English people

The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD.[8] England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

The English largely descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians.[9][10] Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England (from the Old English Englaland) by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century. This was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century.[11][12][13][14][15] In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.[16] Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general.

Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth.

The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football,[17] rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.

English people
Flag of England
Total population
c. 80–100 million worldwide
Regions with significant populations
 United Kingdom 37.6 million in
 England and  Wales[1]
 United States50 milliona[2]
 Australia7.2 millionb[3]
 Canada6.6 millionc[4]
 South Africa1.6 milliond[5]
 New Zealand44,000–282,000[6]
Languages
English
Religion
Traditionally Anglicanism, but also non-conformists and dissenters (see History of the Church of England), as well as other Protestants; also Roman Catholics (see Catholic Emancipation); Islam (see Islam in England); Judaism and other faiths (see Religion in England). Almost 25% are non-religious.[7]
Related ethnic groups

a English American, b English Australian, c English Canadian, d British diaspora in Africa

English nationality

The concept of an 'English nation' (as opposed to a British one) has become increasingly popular after the devolution process in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness.[18] This is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.[19][20][21]

Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a solely British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities.[22][23][24][25][26] Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity. They found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British".[27]

Relationship to Britishness

It is unclear how many British people consider themselves English. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for 'Irish' and for 'Scottish', there were none for 'English', or 'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading 'White British'.[28][29] Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."[30] Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably, especially outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British". He notes that this slip is normally made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom rarely say 'British' when they mean 'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is also "problematic for the English [...] when it comes to conceiving of their national identity. It tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles".[31]

In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote,

"When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word. It meant indiscriminately England and Wales; Great Britain; the United Kingdom; and even the British Empire. Foreigners used it as the name of a Great Power and indeed continue to do so. Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" [...] Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests, especially from the Scotch."[32]

However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles (1999), Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa.[33]

In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has recently been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness.[34]

Historical and genetic origins

Near total population Replacement of Neolithic farmers by Northern Continental Indo-Europeans

David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's neolithic Gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the bell beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup. This population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people. [35] [36] It is currently unknown whether these Beakers would go on to develop Celtic languages in the British Isles or if later Celtic Migrations introduced Celtic languages to Britain. [37].

The close genetic affinity of these Beaker people to Continental North Europeans means that British and Irish populations cluster genetically very closely with other Northwest European populations, regardless of how much Anglo-Saxon and Viking ancestry was received during the 1st century. [38] [39]

Anglo Saxon settlement of Britain

There is a debate between historians, geneticists and others about the extent to which historical changes in the culture of the British Isles corresponds to historical migration events of Germanic tribes, and to the extent of these migrations. During this period the language and culture of most of what became England changed from Romano-British to Germanic.[40] The Germanic-speakers in Britain, themselves of diverse origins, eventually developed a common cultural identity as Anglo-Saxons. This process occurred from the mid-fifth to early seventh centuries, following the end of Roman power in Britain around the year 410. The settlement was followed by the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the south and east of Britain, later followed by the rest of modern England.

The available evidence includes the scanty contemporary and near-contemporary written record, and archaeological and genetic information.[a] The few literary sources tell of hostility between incomers and natives. They describe violence, destruction, massacre and the flight of the Romano-British population. Moreover, there is little clear evidence for the influence of British Celtic or British Latin on Old English. These factors have suggested a very large-scale invasion by various Germanic peoples. In this view, held by the majority of historians until the mid to late twentieth century, much of what is now England was cleared of its prior inhabitants. If this traditional viewpoint were to be correct, the genes of the later English people would have been overwhelmingly inherited from Germanic migrants.

However, another view, probably the most widely held today, is that the migrants were fewer, possibly centred on a warrior elite. This hypothesis suggests that the incomers, having achieved a position of political and social dominance, initiated a process of acculturation by the natives to their language and material culture, and intermarrying with them to a significant degree. Archaeologists have found that settlement patterns and land-use show no clear break with the Romano-British past, though there are marked changes in place names and material culture. This view predicts that the ancestry of the people of Anglo-Saxon and modern England would be largely derived from the native Romano-British. The uncertain results of genetic studies have tended to support both a predominant amount of native British Celtic ancestry, as well as a significant contribution from Anglo-Saxon migrations.

Even so, if these incomers established themselves as a social elite, this could have allowed them enhanced reproductive success (the so-called 'Apartheid Theory'). In this case, the prevalent genes of later Anglo-Saxon England could have been largely derived from moderate numbers of Germanic migrants.[42][43] This theory, originating in a population genetics study, has proven controversial, and has been critically received by a number of scholars.

History of English people

Early Middle Ages

Hengest and Horsa Verstegan
"The Arrival of the First Ancestors of Englishmen out of Germany into Britain": a fanciful image of the Anglo-Saxon migration, an event central to the English national myth. From A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence by Richard Verstegan (1605)

The first people to be called 'English' were the Anglo-Saxons, a group of closely related Germanic tribes that began migrating to eastern and southern Great Britain, from southern Denmark and northern Germany, in the 5th century AD, after the Romans had withdrawn from Britain. The Anglo-Saxons gave their name to England (Engla land, meaning "Land of the Angles") and to the English.

Sutton Hoo Burial Chamber Replica
A reconstruction of an Anglo-Saxon burial chamber at Sutton Hoo, East Anglia.

The Anglo-Saxons arrived in a land that was already populated by people commonly referred to as the 'Romano-British'—the descendants of the native Brythonic-speaking population that lived in the area of Britain under Roman rule during the 1st–5th centuries AD. The multi-ethnic nature of the Roman Empire meant that small numbers of other peoples may have also been present in England before the Anglo-Saxons arrived. There is archaeological evidence, for example, of an early North African presence in a Roman garrison at Aballava, now Burgh-by-Sands, in Cumbria: a 4th-century inscription says that the Roman military unit Numerus Maurorum Aurelianorum ("unit of Aurelian Moors") from Mauretania (Morocco) was stationed there.[44] Although the Roman Empire incorporated peoples from far and wide, genetic studies suggest the Romans did not significantly mix into the British population.[45]

