Eni

Eni S.p.A. (Italian pronunciation: [ˈɛːni]) is an Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome. Considered one of the global supermajors, it has operations in 79 countries, and is currently world's 11th largest industrial company with a market capitalization of 68 billion euros (US$ 90 billion), as of August 14, 2013.[2] The Italian government owns a 30.303% golden share in the company, 3.934% held through the state Treasury and 26.369% held through the Cassa Depositi e Prestiti. Another 2.012% of the shares are held by the People's Bank of China.[3] The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.[4]

The name "ENI" was initially the acronym of "Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi" (National Hydrocarbons Authority). Through the years after its foundation however, it operated in a large number of fields including contracting, nuclear power, energy, mining, chemicals and plastics, refining/extraction and distribution machinery, hospitality industry and even textile industry and news.

Eni constantly ranks among the top 100 on Fortune Global 500 list for largest companies by revenue. In 2016, the company holds the 65th place, a fall of 40 places from the previous year's 25th rank.[5]

In terms of share capitalisation (the market value of shares), Eni is ranked eighth in comparison with the principal companies operating in the same sector: Exxon, Shell, Chevron, Total, BP, ConocoPhillips, Equinor, Anadarko, Apache and Marathon Oil.[6]

Eni S.p.A.
Listed
Traded asBITENI
NYSEE
FTSE MIB Component
ISINIT0003132476
IndustryOil and gas
FoundedFebruary 10, 1953
Headquarters,
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Emma Marcegaglia (Chairman)
Claudio Descalzi (CEO)
ProductsPetroleum
Natural gas
Petroleum products
Energy
RevenueIncrease 76.938 billion (2018)[1]
Increase €9.983 billion (2018)[1]
Increase €4.126 billion (2018)[1]
Total assetsIncrease €118.373 billion (2018)[1]
Total equityIncrease €51.016 billion (2018)[1]
Number of employees
30,950 (2018)[1]
SubsidiariesEni Gas & Power, Saipem, Syndial, EniProgetti, Versalis
Websitewww.eni.com

History

1950s–1960s

Paolo Monti - Servizio fotografico (Roma, 1967) - BEIC 6364270
Palazzo ENI, Rome, built 1959-1962.[7] Photo by Paolo Monti, 1967.

Eni was founded and established by law in 1953 from an existing company, Agip, which was created in 1926 with the aim to explore for oilfields, acquire and commercialize oil and derivatives.[8][9] In March 1953, Enrico Mattei was nominated Eni's Chairman.[10][11]

Eni originally was an acronym for the company's full title Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (National Hydrocarbons Authority).[12] After 1995, the meaning ceased to be relevant but the name was maintained.[13] In 1952 Eni adopted its logo, a six-legged dog, an imaginary animal symbolizing the sum of a car's four wheels and the two legs of its driver.[14][15]

Starting in 1954, Eni acquired extensive exploration rights in North Africa, signing an agreement with the Egyptian government led by Nasser while providing an active and equal role for the crude producing countries through the establishment of joint ventures.[12][16][17] In 1957 Eni pushed for a similar agreement, known as the "Mattei formula",[18][19] to be signed with Persian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the National Iranian Oil Company.[20][21][22] In 1960, during the Cold War period, Eni signed an agreement with the Soviet Union for the importation of Russian crude at low prices.[23][24]

On 27 October 1962, Enrico Mattei's airplane mysteriously exploded near Bascapè, on his way to Milan from Catania.[25][26] His death was initially considered an accident, but later it was confirmed to be a murder with the aim to protect and hide important economical and political interests in Italy and especially abroad, as it is clearly stated in the records of the trial on the assassination of the journalist Mauro De Mauro, who was investigating on the death of Enrico Mattei.[27]

During the following years, Eni signed joint venture contracts with foreign companies to supply crude from Egypt to Iran and from Libya to Tunisia.[28] In 1963, Eni acquired a majority stake in Italgas.[29]

1970s–1980s

In October 1973 after the Yom Kippur War and the OPEC embargo[30][31] against the United States and the Netherlands by OPEC members and Arab countries, a serious his oil crisis occurred,[32] causing Eni to consolidate its position in the international market by signing an agreement with Sonatrach,[33] the Algerian state oil entity for natural gas supply.[34]

In 1974 Eni signed an agreement with the Libyan government, followed by additional agreements with Egypt, Nigeria and Tunisia.[35][36][37][38]

During the mid-1970s, Eni planned a major infrastructure for transporting natural gas over long distances, by building a pipeline network of thousands of miles throughout Europe and the Mediterranean.[39][40][41]

After the inauguration of the Trans-Mediterranean Pipeline connecting Algeria to Sicily through Tunisia,[42] Eni signs a new agreement with Libya for the exploitation of Boùri,[43] the biggest oilfield in the centre of the Mediterranean,[44] and develops its international role within the oil industry.[45]

1990s–2000s

In 1992 Eni became a joint stock company by Law Decree,[46][47][48][49][50] and was listed to the Italian and New York Stock Exchange in 1995.[51][52][53]

From 1995 to 1998 Eni put four share offers fully successfully, as 70% of its capital assets were sold to private shareholders.[54][55][56]

