English-speaking world

Over 2 billion people speak English[1][2]. English is the largest language by number of speakers,[3] and the third largest language by number of native speakers[4]. With 300 million native speakers, the United States of America is the largest English speaking country. As pictured in the pie graph below, most native speakers of English are Americans.

Additionally, there are 79 million native English speakers in Nigeria, 92 million in the Philippines, 60 million in the United Kingdom, 45 million in Germany, 30 million in Bangladesh, 29 million in Canada, 25.1 million in Australia, 4.7 million in the Republic of Ireland, and 4.9 million in New Zealand. Other countries such as Ghana and Uganda also use English as their primary and official languages.

In the European Union, English is one of 24 official languages and is widely used by institutions and majority of population as native (United Kingdom and Ireland) and as a second language in other member states.

Estimates that include second language speakers vary greatly, from 470 million to more than 2 billion. [5] David Crystal calculates that, as of 2003, non-native speakers outnumbered native speakers by a ratio of 3 to 1.[6] When combining native and non-native speakers, English is the most widely spoken language worldwide.

Besides the major varieties of English, such as British English, American English, Canadian English, Australian English, Irish English, New Zealand English and their sub-varieties, countries such as South Africa, India, the Philippines, Jamaica and Nigeria also have millions of native speakers of dialect continua ranging from English-based creole languages to Standard English.

India now claims to be the world's second-largest English-speaking country. The most reliable estimate is around 10% of its population or 125 million people, second only to the US and expected to quadruple in the next decade.[7]

Countries with English as Official Language
Nations in which English is an official language (de facto or de jure). Anglosphere countries are a subset of those where English is the main native language.
  Official as majority language
  Official as minority language
  Co-official as majority language
  Co-official as minority language
  Unofficial
  Not official as majority language
  Not official as minority language
The term "majority language" is here defined as a language of which more than 50% of the population have some command. It does not mean that this command is native, nor that English is the most widely used language of the respective country.

Majority English-speaking countries

Countries where over 50% of the population are native English speakers
  The Anglosphere - Countries where English is spoken natively by the majority of the population.

There are six large countries with a majority of native English speakers that are sometimes grouped under the term Anglosphere. In numbers of English speakers they are: the United States of America (at least 231 million),[8] the United Kingdom (in England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and, Wales) (60 million),[9][10][11] Canada (at least 20 million),[12] Australia (at least 17 million),[13] Republic of Ireland (4.8 million) and New Zealand (4.8 million).[14]

Pie chart showing the percentage of native English speakers living in "inner circle" English-speaking countries. Native speakers are now substantially outnumbered worldwide by second-language speakers of English (not counted in this chart[15]).

  United States (64%)
  United Kingdom (16.6%)
  Canada (5.3%)
  Australia (4.7%)
  South Africa (1.3%)
  Ireland (1.3%)
  New Zealand (1.3%)
  Other (5.5%)

English is also the primary natively spoken language in the countries and territories of Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, the British Indian Ocean Territory, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Grenada, Guam, Guernsey, Guyana, the Isle of Man, Jamaica, Jersey, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Other substantial communities of native speakers are found in South Africa (4.8 million)[16] and Nigeria (79 million, 53%). [17]

Countries where English is an official language

In some countries where English is not the most spoken language, it is an official language. These countries include Botswana, Cameroon (co-official with French), Eswatini (Swaziland), Fiji, Ghana, Hong Kong, India, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Malta, the Marshall Islands, Mauritius, the Federated States of Micronesia, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, the Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, South Africa, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. There also are countries where in a part of the territory English became a co-official language, in Colombia's San Andrés y Providencia and Nicaragua's Mosquito Coast. This was a result of the influence of British colonization and American colonization in these areas.

India has the largest number of second-language speakers of English (see Indian English); Crystal (2004) claims that combining native and non-native speakers, India has more people who speak or understand English than any other country in the world. However, most scholars and research that has been conducted dispute his assertions.[18] Pakistan also has the English language (Pakistani English) as a second official language after the Urdu language as the result of British rule (raj). Sri Lanka And The Philippines use the English language, too, as the second and third official language after Sinhala, Tamil, and Filipino.

English is one of the eleven official languages that are given equal status in South Africa (South African English). It is also the official language in current dependent territories of Australia (Norfolk Island, Christmas Island and Cocos Island) and of the United States of America (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico (in Puerto Rico, English is co-official with Spanish) and the US Virgin Islands),[19] and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.

Although the United States federal government has no official languages, English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 US state governments.[20][21] Furthermore, per United States nationality law, the process of becoming a naturalized citizen of the US entails a basic English proficiency test, which may be the most prominent example of the claim of the nation not having an official language being belied by policy realities.