The exact nature of the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons and their relationship with the Romano-British is a matter of debate. Traditionally, it was believed that a mass invasion by various Anglo-Saxon tribes largely displaced the indigenous British population in southern and eastern Great Britain (modern-day England with the exception of Cornwall). This was supported by the writings of Gildas, the only contemporary historical account of the period, describing slaughter and starvation of native Britons by invading tribes (aduentus Saxonum).[46] Furthermore, the English language contains no more than a handful of words borrowed from Brythonic sources.[47]

However, this view has been re-evaluated by some archaeologists and historians since the 1960s; and more recently supported by genetic studies,[48] which see only minimal evidence for mass displacement. Archaeologist Francis Pryor has stated that he "can't see any evidence for bona fide mass migrations after the Neolithic."[49]

While the historian Malcolm Todd writes "It is much more likely that a large proportion of the British population remained in place and was progressively dominated by a Germanic aristocracy, in some cases marrying into it and leaving Celtic names in the, admittedly very dubious, early lists of Anglo-Saxon dynasties. But how we identify the surviving Britons in areas of predominantly Anglo-Saxon settlement, either archaeologically or linguistically, is still one of the deepest problems of early English history."[50]

In a survey of the genes of British and Irish men, even those British regions that were most genetically similar to (Germanic speaking) continental regions were still more genetically British than continental: "When included in the PC analysis, the Frisians were more 'Continental' than any of the British samples, although they were somewhat closer to the British ones than the North German/Denmark sample. For example, the part of mainland Britain that has the most Continental input is Central England, but even here the AMH+1 frequency, not below 44% (Southwell), is higher than the 35% observed in the Frisians. These results demonstrate that even with the choice of Frisians as a source for the Anglo-Saxons, there is a clear indication of a continuing indigenous component in the English paternal genetic makeup."[51]

In 2016, through the investigation of burials using ancient DNA techniques, researchers found evidence of intermarriage in the earliest phase of Anglo-Saxon settlement. By studying rare mutations and employing whole genome sequencing, it was claimed that the continental and insular origins of the ancient remains could be discriminated, and it was calculated that 25–40% of the ancestry of the modern English is attributable to continental 'Anglo-Saxon' origins.[52][53]

Vikings and the Danelaw

From about 800 AD waves of Danish Viking assaults on the coastlines of the British Isles were gradually followed by a succession of Danish settlers in England. At first, the Vikings were very much considered a separate people from the English. This separation was enshrined when Alfred the Great signed the Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum to establish the Danelaw, a division of England between English and Danish rule, with the Danes occupying northern and eastern England.[54]

However, Alfred's successors subsequently won military victories against the Danes, incorporating much of the Danelaw into the nascent kingdom of England. Danish invasions continued into the 11th century, and there were both English and Danish kings in the period following the unification of England (for example, Æthelred II (978–1013 and 1014–1016) was English but Cnut (1016–1035) was Danish).

Gradually, the Danes in England came to be seen as 'English'. They had a noticeable impact on the English language: many English words, such as anger, ball, egg, got, knife, take, and they, are of Old Norse origin,[55] and place names that end in -thwaite and -by are Scandinavian in origin.[56]

English unification

Britain peoples circa 600
Southern Great Britain in AD 600 after the Anglo-Saxon settlement, showing England's division into multiple petty kingdoms.

The English population was not politically unified until the 10th century. Before then, it consisted of a number of petty kingdoms which gradually coalesced into a Heptarchy of seven powerful states, the most powerful of which were Mercia and Wessex. The English nation state began to form when the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms united against Danish Viking invasions, which began around 800 AD. Over the following century and a half England was for the most part a politically unified entity, and remained permanently so after 959.

The nation of England was formed in 937 by Æthelstan of Wessex after the Battle of Brunanburh,[57][58] as Wessex grew from a relatively small kingdom in the South West to become the founder of the Kingdom of the English, incorporating all Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and the Danelaw.[59]

Norman and Angevin rule

Haroldoath
King Harold II of England (right) at the Norman court, from the Bayeux Tapestry

The Norman conquest of England during 1066 brought Anglo-Saxon and Danish rule of England to an end, as the new French speaking Norman elite almost universally replaced the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and church leaders. After the conquest, "English" normally included all natives of England, whether they were of Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian or Celtic ancestry, to distinguish them from the Norman invaders, who were regarded as "Norman" even if born in England, for a generation or two after the Conquest.[60] The Norman dynasty ruled England for 87 years until the death of King Stephen in 1154, when the succession passed to Henry II, House of Plantagenet (based in France), and England became part of the Angevin Empire until 1399.

Various contemporary sources suggest that within 50 years of the invasion most of the Normans outside the royal court had switched to English, with Anglo-Norman remaining the prestige language of government and law largely out of social inertia. For example, Orderic Vitalis, a historian born in 1075 and the son of a Norman knight, said that he learned French only as a second language. Anglo-Norman continued to be used by the Plantagenet kings until Edward I came to the throne.[61] Over time the English language became more important even in the court, and the Normans were gradually assimilated, until, by the 14th century, both rulers and subjects regarded themselves as English and spoke the English language.[62]

Despite the assimilation of the Normans, the distinction between 'English' and 'French' survived in official documents long after it had fallen out of common use, in particular in the legal phrase Presentment of Englishry (a rule by which a hundred had to prove an unidentified murdered body found on their soil to be that of an Englishman, rather than a Norman, if they wanted to avoid a fine). This law was abolished in 1340.[63]

In the United Kingdom

Flags of the Union Jack

Since the 18th century, England has been one part of a wider political entity covering all or part of the British Isles, which today is called the United Kingdom. Wales was annexed by England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, which incorporated Wales into the English state.[64] A new British identity was subsequently developed when James VI of Scotland became James I of England as well, and expressed the desire to be known as the monarch of Britain.[65]

In 1707, England formed a union with Scotland by passing an Act of Union in March 1707 that ratified the Treaty of Union. The Parliament of Scotland had previously passed its own Act of Union, so the Kingdom of Great Britain was born on 1 May 1707. In 1801, another Act of Union formed a union between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, about two-thirds of the Irish population (those who lived in 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland), left the United Kingdom to form the Irish Free State. The remainder became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, although this name was not introduced until 1927, after some years in which the term "United Kingdom" had been little used.