As the price of oil collapsed in 1998 as other major companies Eni got to turn into a race through merges, international acquisitions, new explorations and the foundation of real super-companies.[57][58][59]

2000s–2010s

Since 2000, Eni has been developing the Kashagan[60] oilfield a major offshore discovery, along the Caspian Sea.[61][62]

In 2005 the Blue Stream pipeline projected to supply gas from southern Russia to Turkey was inaugurated as a joint venture between Eni and Gazprom.[63][64][65]

In 2007 Eni signed an agreement to conduct South Stream a feasibility study with Gazprom to import Russian gas into Europe across the Black Sea.[66][67][68]

Activist asset manager Knight Vinke, who owns 1% of the outstanding shares of the company, begun pressuring Eni's management to operate a spin-off of Eni's gas activities. In its opinion this would solve the undervaluation of the company and release up to 50 billion euros ($70bn) of hidden value.[69]

In 2010 Eni achieves key production milestone in Iraqi Zubair oil field.[70][71][72]

After getting a licence in 2006 for the exploration of an offshore area in the north of Mozambique, known as Area 4,[73][74][75] Eni announced several major natural gas discoveries between 2011 and 2012 such as Mamba South,[76][77][78][79][80][81] Mamba North,[82][83] Mamba North East,[84][85][86][87] Coral 1.[88][89][90][91]

2010 to present

In February 2014, ENI discovered oil at its DRC offshore block.[92]

Since 2012 Eni has been selling off refining and marketing assets it owned in eastern Europe in order to increase profitability. By 2013 Eni already reduced its refining capacity by 13 percent. In May 2014 Eni agreed to sell their 32.5% share in Česká rafinerská a.s. (CRC), a refining company in Czech Republic, to MOL Group of Hungary.[93]

In June 2014 the company signed an agreement with Sasol to acquire a 40% interest in a permit to explore 82,000-km2 offshore of South Africa's east coast.[94]

In January 2015, Eni in collaboration with Vitol Energy signed a $7 billion contract with the government of Ghana. This agreement was reached in order to produce oil and gas at Cape Three Points in the Western Region of Ghana, in an attempt to enable Ghana to meet its power and energy needs.

In August 2015 Eni announced the discovery of a huge gasfield off the coast of Egypt.[95]

In July 2017, the oil giant accepted responsibility for an oil spill affecting the Fylde coast of Blackpool in the United Kingdom.[96]

In March 2018, Eni reached an agreement with MIT to fund fusion research projects run out of the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC)’s newly created Laboratory for Innovation in Fusion Technologies (LIFT). The expected investment in these research projects will amount to about $2 million over the following years.[97]

Financial data

Financial data in € billions[98]
Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Revenue 116.107 110.948 68.945 56.693 70.9807
Net Income 4.972 0.850 -7.127 -1.044 3.430
Assets 138.088 146.207 134.792 124.545 114.928
Employees 82,289 84,405 29,053 33,536 32,934

Operations

Bouri NC 41 DP4 platform
Eni Oil Bouri DP4 in Bouri Field is the biggest platform in the Mediterranean Sea

Exploration and production

As exploration and reserve replacement being major drivers for the company,[99] Eni boosts for production additions in its core oil field areas (North and Sub-Saharan Africa,[100][101][102][103] Venezuela,[104][105] Barents Sea,[106][107] Yamal Peninsula,[108][109] Kazakhstan,[110][111] Iraq[112] and the Far East).[113][114] Eni has about 130 exploration and production subsidiaries,[115] such as Eni Norge.[116]

In 2012 Eni reported liquids and gas production for the full year of 1,701 kboe/d, this being calculated assuming a natural gas conversion factor to barrel equivalent, updated to 5,492 cubic feet of gas equal 1 barrel of oil from July 1, 2012.[99][117]

During 2012 60 new exploratory wells were drilled, as 56 were drilled in 2011 and 47 in 2010. The overall commercial success rate was 40% (40.8% net to Eni) as compared to 42% in 2011 (38.6% net to Eni) and 41% in 2010 (39% net to Eni). In 2012 351 development wells were drilled as well, as 407 in 2011 and 399 in 2010.[118][119][120]

Gas and power

Natural gas

In 2012, sales of natural gas were 95.32 bcm, down 1.44 bcm compared to 2011.[121][122][123]

Eni's power generation sites are located in Ferrera Erbognone, Ravenna, Livorno, Taranto, Mantova, Brindisi, Ferrara and Bolgiano.[124][125] In 2012, Eni's power generation was 25.67 TWh.[126][127]
Overall Eni supplies 2,600 customers including large companies, power generation companies, wholesalers and distributors of natural gas for automotive use. Residential users are 7.45 million and include households, professionals, small and medium size enterprises, and public bodies located all over Italy and 2.09 million customers in European Countries. International sales include Iberian Peninsula, Germany, Austria, Benelux, Hungary, UK/Northern Europe, Turkey, France markets.[128][129][130][131][132]

Power generation

Eni's electricity generation sites in Italy, as of January 2010, are the following:[133]