Although falling short of official status, English is also an important language in several former colonies and protectorates of the United Kingdom, such as Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Cyprus and the United Arab Emirates.

English as a global language

Anglospeak
     States and territories in which English is the first language of the majority of the population.
     States and territories in which English is an official, but not the majority language.

Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "world language", the lingua franca of the modern era,[22] and while it is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language.[23] It is, by international treaty, the official language for aeronautical[24] and maritime[25] communications. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations and many other international organizations, including the International Olympic Committee. It is also one of two co-official languages for astronauts (besides the Russian language) serving on board the International Space Station.

English is studied most often in the European Union, and the perception of the usefulness of foreign languages among Europeans is 67 percent in favour of English ahead of 17 percent for German and 16 percent for French (as of 2012). Among some of the non-English-speaking EU countries, the following percentages of the adult population claimed to be able to converse in English in 2012: 90 percent in the Netherlands, 89 percent in Malta, 86 percent in Sweden and Denmark, 73 percent in Cyprus, Croatia, and Austria, 70 percent in Finland, and over 50 percent in Greece, Belgium, Luxembourg, Slovenia, and Germany. In 2012, excluding native speakers, 38 percent of Europeans consider that they can speak English.[26]

Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world, and English is the most commonly used language in the sciences[22] with Science Citation Index reporting as early as 1997 that 95% of its articles were written in English, even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries.

In publishing, English literature predominates considerably with 28 percent of all books published in the world [leclerc 2011] and 30 percent of web content in 2011 (down from 50 percent in 2000).[27]

This increasing use of the English language globally has had a large impact on many other languages, leading to language shift and even language death,[28] and to claims of linguistic imperialism. English itself has become more open to language shift as multiple regional varieties feed back into the language as a whole.[29]

References

  1. ^ "Crystal, David. The language revolution. John Wiley & Sons, 2004".
  2. ^ "Two thousand million?".
  3. ^ "List of languages by total number of speakers, Ethnologue 2019".
  4. ^ "List of languages by total number of speakers, Ethnologue 2019".
  5. ^ "Two thousand million?".
  6. ^ Crystal, David (2003). English as a Global Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-521-53032-3.
  7. ^ BBC News 27 Nov 2012: English or Hinglish - which will India choose?
  8. ^ Ryan 2013, Table 1.
  9. ^ Office for National Statistics 2013, Key Points.
  10. ^ National Records of Scotland 2013.
  11. ^ Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency 2012, Table KS207NI: Main Language.
  12. ^ Statistics Canada 2014.
  13. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics 2013.
  14. ^ Statistics New Zealand 2014.
  15. ^ Data are from national censuses conducted in 2010 or 2011 in the reported countries.
  16. ^ Statistics South Africa 2012, Table 2.5 Population by first language spoken and province (number).
  17. ^ "Two thousand million?".
  18. ^ Crystal 2004b.
  19. ^ Nancy Morris (1995). Puerto Rico: Culture, Politics, and Identity. Praeger/Greenwood. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-275-95228-0.
  20. ^ "U.S. English, Inc". U.S. English. Archived from the original on 6 January 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  21. ^ "U.S. English Chairman Applauds West Virginia Bill to Declare English the States Official Language". U.S. English. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  22. ^ a b David Graddol (1997). "The Future of English?" (PDF). The British Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2007.
  23. ^ Crystal, David (2003a). English as a Global Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-521-53032-3. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Lay summary (PDF)Library of Congress (sample) (4 February 2015). Northrup, David (20 March 2013). How English Became the Global Language. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-30306-6. Retrieved 25 March 2015. Lay summary (25 March 2015).
  24. ^ "ICAO Promotes Aviation Safety by Endorsing English Language Testing". International Civil Aviation Organization. 13 October 2011.
  25. ^ "IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases". International Maritime Organization. Archived from the original on 27 December 2003.
  26. ^ European Commission (June 2012). Special Eurobarometer 386: Europeans and Their Languages (PDF) (Report). Eurobarometer Special Surveys. Retrieved 12 February 2015. Lay summary (PDF) (27 March 2015).
  27. ^ Northrup 2013.
  28. ^ David Crystal (2000) Language Death, Preface; viii, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  29. ^ Jambor, Paul Z. (April 2007). "English Language Imperialism: Points of View". Journal of English as an International Language. 2: 103–123.