Throughout the history of the UK, the English have been dominant in population and in political weight. As a consequence, notions of 'Englishness' and 'Britishness' are often very similar. At the same time, after the Union of 1707, the English, along with the other peoples of the British Isles, have been encouraged to think of themselves as British rather than to identify themselves with the constituent nations.[66]

Immigration and assimilation

England has been the destination of varied numbers of migrants at different periods from the 17th century onwards. While some members of these groups seek to practise a form of pluralism, attempting to maintain a separate ethnic identity, others have assimilated and intermarried with the English. Since Oliver Cromwell's resettlement of the Jews in 1656, there have been waves of Jewish immigration from Russia in the 19th century and from Germany in the 20th.[67]

After the French king Louis XIV declared Protestantism illegal in 1685 in the Edict of Fontainebleau, an estimated 50,000 Protestant Huguenots fled to England.[68] Due to sustained and sometimes mass emigration of the Irish, current estimates indicate that around 6 million people in the UK have at least one grandparent born in the Republic of Ireland.[69]

There has been a black presence in England since the 16th century due to the slave trade,[70] and an Indian presence since at least the 17th century because of the East India Company[71] and British Raj.[70] Black and Asian populations have grown throughout the UK generally, as immigration from the British Empire and the subsequent Commonwealth of Nations was encouraged due to labour shortages during post-war rebuilding.[72] However, these groups are often still considered to be ethnic minorities and research has shown that black and Asian people in the UK are more likely to identify as British rather than with one of the state's four constituent nations, including England.[73]

Current national and political identity

The 1990s witnessed a resurgence of English national identity.[74] Survey data shows a rise in the number of people in England describing their national identity as English and a fall in the number describing themselves as British.[75] Today, black and minority ethnic people of England still generally identify as British rather than English to a greater extent than their white counterparts;[76] however, groups such as the Campaign for an English Parliament (CEP) suggest the emergence of a broader civic and multi-ethnic English nationhood. Scholars and journalists have noted a rise in English self-consciousness, with increased use of the English flag, particularly at football matches where the Union flag was previously more commonly flown by fans.[77][78]

This perceived rise in English self-consciousness has generally been attributed to the devolution in the late 1990s of some powers to the Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales.[74] In policy areas for which the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have responsibility, the UK Parliament votes on laws that consequently only apply to England. Because the Westminster Parliament is composed of MPs from throughout the United Kingdom, this has given rise to the "West Lothian question", a reference to the situation in which MPs representing constituencies outside England can vote on matters affecting only England, but MPs cannot vote on the same matters in relation to the other parts of the UK.[79] Consequently, groups such as the CEP have called for the creation of a devolved English Parliament, claiming that there is now a discriminatory democratic deficit against the English. The establishment of an English parliament has also been backed by a number of Scottish and Welsh nationalists.[80][81] Writer Paul Johnson has suggested that like most dominant groups, the English have only demonstrated interest in their ethnic self-definition when they were feeling oppressed.[82]

John Curtice argues that "In the early years of devolution...there was little sign" of an English backlash against devolution for Scotland and Wales, but that more recently survey data shows tentative signs of "a form of English nationalism...beginning to emerge among the general public".[83] Michael Kenny, Richard English and Richard Hayton, meanwhile, argue that the resurgence in English nationalism predates devolution, being observable in the early 1990s, but that this resurgence does not necessarily have negative implications for the perception of the UK as a political union.[84] Others question whether devolution has led to a rise in English national identity at all, arguing that survey data fails to portray the complex nature of national identities, with many people considering themselves both English and British.[85]

Recent surveys of public opinion on the establishment of an English parliament have given widely varying conclusions. In the first five years of devolution for Scotland and Wales, support in England for the establishment of an English parliament was low at between 16 and 19%, according to successive British Social Attitudes Surveys.[86] A report, also based on the British Social Attitudes Survey, published in December 2010 suggests that only 29% of people in England support the establishment of an English parliament, though this figure had risen from 17% in 2007.[87] One 2007 poll carried out for BBC Newsnight, however, found that 61 per cent would support such a parliament being established.[88] Krishan Kumar notes that support for measures to ensure that only English MPs can vote on legislation that applies only to England is generally higher than that for the establishment of an English parliament, although support for both varies depending on the timing of the opinion poll and the wording of the question.[89] Electoral support for English nationalist parties is also low, even though there is public support for many of the policies they espouse.[90] The English Democrats gained just 64,826 votes in the 2010 UK general election, accounting for 0.3 per cent of all votes cast in England.[91] Kumar argued in 2010 that "despite devolution and occasional bursts of English nationalism – more an expression of exasperation with the Scots or Northern Irish – the English remain on the whole satisfied with current constitutional arrangements".[92]

English diaspora

Number of the English diaspora
Year[b] Country Population % of local population Ref(s)
2016 Australia 7,852,224 36.1% [93]
2016 Canada 6,320,085 18.3% [94][95]
2011 Scotland 459,486 8.68% [96]
2016 United States[c] 23,835,787 7.4% [97]
2013 New Zealand 38,916[d]–215,589[e] 5.41% [98]

From the earliest times English people have left England to settle in other parts of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, but it is not possible to identify their numbers, as British censuses have historically not invited respondents to identify themselves as English.[99] However, the census does record place of birth, revealing that 8.08% of Scotland's population,[100] 3.66% of the population of Northern Ireland[101] and 20% of the Welsh population were born in England.[102] Similarly, the census of the Republic of Ireland does not collect information on ethnicity, but it does record that there are over 200,000 people living in Ireland who were born in England and Wales.[103]

English ethnic descent and emigrant communities are found primarily in the Western World, and in some places, settled in significant numbers. Substantial populations descended from English colonists and immigrants exist in the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand.

United States

Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington
George Washington, known as the "Father of His Country," and first President of the United States, had English ancestors.[104]

In the 2016 American Community Survey, English Americans were (7.4%) of the United States population behind the German Americans (13.9%) and Irish Americans (10.0%).[97] However, demographers regard this as a serious undercount, as the index of inconsistency is high, and many, if not most, people from English stock have a tendency (since the introduction of a new 'American' category in the 2000 census) to identify as simply Americans[105][106][107][108] or if of mixed European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group.[109]

Previous censuses

In the 2000 census, 24,509,692 Americans described their ancestry as wholly or partly English. In addition, 1,035,133 recorded British ancestry.[110] This was a numerical decrease from the census in 1990 where 32,651,788 people or 13.1% of the population self-identified with English ancestry.[111]

In the 1980 census, over 49 million (49,598,035) Americans claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the total population and largest reported group which, even today, would make them the largest ethnic group in the United States.[112] Scots-Irish Americans are descendants of Lowland Scots and Northern English (specifically: County Durham, Cumberland, Northumberland and Westmorland) settlers who colonised Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century.