Natural gas power plants
Photovoltaic power plants

Refining and marketing

Eni is the leader operator in refining and marketing of petroleum products in Italy.[134][135]
Eni is engaged in retail and wholesales activities in Central-Eastern European countries also (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Hungary).[136][137][138][139]
Retail sales operations are conducted under the Eni and Agip brands. The re-branding of Eni's service stations in Italy and in the rest of Europe to Eni brand is underway.[134][140][141]

Engineering and construction

Eni operates in engineering, construction and drilling both offshore and onshore for the oil&gas industry through the subsidiary Saipem.[142]

In April 2012, Eni in collaboration with ZEiTECS announced the world's first offshore rigless/wireline retrievable ESP system for Eni Congo.[143]

Subsidiaries

Eni's principal subsidiaries include:

  • Eni Gas & Power[144] (100% owned) – a natural gas and power company based in Belgium formed by merger of Distrigas and Nuon Belgium
  • Versalis (100% owned) – Versalis is a chemical company that manages the production and marketing of petrochemical products such as olefines, aromatics and intermediates (base chemicals), styrenes, elastomers and polyethylene, plus in recent years a focus on green chemistry, being also able to count on a range of proprietary technologies, advanced plant facilities and a broad-based distribution network.
  • Saipem (30,54% owned) – Saipem is an oil and gas industry contractor. Saipem has contracted for engineering, oilfield services and construction both offshore and onshore through several pipelines, including Blue Stream, Greenstream, Nord Stream and South Stream. It is a subsidiary listed on the Italian Stock Exchange.
  • Eni UK – carries out operations in the British section of the North Sea, in the Irish Sea and off the coast of the Shetland Islands. Has been present in UK since 1964. In 2006 Eni UK's average net production of hydrocarbons was more than 141,000 boe/d.[145]
  • Eni India – is expected to start drilling at a deepwater block 2, near Andaman and Nicobar Islands in Q2 of 2011 as it has received 2-year extension for the completion of drilling program. The program was delayed due to various environmental issues and scarcity of oil rigs. ENI India had won this block in 2005 and partners with ONGC and GAIL India.[146]

Legal problems

The Central Energy Italian Gas Holding scandal in 2005 involved Eni and Gazprom.[147]

In 2009, the European Commission filed formal antitrust charges against Eni. The commission believes that Eni has conspired to keep competitors from using its gas pipelines.[148]

In 2009 again, according to the WikiLeaks cables, US ambassador Lanier told Washington that bribery allegations were made in Uganda by Eni which at the time was in competition for oil assets in the country against Tullow Oil. The bribes were taken by the newly appointed Ugandan prime minister, Amama Mbabazi.[149]

After corruption charges against the subsidiary Saipem, Eni's CFO Alessandro Bernini had to resign and the new CFO Massimo Mondazzi took over in December 2012.[150]

Eni and Royal Dutch Shell will stand trial in Italy over allegations of corruption in the 2011 purchase of a big offshore oil field in Nigeria known as OPL 245. Eni and Shell reportedly paid $1.3 billion in bribes.[151]

Sustainability

Jordan Engel has listed the company among the top-100 companies killing the planet; these are the companies responsible for the 100 biggest contributions to Global Warming, responsible for more than 70% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions since 1988.[152]

Eni has been included into the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index since 2007.[153][154][155][156]

In 2012 Eni is confirmed on the FTSE4Good Index for the sixth consecutive year.[157][158][159]

In 2012 Eni is also included in the Carbon Performance Leadership Index[160][161] and is the only FTSE MIB company to gain the triple E for Standard Ethics.[162]

During 2012, Eni decreased CO2 emission that resulted from flaring by 10% as compared to 2011.[163][164]

In 2013 Eni has been confirmed in the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices and, in the half-yearly review in March 2014, also in the FTSE4 good sustainability index.[165][166]

In 2013 Eni continued its commitment to integrated reporting, preparing the Annual Report 2013 in accordance with the principles and contents of the integrated reporting (IR) framework issued by the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC).[167][168]

Among the UN Sustainable Development Solution Network (SDSN), in 2013 Eni led the Energy For All in Sub-Saharan Africa initiative through international collaborations aimed at devising solutions to fight against energy poverty, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa.[169][170]

In 2013 Eni's commitment continued in ensuring access of local communities to energy, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa.[171]

In the first half of 2014 Eni achieved the start-up of the Porto Torres green chemistry plant and the Venice biorefinery.[172][173]

Eni has been ranked as the 11th best of 92 oil, gas, and mining companies on indigenous rights in the Arctic.[174]

Corporate structure

Board of Directors

The Board of Directors is comprised as follows as of January 2019:
Emma Marcegaglia, Chairman of Eni S.p.a.
Claudio Descalzi, current CEO of Eni
Andrea Gemma, law professor at Roma Tre University
Pietro Guindani, former CEO and CFO of Vodafone Italy
Karina Litvack, former Director of Ethics and Corporate Governance for F&C Asset Management
Alessandro Lorenzi, former Vice President of Planning and Control at Ferrero SpA, former CFO of Coin Group, former CCO for Lavazza
Diva Moriani, current CEO of KME Vorstand
Fabrizio Pagani, current Secretary of Technology for Ministry of Economy and Finance (Italy), former OECD senior advisor and head of G8/G20 office
Domenico Livio Trombone