Bibliography

Australian Bureau of Statistics (28 March 2013). "2011 Census QuickStats: Australia". Retrieved 25 March 2015.
Bao, Z. (2006). "Variation in Nonnative Varieties of English". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 377–380. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04257-7. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Crystal, David (19 November 2004b). "Subcontinent Raises Its Voice". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
Crystal, David (2006). "Chapter 9: English worldwide". In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. A History of the English language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 420–439. ISBN 978-0-511-16893-2.
National Records of Scotland (26 September 2013). "Census 2011: Release 2A". Scotland's Census 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (11 December 2012). "Census 2011: Key Statistics for Northern Ireland December 2012" (PDF). Statistics Bulletin. Table KS207NI: Main Language. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
Office for National Statistics (4 March 2013). "Language in England and Wales, 2011". 2011 Census Analysis. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
Ryan, Camille (August 2013). "Language Use in the United States: 2011" (PDF). American Community Survey Reports. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-05. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
Statistics Canada (22 August 2014). "Population by mother tongue and age groups (total), 2011 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories". Retrieved 25 March 2015.
Statistics New Zealand (April 2014). "2013 QuickStats About Culture and Identity" (PDF). p. 23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. Table 2.5 Population by first language spoken and province (number). ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015.
Auld Lang Syne

"Auld Lang Syne" (Scots pronunciation: [ˈɔːl(d) lɑŋˈsəin]: note "s" rather than "z") is a Scots-language poem written by Robert Burns in 1788 and set to the tune of a traditional folk song (Roud # 6294). It is well known in many countries, especially in the English-speaking world, its traditional use being to bid farewell to the old year at the stroke of midnight on New Year's Eve. By extension, it is also sung at funerals, graduations, and as a farewell or ending to other occasions. The international Scouting movement in many countries uses it to close jamborees and other functions.The poem's Scots title may be translated into standard English as "old long since" or, more idiomatically, "long long ago", "days gone by", or "old times". Consequently, "For auld lang syne", as it appears in the first line of the chorus, might be loosely translated as "for the sake of old times".

The phrase "Auld Lang Syne" is also used in similar poems by Robert Ayton (1570–1638), Allan Ramsay (1686–1757), and James Watson (1711), as well as older folk songs predating Burns. Matthew Fitt uses the phrase "in the days of auld lang syne" as the equivalent of "once upon a time" in his retelling of fairy tales in the Scots language.

Awards and prizes of the University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (formally The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge) is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university. The history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Numerous scholarships, prizes, honors, and awards specific to the University are awarded to prospective or current students.

Bricklehampton

Bricklehampton is a village in Worcestershire, England. The 14-letter town name is perhaps the longest isogrammic one-word place name in the English-speaking world (i.e. the longest that does not repeat any letter), according to linguist David Crystal.

Catholic Theological Union

Catholic Theological Union (CTU) is a Roman Catholic graduate school of theology in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. It is one of the largest Roman Catholic graduate schools of theology in the English speaking world and trains men and women for lay and ordained ministry within the Roman Catholic Church. It was founded in 1968, when three religious institutes united their separate theology programs to form one school.

Check mark

A check mark, checkmark or tick is a mark (✓, ✔, etc.) used (primarily in the English speaking world) to indicate the concept "yes" (e.g. "yes; this has been verified", "yes; that is the correct answer", "yes; this has been completed", or "yes; this [item or option] applies to me"). The x mark is also sometimes used for this purpose (most notably on election ballot papers, e.g. in the United Kingdom), but otherwise usually indicates "no", incorrectness, or failure.

As a verb, to check (off) or tick (off), means to add such a mark. Printed forms, printed documents, and computer software (see checkbox), commonly include squares in which to place check marks.

Classical logic

Classical logic (or standard logic) is the intensively studied and most widely used class of logics. Classical logic has had much influence on analytic philosophy, the type of philosophy most often found in the English-speaking world.

Color commentator

A color commentator or expert commentator is a sports commentator who assists the main commentator, often by filling in any time when play is not in progress. The phrase "color commentator" is primarily used in American English; the concept may also be referred to as a summariser (outside North America) or analyst (a term used throughout the English-speaking world). The color analyst and main commentator will often exchange comments freely throughout the broadcast, when the main commentator is not describing the action. The color commentator provides expert analysis and background information, such as statistics, strategy, and injury reports on the teams and athletes, and occasionally anecdotes or light humor. Color commentators are often former athletes or coaches of the sport being broadcast.

Concertmaster

The concertmaster (from the German Konzertmeister) in the U.S. and Canada is the leader of the first violin section in an orchestra (or clarinet in a concert band) and the instrument-playing leader of the orchestra. After the conductor, the concertmaster is the second-most significant leader in an orchestra, symphonic band or other musical ensemble. Another common term in the U.S. is "First Chair." In the U.K., Australia and elsewhere in the English-speaking world, the term commonly used is "leader."

Conor

Conor is a male given name of Irish origin. The meaning of the name is "Lover of Wolves" or "Lover of Hounds". Conchobhar/Conchubhar or from the name Conaire, found in Irish legend as the name of the high king Conaire Mór and other heroes. It is popular in the English-speaking world. Conor has recently become a popular name in North America and in Great Britain. Some alternative spellings for the name are often spelled Connor, Conner and sometimes Konnor.The name is occasionally also used as a female given name.