Americans of English heritage are often seen, and identify, as simply "American" due to the many historic cultural ties between England and the U.S. and their influence on the country's population. Relative to ethnic groups of other European origins, this may be due to the early establishment of English settlements; as well as to non-English groups having emigrated in order to establish significant communities.[113]

Canada

In the Canada 2016 Census, 'English' was the most common ethnic origin (ethnic origin refers to the ethnic or cultural group(s) to which the respondent's ancestors belong[114]) recorded by respondents; 6,320,085 people or 18.3% of the population self-identified themselves as wholly or partly English.[94][115] On the other hand, people identifying as Canadian but not English may have previously identified as English before the option of identifying as Canadian was available.[116]

Australia

EBarton2
Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin, 1st and 2nd Prime Minister of Australia both had English parents.

From the beginning of the colonial era until the mid-20th century, the vast majority of settlers to Australia were from the British Isles, with the English being the dominant group. Among the leading ancestries, increases in Australian, Irish and German ancestries and decreases in English, Scottish and Welsh ancestries appear to reflect such shifts in perception or reporting. These reporting shifts at least partly resulted from changes in the design of the census question, in particular the introduction of a tick box format in 2001.[117] English Australians have more often come from the south than the north of England.[118]

Australians of English descent, are both the single largest ethnic group in Australia and the largest 'ancestry' identity in the Australian census.[119] In the 2016 census, 7.8 million or 36.1% of the population identified as "English" or a combination including English, a numerical increase from 7.2 million over the 2011 census figure. The census also documented 907,572 residents or 3.9% of Australia as being born in England, and are the largest overseas-born population.[120]

Other communities

Since the 1980s there have been increasingly large numbers of English people, estimated at over 3 million, permanently or semi-permanently living in Spain and France, drawn there by the climate and cheaper house prices.[121]

Significant numbers of people with at least some English ancestry also live in New Zealand, South Africa and South America.

Culture

The culture of England is sometimes difficult to separate clearly from the culture of the United Kingdom,[122] so influential has English culture been on the cultures of the British Isles and, on the other hand, given the extent to which other cultures have influenced life in England.

Language

Phonological variation final
Map showing phonological variation within England of the vowel in bath, grass, and dance.
  'a' [ä]
  'aa' [æː]
  'ah' [ɑː]
  anomalies

English people traditionally speak the English language, a member of the West Germanic language family, first spoken in early medieval England. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), as well as by Latin and French.[123] The three largest recognisable dialect groups in England are Southern English dialects, Midlands English dialects and Northern English dialects. Those in the north generally pronounce such words with a short vowel whereas those in the south use a long vowel.

Religion

The established religion of the realm is the Church of England, whose Titular head is Queen Elizabeth II although the worldwide Anglican Communion is overseen by the General Synod of its bishops under the authority of Parliament. 26 of the church's 42 bishops are Lords Spiritual, representing the church in the House of Lords. In 2010, the Church of England counted 25 million baptised members out of the 41 million Christians in Great Britain's population of about 60 million;[124][125] around the same time, it also claimed to baptise one in eight newborn children.[126] Generally, anyone in England may marry or be buried at their local parish church, whether or not they have been baptised in the church.[127] Actual attendance has declined steadily since 1890,[128] with around one million, or 10% of the baptised population attending Sunday services on a regular basis (defined as once a month or more) and three million- roughly 15%- joining Christmas Eve and Christmas services.[129][130]

St George's Day 2010 - 14
A crowd celebrates Saint George's Day at an event in Trafalgar Square in 2010.

Saint George is recognised as the patron saint of England and the flag of England consists of his cross. Prior to Edward III, the patron saint was St Edmund and St Alban is also honoured as England's first martyr. A survey carried out in the end of 2008 by Ipsos MORI on behalf of The Catholic Agency For Overseas Development found the population of England and Wales to be 47.0% affiliated with the Church of England, which is also the state church, 9.6% with the Roman Catholic Church and 8.7% were other Christians, mainly Free church Protestants and Eastern Orthodox Christians. 4.8% were Muslim, 3.4% were members of other religions, 5.3% were Agnostics, 6.8% were Atheists and 15.0% were not sure about their religious affiliation or refused to answer to the question.[131]

See also

Language:

Diaspora:

Notes

  1. ^ The 2011 England and Wales census reports that in England and Wales 32.4 million people associated themselves with an English identity alone and 37.6 million identified themselves with an English identity either on its own or combined with other identities, being 57.7% and 67.1% respectively of the population of England and Wales.
  2. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  3. ^ (Ancestry) The 2011 Australian Census reports 7,238,500 people of English ancestry.
  4. ^ (Ethnic origin) The 2006 Canadian Census gives 1,367,125 respondents stating their ethnic origin as English as a single response, and 5,202,890 including multiple responses, giving a combined total of 6,570,015.
  5. ^ Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. p. 26. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015. The number of people who described themselves as white in terms of population group and specified their first language as English in South Africa's 2011 Census was 1,603,575. The total white population with a first language specified was 4,461,409 and the total population was 51,770,560.
  6. ^ (Ethnic origin) The 2006 New Zealand census Archived 19 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine reports 44,202 people (based on pre-assigned ethnic categories) stating they belong to the English ethnic group. The 1996 census used a different question Archived 19 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine to both the 1991 and the 2001 censuses, which had "a tendency for respondents to answer the 1996 question on the basis of ancestry (or descent) rather than 'ethnicity' (or cultural affiliation)" and reported 281,895 people with English origins; See also the figures for 'New Zealand European'.
  7. ^ "2011 Census: KS209EW Religion, local authorities in England and Wales". ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  8. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  9. ^ The fine scale genetic structure of the British population
  10. ^ Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history
  11. ^ Campbell. The Anglo-Saxon State. p. 10
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Sanfins, Nuno: "England and its people" (1973) and "England's Evolution"(2003)

References

Diaspora

  • Bueltmann, Tanja, David T. Gleeson, and Donald M. MacRaild, eds. Locating the English Diaspora, 1500–2010 (Liverpool University Press, 2012) 246 pp.