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Eni Results 2018" (PDF). www.eni.com. 2018.
  2. ^ "Summary for Eni SpA". Retrieved 2013-08-14.
  3. ^ "Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa". consob.it. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14.
  4. ^ Frankfurt Stock Exchange Archived November 19, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Fortune Global 500 Eni 65".
  6. ^ "Market Cap Eni and Peers". eni.com.
  7. ^ La costruzione dell'architettura: temi e opere del dopoguerra italiano. Gangemi Editore. 2016. pp. 190–. ISBN 978-88-492-9096-7.
  8. ^ "ENI SPA (ENI:BrsaItaliana): Stock Quote & Company Profile - Businessweek". Businessweek.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15.
  9. ^ ENI SPA NYSE Archived 2012-05-30 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Introducing Enrico Mattei - enihistory". eni.com.
  11. ^ "FEEM - Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei - About us - Enrico Mattei". feem.it. Archived from the original on 2011-08-16.
  12. ^ a b "Eni". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  13. ^ "What does Eni stand for?". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02.
  14. ^ History of the trademark Archived 2013-06-19 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "What is the significance of the "six-legged dog" in the Eni symbol?". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2015-10-06.
  16. ^ "1954 - MOVING AROUND THE WORLD. ALL YOU NEED IS A FORMULA". eni.com.
  17. ^ Society of Petroleum Engineers
  18. ^ "Enrico Mattei". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  19. ^ "1957 - THE MATTEI FORMULA, ANOTHER WINNING MOVE". enihistory.
  20. ^ Eni in Egypt Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "OIL AGREEMENTS IN IRAN". iranicaonline.org.
  22. ^ "ENI". wordpress.com.
  23. ^ "CEO Paolo Scaroni discusses Eni-Russia relations: past, present and future". thinkRUSSIA. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
  24. ^ "A History of US Petroleum Wars by We Fight for Oil". epubbud.com.
  25. ^ "1962 - A LIGHT GOES OFF OVER THE SKY OF Bascapè. - enihistory". eni.com.
  26. ^ "The Mystery of Enrico Mattei". HistoricWings.com: A Magazine for Aviators, Pilots and Adventurers.
  27. ^ "La sentenza su De Mauro "Ucciso per lo scoop su Mattei" - Palermo - Repubblica.it". Palermo - La Repubblica. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
  28. ^ "Oil Company Histories". virginia.edu.
  29. ^ "Learn about Italgas". www.italgas.it.
  30. ^ "Oil Embargo, 1973–1974 - 1969–1976 - Milestones - Office of the Historian". state.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01.
  31. ^ "OPEC states declare oil embargo". HISTORY.com.
  32. ^ "1973-74 Oil Crisis". berkeley.edu.
  33. ^ "Research Library". bakerinstitute.org. Archived from the original on 2013-05-04.
  34. ^ "The 70s/80s". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-17.
  35. ^ "National Oil Corporation-Eni gas company". Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  36. ^ The Race for Energy: from 1972 to 1998 Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "Pipelines or pipe dreams? Lessons from the history of Arab transit pipelines". macam.ac.il.
  38. ^ Eni in Libya Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ press@nato-pa.int. "NATO PA - 166 GSM 03 - ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE MEDITERRANEAN". nato-pa.int. Archived from the original on 2005-11-09.
  40. ^ "Trans-Mediterranean Pipeline". Pipelines International.
  41. ^ Pipelines in the Middle East and North Africa Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ "Trans-Mediterranean Natural Gas Pipeline - Hydrocarbons Technology". hydrocarbons-technology.com.
  43. ^ "ENI (Agip) Bouri". FMC Technologies.
  44. ^ "Libya gas export project sets records". offshore-mag.com.
  45. ^ "1978 - HOUSTON, WE HAVE A CONTRACT. - enihistory". eni.com.
  46. ^ "Share Capital Evolution". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02.
  47. ^ "E stock quote - ENI S.p.A. stock price - NASDAQ.com". NASDAQ.com.
  48. ^ "1992 – A private affair, at the sevice [sic] of everyone. - enihistory". eni.com.
  49. ^ "Eni signs agreements on industrial relations and green economy". europa.eu.
  50. ^ "Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI) S.P.A." ide.go.jp.
  51. ^ Eni SpA Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ "1995 – The stock exchange listing! - enihistory". eni.com.
  53. ^ "Who will run Eni?". The Economist.
  54. ^ "The History of Privatization". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-14.
  55. ^ "Login to access the Oil & Gas Journal Subscriber Premium features". ogj.com.
  56. ^ "eni s.p.a." aebrus.ru.
  57. ^ "The Top 10 Oil & Gas Companies" (PDF).
  58. ^ The Race for Energy: from 1998 to 2009 Archived 2013-12-04 at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ Mergers and restructuring in the world oil industry Archived 2016-05-22 at the Portuguese Web Archive
  60. ^ "ABOUT KASHAGAN". ncoc.kz. Archived from the original on 2013-09-16. Retrieved 2013-08-13.
  61. ^ "2001 – Conquering Kashagan. - enihistory". eni.com.
  62. ^ "Kashagan Offshore Oil Field Project - Offshore Technology". offshore-technology.com.
  63. ^ Alves, Joao (2016). "Blue Stream". eni.com: 18. Bibcode:2016rffe.confE..18A. Archived from the original on 2012-09-28.