Hans Fredrik Dahl

Hans Fredrik Dahl (born 16 October 1939) is a Norwegian historian, journalist and media scholar, best known in the English-speaking world for his biography of Vidkun Quisling, a Nazi collaborationist and Minister President for Norway during the Second World War. His research is focused on media history, the totalitarian ideologies of the 20th century, and the Second World War. He served as culture editor of Dagbladet 1978–1985 and has been a board member of the paper since 1996. He was a professor at the University of Oslo 1988–2009, and is now a professor emeritus.

Kilometric point

A "kilometric point" (French: Point kilométrique, Spanish: Punto kilométrico; PK) is a term used in metricated areas, especially in France and Spain, to provide reference points alongside a transport route such as a road, a railway line or a canal. It is calculated according to the distance in kilometres from a fixed commencement point. In the English-speaking world, its equivalent would be milepost or mile marker.

Megan

Megan (also spelled Meghan, Meagan, Megyn, Meaghan, Meaghen ‘’’Maggie’’’, megetc.) is a Welsh female given name, originally a pet form of Meg or Meggie, which is itself a short form of Margaret. Megan is one of the most popular Welsh names in Wales and England; it is commonly truncated to Meg. Nowadays, it is generally used as an independent name rather than as a nickname.Megan was one of the most popular girls' names in the English-speaking world in the 1990s, peaking in 1990 in the United States and 1999 in the United Kingdom. Approximately 54 percent of people named Megan born in the US were born in 1990 or later.

Parlour

A parlour (or parlor) is a reception room or public space. In medieval Christian Europe, the "outer parlour" was the room where the monks or nuns conducted business with those outside the monastery and the "inner parlour" was used for necessary conversation between resident members. In the English-speaking world of the 18th and 19th century, having a parlour room was evidence of social status.

Shrug

A shrug is a gesture performed by raising both shoulders, and is a representation of an individual either being indifferent about something or not knowing an answer to a question. A shrug is an emblem, meaning that it integrates the vocabulary of only certain cultures and may be used in place of words. It can also be used when simply ignoring a question. It may be accentuated with raised eyebrows, a turned-down mouth, an exaggerated frown, and raised palms. It is very common in Western culture—rather than saying "I don't know", one may simply perform a shrug. In the English-speaking world it may be accompanied by a three-syllable grunt or hummed mumble mimicking the intonation of "I don't know" (low-high-low).Shoulder shrugs are among the symptomatic tics of Tourette syndrome.

Silly, Belgium

Silly (Dutch: Opzullik) is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. On January 1, 2006, Silly had a total population of 7,995. The total area is 67.68 square kilometres (26.13 sq mi) which gives a population density of 118 inhabitants per km².

The name of the town derives from its stream, called the Sille (French) or Zulle (Dutch), and has no relation to the English word. In the English-speaking world, it has frequently been noted on lists of unusual place names.The municipality consists of the following sub-municipalities: Fouleng, Gondregnies (Gondreghem), Graty, Hellebecq (Hellebeek), Hoves (Hove), Silly proper (Opzullik), Thoricourt, and Bassilly (Zullik).

Tolar

Tolar (German: Thaler) is the Czech name for the silver coin mined in Kingdom of Bohemia in the 16th century in Jáchymov (German: Joachimsthal). The modern word dollar was derived from the Spanish dollar, so-called in the English-speaking world because they were of similar size and weight to the German Thalers. The German Thalers were so named because they were first minted from a silver mine in 1520 in Joachimsthal. It was the main currency in Bohemia from 1520 to 1750.

Uncut (magazine)

Uncut magazine, trademarked as UNCUT, is a monthly publication based in London. It is available across the English-speaking world, and focuses on music, but also includes film and books sections. A DVD magazine under the Uncut brand was published quarterly from 2005 to 2006.

Visigothic art and architecture

The Visigoths entered Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal) in 415, and they rose to be the dominant people there until the Moorish invasion of 711 brought their kingdom to an end.

This period in Iberian art is dominated by their style. Visigothic art is generally considered in the English-speaking world to be a strain of Migration art, while the Portuguese and Spanish-speaking worlds generally classify it as Pre-Romanesque.

Branches of Visigothic art include their architecture, their crafts (especially jewellery), and even their script.

Wanker

Wanker, literally "one who wanks (masturbates)", is a general insult. It is a pejorative term of English origin common in Britain and other parts of the English-speaking world (mainly Commonwealth nations), including Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. It initially referred to an "onanist" and is synonymous with the word tosser.

Geographical distribution of languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.