Notelist

  1. ^ A sample of this discussion can be seen on the television series Britain AD: King Arthur's Britain, particularly the discussion between Francis Pryor and Heinrich Härke.[41]
  2. ^ Year the official census was taken.
  3. ^ American Community Survey.
  4. ^ Those who self-identified as English ethnic group
  5. ^ 215,589 listed their birthplace as England.

External links

Alan Rickman

Alan Sidney Patrick Rickman (21 February 1946 – 14 January 2016) was an English actor and director. Rickman trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London and became a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC), performing in modern and classical theatre productions. His first big television role came in 1982, but his big break was as the Vicomte de Valmont in the RSC stage production of Les Liaisons Dangereuses in 1985, and after the production transferred to Broadway in 1987 he was nominated for a Tony Award.

Rickman's first movie role was as Tybalt in the (1978) Romeo and Juliet. Rickman's other movie roles included the German terrorist leader Hans Gruber in Die Hard (1988), Sheriff of Nottingham in Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves (1991), for which he received the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role, Elliott Marston in Quigley Down Under (1990), Jamie in Truly, Madly, Deeply (1990), P.L. O'Hara in An Awfully Big Adventure (1995), Colonel Brandon in Sense and Sensibility (1995), Alexander Dane in Galaxy Quest (1999), Harry in Love Actually (2003), Marvin the Paranoid Android in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (2005), and Judge Turpin in the film adaptation of Stephen Sondheim's musical of Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2007). Rickman gained further notice for his film performances as Severus Snape in the Harry Potter series.Rickman also starred in television films, playing the title character in Rasputin: Dark Servant of Destiny (1996), which won him a Golden Globe Award, an Emmy Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award, and Dr. Alfred Blalock in the Emmy-winning Something the Lord Made (2004). Rickman died of pancreatic cancer on 14 January 2016 at age 69. His final film roles were as Lieutenant General Frank Benson in the thriller Eye in the Sky (2015), and the voice of Absolem, the caterpillar in Alice Through the Looking Glass (2016).

Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1714.

Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, who had no legitimate children. Her father, Charles's younger brother James, was thus heir presumptive to the throne. His suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, and on Charles's instructions Anne and her elder sister, Mary, were raised as Anglicans. On Charles's death in 1685, James succeeded to the throne, but just three years later he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Mary and her husband, the Dutch Protestant William III of Orange (a cousin to Anne and Mary), became joint monarchs. Although the sisters had been close, disagreements over Anne's finances, status and choice of acquaintances arose shortly after Mary's accession and they became estranged. William and Mary had no children. After Mary's death in 1694, William reigned alone until his own death in 1702, when Anne succeeded him.

During her reign, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more likely to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs. The Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, until 1710 when Anne dismissed many of them from office. Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences. The Duchess took revenge in an unflattering description of the Queen in her memoirs, which was widely accepted by historians until Anne was re-assessed in the late 20th century.

Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life, and from her thirties, she grew increasingly ill and obese. Despite seventeen pregnancies by her husband, Prince George of Denmark, she died without surviving issue and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. Under the Act of Settlement 1701, which excluded all Catholics, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover.

Ben Kingsley

Sir Ben Kingsley (born Krishna Pandit Bhanji; 31 December 1943) is an English actor with a career spanning over 50 years. He has won an Oscar, Grammy, BAFTA, two Golden Globes, and a Screen Actors Guild Award. He is known for his starring role as Mohandas Gandhi in the 1982 film Gandhi, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor. He has appeared in Schindler's List (1993), Twelfth Night (1996), Sexy Beast (2000), House of Sand and Fog (2003), Lucky Number Slevin (2006), Shutter Island (2010), Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time (2010), Hugo (2011), Iron Man 3 (2013), The Boxtrolls (2014), and The Jungle Book (2016).

Kingsley was appointed Knight Bachelor in 2002 for services to the British film industry. In 2010, he was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 2013, he received the BAFTA Los Angeles Britannia Award for Worldwide Contribution to Filmed Entertainment.

Daniel Craig

Daniel Wroughton Craig (born 2 March 1968) is an English actor. He trained at the National Youth Theatre and graduated from the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in 1991, before beginning his career on stage. His film debut was in the drama The Power of One (1992). Other early appearances were in the historical television war drama Sharpe's Eagle (1993), Disney family film A Kid in King Arthur's Court (1995), the drama serial Our Friends in the North (1996) and the biographical film Elizabeth (1998).

Craig's appearances in the British television film Love Is the Devil: Study for a Portrait of Francis Bacon (1998), the indie war film The Trench (1999), and the drama Some Voices (2000) attracted the film industry's attention. This led to roles in bigger productions such as the action film Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001), the crime thriller Road to Perdition (2002), the crime thriller Layer Cake (2004), and the Steven Spielberg historical drama Munich (2005).

Craig achieved international fame when chosen as the sixth actor to play the role of Ian Fleming's British secret agent character James Bond in the film series, taking over from Pierce Brosnan in 2005. His debut film as Bond, Casino Royale, was released internationally in November 2006 and was highly acclaimed, earning him a BAFTA award nomination. Casino Royale became the highest-grossing in the series at the time. Quantum of Solace followed two years later. Craig's third Bond film, Skyfall, premiered in 2012 and is currently the highest-grossing film in the series and the 22nd-highest-grossing film of all time; it was also the highest-grossing film in the United Kingdom until 2015. Craig's fourth Bond film, Spectre, premiered in 2015. He also made a guest appearance as Bond in the opening ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games, alongside Queen Elizabeth II. His fifth Bond film, tentatively titled Bond 25, is scheduled for release on St. Valentines Day, 14 February 2020.Since taking the role of Bond, Craig has continued to star in other films, including the fantasy film The Golden Compass (2007), World War II film Defiance (2008), science fiction western Cowboys & Aliens (2011), the English-language adaptation of Stieg Larsson's mystery thriller The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011), and the heist film Logan Lucky (2017).