  64. ^ "Hydrocarbons Industry Projects - Hydrocarbons Technology". hydrocarbons-technology.com.
  65. ^ Eni, Blue Stream project Archived 2014-08-12 at the Wayback Machine
  66. ^ "Eni and Gazprom sign the agreement for the South Stream Project". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-08.
  67. ^ "South Stream Gas Pipeline". gulfoilandgas.com.
  68. ^ "South Stream Pipeline Project, Europe". hydrocarbons-technology.com.
  69. ^ "Letter to Eni CEO" (PDF). Knight Vinke Asset Management. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
  70. ^ "Eni achieves key production milestone in the Zubair field, in Iraq". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-03-28.
  71. ^ Gina Chon (4 November 2009). "Eni Signs Pact to Develop Iraq's Zubair Oil Field - WSJ". WSJ.
  72. ^ "Journal of Petroleum Technology - Company News". spe.org.
  73. ^ Eni in Mozambique Archived 2013-01-06 at the Wayback Machine
  74. ^ "Mozambique: Galp Energia and Eni to drill offshore Mozambique in September". Archived from the original on 2013-08-13. Retrieved 2013-08-13.
  75. ^ "Italian group ENI finds more natural gas in Mozambique". Macauhub English.
  76. ^ "ABO - About Oil - Our Publications". abo.net. Archived from the original on 2015-10-06.
  77. ^ "Explorer". aapg.org.
  78. ^ "Eni increases the Mamba South gas discovery in Mozambique by 50%". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-11.
  79. ^ "SubSeaIQ - Offshore Field Development Projects". subseaiq.com.
  80. ^ "Eni discovers gas at Mamba South offshore Mozambique". offshore-technology.com.
  81. ^ "Italy's ENI claims giant gas discovery in Mozambique". Modern Ghana.
  82. ^ "Eni: new giant gas discovery in the offshore Mozambique". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-21.
  83. ^ "Rovuma Basin promissing to ENI with Mozambique Mamba discoveries « 2B1stconsulting". 2b1stconsulting.com.
  84. ^ "NEWS". 1derrick.com.
  85. ^ Alan Petzet. "Eni adds Paleocene pay, 10+ tcf off Mozambique". ogj.com.
  86. ^ "Eni announces Mozambique gas discovery". bus-ex.com.
  87. ^ "Mozambique: Eni makes new natural gas discovery in the region". esteri.it.
  88. ^ "Eni: important new discovery in Mozambique". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-31.
  89. ^ ENI STRIKES ‘GIANT' NATURAL GAS FIELD AT CORAL PROSPECT Archived 2015-10-07 at the Wayback Machine
  90. ^ Super User. "Eni announces major new gas discovery offshore Mozambique". Oil Review Africa.
  91. ^ Zacks Investment Research (6 October 2015). "Eni Makes a Major Gas Discovery". Zacks Investment Research.
  92. ^ Eni finds oil and gas offshore DR Congo, Africa: Oil Review Africa, 2014
  93. ^ OGJ Editors (May 7, 2014). "Eni sheds eastern European refining assets". Oil and Gas Journal. Retrieved 20 May 2014. A series of capacity reductions in its Italian refining business over the last 3 years contributed a 13% reduction in the company's global refining capacity in 2013, according to Eni.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  94. ^ "Italy's Eni acquires 40pc interest in Sasol's gas offshore permit". South Africa News.Net. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  95. ^ Adams, Christopher (30 August 2015). "Eni discovers 'supergiant' gasfield near Egypt". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  96. ^ "Blackpool Gazette". Blackpool Gazette.
  97. ^ "A new era in fusion research at MIT". MIT News. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  98. ^ "ENI Bilanz, Gewinn und Umsatz | ENI Geschäftsbericht | 897791". wallstreet-online.de. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
  99. ^ a b "Exploration & Production". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-02.
  100. ^ Eni Makes Big Oil Find in Africa Amid New Sub-Saharan Success
  101. ^ "Eni Makes Significant Oil & Gas Discovery Offshore Congo". Offshore Energy Today.
  102. ^ "9Colonne - Eni: First important oil discovery in OTCP Block offshore Ghana". 9Colonne.
  103. ^ "Eni Discovers Significant Hydrocarbon Offshore Congo". usaoilandgasmonitor.com.
  104. ^ PennEnergy Editorial Staff. "Eni announces first production from Junin-5 oil field in Venezuela". pennenergy.com.
  105. ^ "Oil Production Kicks Off At Junin-5 In Venezuela". epmag.com.
  106. ^ "Eni awarded new exploration licenses in the Barents Sea". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-07-31.
  107. ^ "Eni gets exploration licenses in Barents Sea, offshore Norway".
  108. ^ "No Transcript Data". morningstar.com.
  109. ^ "Eni's CEO Hosts 2012-2015 Strategy Presentation Call (Transcript)". nasdaq.com.
  110. ^ Amarsys. "Kazakhstan: Eni sees Kashagan to produce 75,000 barrels a day in first month". energy-pedia.com.
  111. ^ Eni Releases 2013-2016 Strategic Plan Archived 2013-10-29 at the Wayback Machine
  112. ^ Iraq Archived 2013-08-26 at the Wayback Machine
  113. ^ "- Eni: awarded East Sepinggan block in... - Europétrole". euro-petrole.com.
  114. ^ OGJ editors. "Eni sees 4%/year output rise through 2016". ogj.com.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  115. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2013-10-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  116. ^ "Eni Norge". eninorge.com.
  117. ^ "Oil and gas production". eni.com.
  118. ^ "Drilling". eni.com.
  119. ^ "Exploration and Development". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-06-10.
