarpment
The Mau Escarpment is a fault scarp running along the western edge of the Great Rift Valley in Kenya. The top of the escarpment reaches approximately 3000 m (10,000 ft) above sea level, and is over 1000 m higher than the floor of the Rift Valley.Muroya Cave
Muroya Cave (室谷洞窟, Muroya dōkutsu) is a Jōmon period archaeological site consisting of a cave dwelling in what is now part of the town of Aga, Niigata Prefecture in the Hokuriku region of Japan. The site was designated a National Historic Site of Japan in 1980.Ofnet Caves
The Ofnet Caves (German: Ofnethöhlen) are the remains of an underground karst system on the edge of the Nördlinger Ries in Germany. They are located on a limestone hill near Nördlingen, Bavaria. The caves became famous in 1908 when 33 prehistoric human skulls were discovered. The skulls were dated to the Mesolithic period.Ras Baalbek I
Ras Baalbek I (Arabic: ورأس بعلبك) is a rock shelter 500 m (1,600 ft) east of Ras Baalbek in the northern Beqaa Valley in Lebanon. It sits north of the Wadi Teniyet er-Râs valley at a height of 1,000 m (3,300 ft). It was first discovered by Lorraine Copeland and Peter Wescombe in 1965-1966. It was later excavated by Jacques Besançon in 1970. Retouched blades along with a pressure-flaked arrowhead and a burin were found dated to the Neolithic period.Yafteh
Yafteh is an Upper Paleolithic cave located at the foot of Yafteh Mountain in the Zagros Mountains range, located northwest of Khoramabad in western Zagros, Lorestan Province of western Iran.