Daniel Day-Lewis

Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is a retired English actor who holds both British and Irish citizenship. Born and raised in London, he excelled on stage at the National Youth Theatre, before being accepted at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, which he attended for three years. He has been hailed by critics and scholars as the greatest actor of his generation, and one of the greatest actors of all time.

Despite his traditional training at the Bristol Old Vic, Day-Lewis is considered a method actor, known for his constant devotion to and research of his roles. He would often remain completely in character throughout the shooting schedules of his films, even to the point of adversely affecting his health. He is one of the most selective actors in the film industry, having starred in only six films since 1998, with as many as five years between roles. Protective of his private life, he rarely gives interviews, and makes very few public appearances. In June 2014, he received a knighthood for services to drama. Day-Lewis announced his retirement in 2017, following the completion of his starring role in Phantom Thread.Day-Lewis shifted between theatre and film for most of the early 1980s, joining the Royal Shakespeare Company and playing Romeo in Romeo and Juliet and Flute in A Midsummer Night's Dream, before appearing in the 1984 film The Bounty. He starred in My Beautiful Laundrette (1985), his first critically acclaimed role, and gained further public notice with A Room with a View (1985). He then assumed leading man status with The Unbearable Lightness of Being (1988).

One of the most acclaimed actors in film history, Day-Lewis has earned numerous awards, including three Academy Awards for Best Actor for his performances in My Left Foot (1989), There Will Be Blood (2007), and Lincoln (2012), making him the only male actor in history to have three wins in the lead actor category, and one of only three male actors to win three Oscars. He was also nominated in this category for In the Name of the Father (1993), Gangs of New York (2002), and Phantom Thread (2017). He has also won four BAFTA Awards for Best Actor, three Screen Actors Guild Awards, and two Golden Globe Awards. In November 2012, Time named Day-Lewis the "World's Greatest Actor".

Daniel Radcliffe

Daniel Jacob Radcliffe (born 23 July 1989) is an English actor and producer. He is known for playing the titular protagonist in the Harry Potter film series, based on the novels by J. K. Rowling.

Born and raised in London, Radcliffe made his acting debut at 10 years of age in BBC One's 1999 television film David Copperfield, followed by his cinematic debut in 2001's The Tailor of Panama. At age 11, he was cast as Potter in the series' first film Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, and starred in the series for 10 years, starring in the lead role in all eight films culminating with the final film in the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, released in 2011. Radcliffe became one of the highest paid actors in the world during the filming of the Potter films, earned worldwide fame, popularity, and critical acclaim for his role, and received many accolades for his performance in the series.

Following the success of Harry Potter, his subsequent roles include lawyer Arthur Kipps in the Edwardian horror film The Woman in Black (2012), famed beat poet Allen Ginsberg in the independent film Kill Your Darlings (2013), Victor Frankenstein's assistant Igor in the science fiction fantasy Victor Frankenstein (2015), Manny, a sentient corpse in the comedy-drama Swiss Army Man, technological prodigy Walter Mabry in the heist thriller film Now You See Me 2, and FBI agent Nate Foster in the critically acclaimed thriller Imperium (all 2016). Radcliffe began to branch out to stage acting in 2007, starring in the London and New York productions of Equus for which he received immense praise from critics and audiences alike, and in the 2011 Broadway revival of the musical How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying.

He has contributed to many charities, including the Demelza Hospice Care for Children, and The Trevor Project for suicide prevention among LGBTQ youth, which gave him its Hero Award in 2011, and is heavily involved in LGBTQ activism.

Dua Lipa

Dua Lipa (; Albanian: [ˈdua ˈlipa]; born 22 August 1995) is an English singer-songwriter. Her musical career began at age 14, when she started to cover songs by other artists on YouTube. In 2015, she signed with Warner Music Group and released her first single soon after.

Her self-titled debut studio album was released on 2 June, 2017. The album spawned seven singles, including two UK top-10 singles "Be the One" and "IDGAF" and the UK number-one single "New Rules", which also reached number six in the United States. In February 2018, Lipa won two Brit Awards for British Female Solo Artist and British Breakthrough Act.

In April 2018, the single "One Kiss" by Lipa and Calvin Harris reached number one on the UK Singles Chart. In February 2019, at the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, Lipa won Best New Artist and Best Dance Recording for the single "Electricity", a collaboration with British-American duo Silk City.

Eddie Redmayne

Edward John David Redmayne (; born 6 January 1982) is an English actor.

Redmayne began his professional acting career as a youth in West End theatre, before making his screen debut in 1998 with guest television appearances. His first film roles came in 2006 with Like Minds and The Good Shepherd, and he went on to play supporting roles in several films.

On stage, Redmayne starred in the productions of Red from 2009 to 2010 and Richard II from 2011 to 2012. The former won him the Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play. His film breakthrough came with the roles of Colin Clark in the biographical drama My Week with Marilyn (2011) and Marius Pontmercy in Tom Hooper's musical Les Misérables (2012).

In 2014, Redmayne portrayed Stephen Hawking in The Theory of Everything, winning the Academy Award for Best Actor. The following year, he played Lili Elbe, in Hooper's The Danish Girl, for which he received a second Oscar nomination. In 2016, he began starring as Newt Scamander in the Fantastic Beasts film series.

Edward III of England

Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of 50 years was the second longest in medieval England (after that of his great-grandfather Henry III) and saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death.

Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. At age seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337. This started what became known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, this first phase of the war went exceptionally well for England; victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny, in which England made territorial gains, and Edward renounced his claim to the French throne. This phase would become known as the Edwardian War. Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.

Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in many ways a conventional king whose main interest was warfare. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians such as William Stubbs. This view has been challenged recently and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements.

Helena Bonham Carter

Helena Bonham Carter (born 26 May 1966) is an English actress. She is known for her roles in both low-budget independent art films and large-scale blockbusters. She was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role as Kate Croy in The Wings of the Dove (1997). For her role as Queen Elizabeth in The King's Speech (2010), she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and won the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role. She also won the 2010 International Emmy Award for Best Actress for her role as British author Enid Blyton in the TV film Enid (2009).