  120. ^ Annual report 2012 Archived 2015-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
  121. ^ "Gas & Power". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30.
  122. ^ "Previous Year's Results". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-07-28.
  123. ^ "History and development of the Company". nyse.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-13.
  124. ^ "Sannazzaro Refinery - Hydrocarbons Technology". hydrocarbons-technology.com.
  125. ^ "Eni SpA (E) Company Profile - Reuters.com". reuters.com.
  126. ^ "Power Generation". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31.
  127. ^ "Power". eni.com.
  128. ^ "Sales of natural gas". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31.
  129. ^ "Eni". mercuriurval.com.
  130. ^ "Eni to Begin Trading Under Own Name in Belgium". naturalgaseurope.com.
  131. ^ "Eni Aims for 500,000 Customers in France Under Own Brand". naturalgaseurope.com.
  132. ^ "Eni Acquires Belgian Gas Company". LNG World News.
  133. ^ "Gas & Power". Eni. 2011-11-29. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  134. ^ a b "Refining & Marketing". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-01-26.
  135. ^ "The Italian Gas Market: Challenges and Opportunities" (PDF).
  136. ^ "Marketing of refined products". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31.
  137. ^ "Eni will sell gas on the French retail market under its own brand". enerdata.net.
  138. ^ "Eni enters the retail natural gas market in France". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-11-06.
  139. ^ "Eni will operate on the Belgian retail market under its own brand". enerdata.net.
  140. ^ "Eni announces results for the third quarter and the nine months of 2012". akbizmag.com.
  141. ^ "Petrol World - Magazine" (PDF). petrolworld.com.
  142. ^ "Engineering & Construction". Eni. Archived from the original on 2012-06-26. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  143. ^ "Eni and ZEiTECS Install Eni Congo's First Rigless Retrievable ESP System". BrightWire. Archived from the original on 2012-09-05.
  144. ^ "Eni Elektriciteit Aardgas Electricité Gaz Naturel". eni.be. Archived from the original on 2018-09-04. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
  145. ^ "Eni starts production at the Blane oil field offshore UK". Milan: Eni. 2007-09-12. Archived from the original on 2012-01-14. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  146. ^ "ENI India to start drilling in Q2 of 2011". The Economic Times. Kolkata. 2010-10-26. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  147. ^ The Putin and Pals Project Archived 2013-11-07 at the Wayback Machine. Kommersant. Dec. 24, 2005
  148. ^ EU hits Italian energy group ENI with antitrust charges Archived 2009-04-26 at the Wayback Machine
  149. ^ "Uganda names bribes-claim minister new PM". Reuters. 2011-05-24.
  150. ^ Bond Market Debut for New Eni CFO Mondazzi Archived 2013-01-19 at the Wayback Machine CFO Insight Magazine, January 2013
  151. ^ "Oil deal corruption trial in Italy is 'wake-up call for industry'". The Guardian. 4 March 2018.
  152. ^ "The Decolonial Atlas - Names and Locations of the Top 100 People Killing the Planet". 27 April 2019.
  153. ^ "13 September 2012 - Eni confirmed in the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index". eni.com. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012.
  154. ^ Sustainability Index, Annual review 2012 Archived 2013-05-30 at the Wayback Machine
  155. ^ 4-traders (13 September 2012). "Eni SpA : Eni confirmed in Dow Jones Sustainability World Index". 4-traders.com.
  156. ^ "Eni confirmed in Dow Jones Sustainability World Index". This is Italy.
  157. ^ "17 September 2012 – Eni confirmed in the FTSE4Good Index". eni.com. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012.
  158. ^ Country classificationin FTSE Global benchmarks Archived February 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  159. ^ 4-traders (17 October 2012). "Eni SpA : Eni confirmed in the FTSE4Good Index". 4-traders.com.
  160. ^ "12 September 2012 – Eni enters Cdp's Carbon Performance Leadership Index (CPLI)". eni.com. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
  161. ^ CDP climate performance scores Archived 2013-04-04 at the Wayback Machine
  162. ^ "STOCK EXCHANGE: STANDARD ETHICS, ENI IS THE ONLY COMPANY IN THE FTSE MIB WITH A TRIPLE E". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02.
  163. ^ "Climate Change". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-07.
  164. ^ Fact Book 2012 Archived 2014-08-17 at the Wayback Machine
  165. ^ Eni - Sustainability Indices Archived 2014-08-17 at the Wayback Machine
  166. ^ "The sustainability in Eni". eni.com. 2019-01-28.
  167. ^ "Eni S.p.A. Annual Report 2013 - Welcome". eni.com.
  168. ^ "Business Model". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-16.
  169. ^ "Partnerships for Sustainable Energy". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-16.
  170. ^ "Eni for 2013". eni.com.
  171. ^ "Sustainable Development Solutions Network". unsdsn.org.
  172. ^ "Green Refinery Project". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-16.
  173. ^ "Matrìca: Porto Torres inaugurates new green chemistry complex". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-12.
  174. ^ Overland, Indra (2016). "Ranking Oil, Gas and Mining Companies on Indigenous Rights in the Arctic". ResearchGate. Arran. Retrieved 2 August 2018.

Sources

Bibliography

  • ‹See Tfd›(in English) Marcello Boldrini, Mattei, Rome, Colombo, 1969
  • ‹See Tfd›(in Italian) Marcello Colitti, Energia e sviluppo in Italia, Bari, De Donato, 1979
  • ‹See Tfd›(in English) Paul H. Frankel, Oil and Power Policy, New York - Washington, Praeger, 1966
  • ‹See Tfd›(in English) Pier Paolo Pasolini, Petrolio, various
  • ‹See Tfd›(in Italian) Nico Perrone, Enrico Mattei, Bologna, Il mulino, 2001 ISBN 88-15-07913-0

External links

2010 United States House of Representatives election in American Samoa

The United States House of Representatives election in American Samoa, which will contest American Samoa lone At-large congressional district, was held on November 2, 2010. The non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives is elected for two-year terms; whoever is elected will serve in the 112th Congress from January 3, 2011 until January 3, 2013.

Incumbent Eni Faleomavaega of the Democratic Party has held the seat since 1989.

Agip

Agip (Azienda Generale Italiana Petroli—General Italian Oil Company) is an Italian former automotive gasoline, diesel, LPG, lubricants, fuel oil, and bitumen retailer established in 1926. It has been a subsidiary of the multinational petroleum company Eni. In 2003, Eni acquired Agip Petroli S.p.A., creating the Refining and Marketing Division (R&M).

Bengkulu language

Bengkulu is a Malayic language spoken on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, around the city of Bengkulu. It is more closely related to other Malay variants in Sumatra such as Col, Jambi Malay and Palembang Malay as well Minangkabau spoken in neighbouring West Sumatra than to Rejangese language, which is also spoken in the province.

Blue Stream

Blue Stream is a major trans-Black Sea gas pipeline that carries natural gas from Russia into Turkey. The pipeline has been constructed by the Blue Stream Pipeline B.V., the Netherlands based joint venture of Russian Gazprom and Italian Eni. The Blue Stream Pipeline B.V. is an owner of the subsea section of pipeline, including Beregovaya compressor station, while Gazprom owns and operates the Russian land section of the pipeline and the Turkish land section is owned and operated by the Turkish energy company BOTAŞ. According to Gazprom the pipeline was built with the intent of diversifying Russian gas delivery routes to Turkey and avoiding third countries.

E.N.I. (band)

E.N.I. is Croatian pop band from Rijeka.

Like the Rijeka group Put four years earlier, E.N.I. was created out of Putokazi in order to compete in at the Eurovision Song Contest 1997 with the song "Probudi me".

Unlike most of Eurovision contenders who later sank into obscurity, E.N.I. maintained its presence in Croatian music industry due to respectable vocal talents and frequent co-operation with other artists, mainly rock musicians from Rijeka.

In the campaign for 2000 parliamentary elections they, together with many other rock musicians, supported Social Democratic Party of Croatia and other opposition parties. They also appeared at 2004 Zagreb Pride parade and festival.

El Nido Airport

El Nido Airport (Hiligaynon: Hulugpaan sang El Nido; Filipino: Paliparan ng El Nido) (IATA: ENI), also known as Lio Airport, is an airport serving the general area of El Nido, located in the province of Palawan in the Philippines. It is located in the barangay of Villa Libertad, about 4 kilometres (2 mi) from the poblacion (town proper) of El Nido. This concrete airstrip is owned and operated by AirSWIFT.The gravel runway is now partially coated and used as a taxiway for aircraft.

Eni Faleomavaega

Eni Fa'aua'a Hunkin Faleomavaega Jr. (; August 15, 1943 – February 22, 2017) was an American Samoan politician who served as the territory's lieutenant governor and congressional delegate.

Enjoy (car sharing)

Enjoy is an Italian car sharing service provided by Eni. Enjoy is active in Milan, Turin, Rome, Florence, Catania and Bologna with a total of more than 2,000 cars.

The system offers exclusively Fiat 500 vehicles with one-way point-to-point rentals charged by the minute. Cars can be rented wherever parked via a smartphone app.