Bonham Carter began her film career, playing the title character in Lady Jane (1986), and playing Lucy Honeychurch in A Room with a View (1985). Her other film roles include Ophelia in Hamlet (1990), Where Angels Fear to Tread (1991), Howards End (1992), Elizabeth Lavenza in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1994), Woody Allen's Mighty Aphrodite (1995), Marla Singer in Fight Club (1999), Bellatrix Lestrange in the Harry Potter series (2007–11), Skynet in Terminator Salvation (2009), Miss Havisham in Great Expectations (2012), Madame Thénardier in Les Misérables (2012), the Fairy Godmother in Cinderella (2015) and Rose Weil in Ocean's 8 (2018). She has frequently collaborated with director Tim Burton; in Planet of the Apes (2001), Big Fish (2003), Corpse Bride (2005), Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2007) where she played Mrs. Lovett, Dark Shadows (2012), and playing the Red Queen in Alice in Wonderland (2010) and its sequel Alice Through the Looking Glass (2016). Her other television films include A Pattern of Roses (1983), Fatal Deception: Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald (1993), Live from Baghdad (2002), Toast (2010), and Burton & Taylor (2013). In 2018, she was confirmed to play Princess Margaret for season three and four of The Crown.

She was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2012 New Year Honours list for services to drama, and in January 2014, the British prime minister, David Cameron, announced that Bonham Carter had been appointed to Britain's new national Holocaust Commission.

Idris Elba

Idrissa Akuna Elba (; born 6 September 1972) is an English actor, producer, musician and DJ, known for playing drug trafficker Stringer Bell on the HBO series The Wire, DCI John Luther on the BBC One series Luther and Nelson Mandela in the biographical film Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom (2013). He has been nominated four times for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Miniseries or Television Film, winning one and was nominated five times for a Primetime Emmy Award.Elba appeared in Ridley Scott's American Gangster (2007) and Prometheus (2012). Elba portrays Heimdall in Thor (2011) and its sequels Thor: The Dark World (2013) and Thor: Ragnarok (2017), as well as Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015) and Avengers: Infinity War (2018). He also starred in Pacific Rim (2013), Beasts of No Nation (2015), for which he received BAFTA, and Golden Globe nominations for Best Supporting Actor and Molly's Game (2017). In 2016, he voiced Chief Bogo in Zootopia, Shere Khan in the live action/CGI adaptation of The Jungle Book, Fluke in Finding Dory and played the role of Krall in Star Trek Beyond. He made his directorial debut in 2018 with an adaptation of the 1992 novel Yardie by Victor Headley.In addition to his acting work, Elba is a DJ under the moniker DJ Big Driis (or Big Driis the Londoner) and an R&B musician. In 2016, he was named in the Time 100 list of the Most Influential People in the World.

Keira Knightley

Keira Christina Knightley (); born 26 March 1985 is an English actress. She has worked in both the British and American film industries, and has starred in Broadway and West End theatre productions. She has received an Empire Award and multiple nominations for British Academy, Golden Globe, and Academy Awards.

Knightley began acting as a child on television and made her feature film debut in 1995; she played such supporting roles as Sabé in Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999) and Frankie Smith in the psychological horror film The Hole (2001). She made her breakthrough with the 2002 film Bend It Like Beckham, and achieved international fame in 2003 after playing Elizabeth Swann in the $4.5 billion-grossing Pirates of the Caribbean film series. Her portrayal of Elizabeth Bennet in the 2005 romantic drama film Pride & Prejudice earned her critical acclaim and a Best Actress nomination at the Academy Awards. She later became known for her roles as the heroines of other period dramas such as Atonement (2007), A Dangerous Method (2011) and Anna Karenina (2012).

Knightley's performances in independent films including the dramas The Duchess (2009) and Never Let Me Go (2010) were well received; both the roles earned her nominations at the British Independent Film Awards. In 2014, she was nominated for the London Film Critics' Circle's British Actress of the Year Award for her performances as an aspiring singer-songwriter in the musical romantic comedy Begin Again, a young underachiever in the comedy drama Laggies, and Joan Clarke in the historical drama The Imitation Game. For the last of the aforementioned, she also garnered nominations for a Golden Globe and an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. The same year, she appeared in the Kenneth Branagh-helmed action thriller Jack Ryan: Shadow Recruit. In 2018, she was lauded for her portrayal of French novelist Gabrielle Colette in the biographical film Colette.

Knightley's West End debut in Martin Crimp's 2009 production The Misanthrope was well received and earned her a nomination for a Laurence Olivier Award. She also starred as the eponymous heroine in the 2015 Broadway production of the 1873 naturalist play Thérèse Raquin.

She was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 2018 Birthday Honours for services to drama and charity.

Mark Ronson

Mark Daniel Ronson (born 4 September 1975) is a British musician, DJ, songwriter and record producer. One of the most successful musicians in contemporary British popular culture, he is best known for his collaborations with artists such as Amy Winehouse, Lady Gaga, Adele, Miley Cyrus and Bruno Mars. He has received seven Grammy Awards, including Producer of the Year for Winehouse's album Back to Black and two for Record of the Year singles "Rehab" and "Uptown Funk". He received a Golden Globe Award, a Grammy Award and an Academy Award nomination for co-writing the song "Shallow" for the film A Star is Born (2018).

Ronson was born in London and raised in New York with his stepfather, Foreigner's Mick Jones, which contributed to a childhood surrounded by music. While attending New York University, he became a popular DJ in the hip hop scene. His debut album Here Comes the Fuzz failed to make an impact on the charts. In 2006, he received acclaim for producing albums for Lily Allen, Christina Aguilera and Amy Winehouse. In 2007, Ronson released his second album, Version. The album reached number two in the UK and included three top 10 singles and earned him the Brit Award for British Male Solo Artist. He subsequently released his third studio album, Record Collection, peaking at number two in the UK.

In 2014, Ronson released his single "Uptown Funk" featuring vocals from Bruno Mars. The single spent 14 consecutive weeks at number one on the US Billboard Hot 100, seven non-consecutive weeks at number one on the UK Singles Chart and became one of the best-selling singles of all-time. His fourth studio album, Uptown Special became his most successful album to date. In 2018, he founded his own label, Zelig Records, an imprint of Columbia Records and formed the duo Silk City with fellow producer Diplo, for which he received the Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording for the song "Electricity".