Groupe des écoles nationales d’ingénieurs

Groupe des écoles nationales d’ingénieurs (Groupe ENI) is French for "Group of French National Engineering Schools", a network of 4 French public engineering schools that deliver the title of Diplôme d'Ingénieur in a wide variety of fields.

List of countries by proven oil reserves

This is a list of countries by proven oil reserves. Proven reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated, with a high degree of confidence, to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Some statistics on this page are disputed and controversial. Different sources (OPEC, CIA World Factbook, oil companies) give different figures. Some of the differences reflect different types of oil included. Different estimates may or may not include oil shale, mined oil sands or natural gas liquids.

Because proven reserves include oil recoverable under current economic conditions, nations may see large increases in proven reserves when known, but previously uneconomic deposits become economic to develop. In this way, Canada's proven reserves increased suddenly in 2003 when the oil sands of Alberta were seen to be economically viable. Similarly, Venezuela's proven reserves jumped in the late 2000s when the heavy oil of the Orinoco was judged economic.

List of river cruise ships

This is a list of river cruise ships, both those in service and those that have since ceased to operate. As some river cruise ships have operated under multiple names, all names will be listed in the "Notes" section.

Oko language

Oko, also known as Ogori-Magongo and Oko-Eni-Osayen, is a dialect cluster spoken in Nigeria. It appears to form a branch of the "Nupe–Oko–Idoma" (noi) group of Niger–Congo languages. Most Oko speakers also speak Yoruba as a second language. The language is spoken in and around the towns of Ogori and Magongo in southwestern Kogi State, close to the Ondo and Edo state borders.

Saipem

Saipem S.p.A. (Società Anonima Italiana Perforazioni E Montaggi) is an Italian oil and gas industry contractor. It was a subsidiary of Italian energy company Eni, which owned approximately 30% of Saipem's shares until 2016. Saipem has been contracted for designing and constructing several pipelines, including Blue Stream, Greenstream, Nord Stream and South Stream.

Samsun–Ceyhan pipeline

The Samsun–Ceyhan pipeline (SCP), previously called Trans-Anatolian Pipeline, is a planned crude oil pipeline traversing Turkey from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean oil terminal in Ceyhan. The aim of this project is to provide an alternative route for Russian and Kazakhstani oil and to ease the traffic burden in the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles.

Scarabeo 8

Scarabeo 8 is an ultra deepwater 6th generation semi-submersible drilling rig. It is owned and operated by Saipem. The vessel is registered in Nassau, Bahamas.

Snam

Snam S.p.A. is an Italian natural gas infrastructure company.

As of 31 December 2017, it had a market capitalization of €13.953 billion.

Snam was originally a subsidiary of Italian energy company Eni.

It has since become an independent company, whose largest shareholder is CDP Reti, a holding company controlled by the Italian state.

The utility operates in Italy and, through associated companies, in Austria, France and the United Kingdom.

Snam is one of Europe's main regulated gas companies - leading Italy in gas transport and storage, while ranking third in regasification.

Its main peers, in the regulated gas and electricity sectors in Italy and in Europe, are:

Terna (Italy): the main grid owner, responsible for high voltage electricity transmission and dispatching nationwide

Enagas (Spain): Technical Manager of the Spanish gas System and the main carrier of natural gas

REE - Red Eléctrica de España (Spain): manages the transmission grid and acts as sole transmission agent; it is also the System Operator

National Grid (UK): operates in the regulated businesses of transmission and distribution of electricity and gas mainly in the UK and northeastern US

South Stream

South Stream (Russian: Южный поток, Yuzhnyy potok; Bulgarian: Южен поток, Yuzhen potok; Serbian: Јужни ток / Južni tok; Slovene: Južni tok; Hungarian: Déli Áramlat; Italian: Flusso Meridionale) was a pipeline project to transport natural gas of the Russian Federation through the Black Sea to Bulgaria and through Serbia, Hungary and Slovenia further to Austria.

Coincidentally with Russia's annexation of Crimea, after having been seven years in the talks and works with five EU member states, the project was suddenly found in non-compliance with European Union's competition and energy legislation, in particular the Third Energy Package, which stipulates the separation of companies' generation and sale operations from their transmission networks.It was seen as rival to the Nabucco pipeline project, which was abandoned in favor of the Trans Adriatic Pipeline. Unlike South Stream, TAP is fully compliant with EU legislation by way of having obtained EU Third Party Access Exemption.

Construction of the Russian onshore facilities for the South Stream pipeline started in December 2012. The project was cancelled by Russia in December 2014 following obstacles from Bulgaria and the EU, the 2014 Crimean crisis, and the imposition of European sanctions on Russia. The project has been replaced by proposals of Turkish Stream and Tesla pipeline.

Yeni-Kale

Yeni-Kale (Ukrainian: Єні-Кале; Russian: Еникале; Turkish: Yenikale; Crimean Tatar: Yeñi Qale, also spelled as Yenikale and Eni-Kale) is a fortress on the shore of Kerch Strait in the city of Kerch.

European Union Euro Stoxx 50 companies of the Euro Area
FTSE MIB companies of Italy

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.