Beyond his work in entertainment, Ronson is dedicated to using his creative influence to help others. In 2015, he became a patron of the Amy Winehouse Foundation, which helps disadvantaged youth through music. He has also worked with the End the Silence campaign to raise money and awareness for the Hope and Homes for Children charity and most recently became an artist mentor at Turnaround Arts, a national program of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, which helps low-performing schools through arts education.

Mary I of England

Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. She is best known for her aggressive attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII. The executions that marked her pursuit of the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England and Ireland led to her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents.

Mary was the only child of Henry VIII by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, to survive to adulthood. Her younger half-brother Edward VI (son of Henry and Jane Seymour) succeeded their father in 1547 at the age of nine. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because he supposed (correctly) that she would reverse the Protestant reforms that had begun during his reign. On his death, leading politicians proclaimed Lady Jane Grey as queen. Mary speedily assembled a force in East Anglia and deposed Jane, who was ultimately beheaded. Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda—the first queen regnant of England. In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556.

During her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions. After Mary's death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, at the beginning of the 45-year Elizabethan era.

Naomi Campbell

Naomi Elaine Campbell (born 22 May 1970) is a British model, actress, singer and businesswoman. Recruited at the age of 15, she established herself amongst the most recognizable and in-demand models of the late 1980s and the 1990s and was one of six models of her generation declared supermodels by the fashion industry and the international press.In addition to her modelling career, Campbell has embarked on other ventures, which include an R&B-pop studio album and several acting appearances in film and television, such as the modelling competition reality show The Face and its international offshoots. Campbell is also involved in charity work for various causes.

Rachel Weisz

Rachel Hannah Weisz ( VYSE; born 7 March 1970) is a British actress. Born in Westminster, London, she began her acting career in the early 1990s, appearing in British television series such as Inspector Morse and Scarlet and Black. She made her film debut in Death Machine (1994).

Weisz's Hollywood breakthrough was in the blockbuster action films The Mummy (1999) and The Mummy Returns (2001), in which she portrayed Evelyn Carnahan, the female lead. She starred in a string of films throughout the 2000s, including Enemy at the Gates (2001), About a Boy (2002), Constantine (2005), The Fountain (2006), and The Lovely Bones (2009). In 2005, for her supporting role in the drama thriller The Constant Gardener, she received an Academy Award, a Golden Globe, and a Screen Actors Guild Award.

In 2012, Weisz starred in The Bourne Legacy, based on the series of books by Robert Ludlum. The following year, she appeared as the main antagonist in Oz the Great and Powerful, based on the series of children's books by L. Frank Baum. Weisz portrayed Deborah Lipstadt in Denial (2016), based on Lipstadt's book and directed by Mick Jackson. In 2017, she starred as the titular character in a film adaptation of My Cousin Rachel, based on the novel of the same name by Daphne du Maurier. Also that year, Weisz's production company, LC6 Productions, released its first feature film, Disobedience, starring Weisz and Rachel McAdams. In 2018, she garnered critical acclaim for her portrayal of Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, in Yorgos Lanthimos's The Favourite, winning both a BAFTA and British Independent Film Award. Weisz also garnered her second Academy Award nomination for this performance.Weisz has also performed on stage throughout her career. Her stage breakthrough was the 1994 revival of Noël Coward's play Design for Living, which earned her a London Critics' Circle Award for Most Promising Newcomer. She later starred in the 1999 Donmar Warehouse production of Tennessee Williams' Suddenly, Last Summer, and their 2009 revival of A Streetcar Named Desire. Her portrayal of Blanche DuBois in the latter play earned her the Olivier Award for Best Actress.

In 2006, Weisz received the BAFTA Britannia Award for British Artist of the Year. At the 28th annual Gotham Independent Film Awards, she received two awards: a special Jury Award for her work as part of the ensemble of The Favourite and a Tribute Award for her career. Previously engaged to filmmaker Darren Aronofsky from 2005 to 2010, she married actor Daniel Craig in 2011. That year, she also became a naturalised U.S. citizen.

Richard E. Grant

Richard E. Grant (born Richard Grant Esterhuysen; 5 May 1957) is a Swazi-English actor. He made his film debut as Withnail in the drama Withnail and I (1987). Other film roles include John Seward in Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992) and Zander Rice in Logan (2017). He won several critics' awards and was nominated for an Academy Award for his supporting performance as Jack Hock in Can You Ever Forgive Me? (2018).

On television, Grant has played Bob Cratchit in TNT's A Christmas Carol (1999), Izembaro in the sixth season of the HBO series Game of Thrones, the Great Intelligence in the seventh series of Doctor Who and Simon Bricker in the critically acclaimed ITV/Masterpiece program Downton Abbey. He will appear in Star Wars: Episode IX (2019) in a currently undisclosed part.

Tilda Swinton

Katherine Matilda Swinton (born 5 November 1960) is a British actress. She is known for her roles in both independent arthouse films and blockbusters. She won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in the 2007 film Michael Clayton. She also won the BAFTA Scotland Award for Best Actress for the 2003 film Young Adam, and has received three Golden Globe Award nominations.Swinton began her career in experimental films, directed by Derek Jarman, starting with Caravaggio (1986), followed by The Last of England (1988), War Requiem (1989), and The Garden (1990). Swinton won the Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival for her portrayal of Isabella of France in Edward II (1991). She next starred in Sally Potter's Orlando (1992), and was nominated for the European Film Award for Best Actress.

Swinton was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for her performance in The Deep End (2001). She followed this with appearances in Vanilla Sky (2001), Adaptation (2002), Constantine (2005), Julia (2008), and I Am Love (2009). She won the European Film Award for Best Actress and received a nomination for the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role for the psychological thriller We Need to Talk About Kevin (2011). She is also known for her performance as the White Witch in the Chronicles of Narnia series (2005–10). Her other film appearances include Female Perversions (1996), The War Zone (1998), The Beach (2000), Thumbsucker (2005), The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2008), Burn After Reading (2008), Moonrise Kingdom (2012), Only Lovers Left Alive (2013), Snowpiercer (2013), The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014), Trainwreck (2015), A Bigger Splash (2015), Doctor Strange (2016), Okja (2017), and Suspiria (2018).

Swinton was given the Richard Harris Award by the British Independent Film Awards in recognition of her contributions to the British film industry. In 2013, she was given a special tribute by the Museum of Modern Art.

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