# Engine displacement

Engine displacement is the swept volume of all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC). It is commonly specified in cubic centimetres (cc or cm3), litres (L), or cubic inches (CID). Engine displacement does not include the total volume of the combustion chamber.

One complete cycle of a four-cylinder, four-stroke engine. The volume displaced is marked in orange.

## Definition

Engine displacement is determined from the bore and stroke of an engine's cylinders. The bore is the diameter of the circular chambers cut into the cylinder block.

${\displaystyle {\text{displacement}}={\pi }\times ({\tfrac {1}{2}}\times {\text{bore}})^{2}\times {\text{stroke}}\times {\text{number of cylinders}}}$

Which is equivalent to:

${\displaystyle {\text{displacement}}={\frac {\pi }{4}}\times {\text{bore}}^{2}\times {\text{stroke}}\times {\text{number of cylinders}}}$

### Examples

The 427 Chevy bore is 4.312 in, and the stroke is 3.65 in, therefore the displacement for this eight-cylinder engine is:

${\displaystyle 0.7854\times (4.312\ {\text{in}})^{2}\times 3.65\ {\text{in}}\times 8=426\ {\text{in}}^{3}}$

If the bore is 10.0 cm and the stroke is 5.00 cm with four cylinders, the calculation is:

${\displaystyle 0.7854\times (10.0\ {\text{cm}})^{2}\times 5.00\ {\text{cm}}\times 4=1570\ {\text{cm}}^{3}=1.57\ {\text{L}}}$

## Governmental regulations

Taxation of automobiles is sometimes based on engine displacement, rather than power output, fuel economy, emissions, or vehicle weight. Displacement is a basic fundamental of engine design, whereas power output depends a great deal on other factors, particularly on how the car manufacturer has tuned the engine from new. This has encouraged the development of other methods to increase engine power, such as variable valve timing and turbochargers.

There are four major regulatory constraints for automobiles: the European, British, Japanese, and American. The method used in some European countries, and which predates the EU, has a level of taxation for engines over 1.0 litre, and another at the level of about 1.6 litres. The British system of taxation depends upon vehicle emissions for cars registered after 1 March 2001, but for cars registered before this date, it depends on engine size. Cars under 1549 cm3 qualify for a lower tax rate.[1]

The Japanese method is similar to the European taxation by classes of displacement, plus a vehicle weight tax.

The United States, Canada (except Quebec[2]), Australia and New Zealand do not tax a vehicle based on the displacement of the engine. Engine displacement is important in determining whether or not smaller vehicles need to be registered with the state and whether or not a license is required to operate such a vehicle. A common threshold is 50 cm3.

In the Netherlands road tax is based on region, weight and fuel type (petrol / compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, diesel or other (electric/hybrid/hydrogen)),[3] and in Sweden, road tax is based on vehicle weight. However, Swedish cars registered in 2008 or later are taxed based on carbon dioxide emissions.

Displacement is also used to distinguish categories of (heavier) and lighter motorbikes with respect to driving licence and insurance requirements. In France and some other EU countries, mopeds of less than 50 cm3 displacement (and usually with a two-stroke engine), can be driven with minimum qualifications (previously, they could be driven by any person over 14). This led to all light motorbikes having a displacement of about 49.9 cm3. Some people tuned the engine by increasing the cylinder bore, increasing displacement; such mopeds cannot be driven legally on public roads since they no longer conform to the original specifications and may go faster than 45 km/h.

Wankel engines, due to the amount of power and emissions they create for their displacement, are generally taxed as 1.5 times their stated physical displacement (1.3 litres becomes effectively 2.0, 2.0 becomes effectively 3.0), although actual power outputs are far greater (the 1.3-litre 13B can produce power comparable to either a 3.0 V6 engine or a turbocharged 2.0 inline-4 engine, and the 2.0-litre 20B can produce power comparable to a 3.5 to 3.8 V6 engine or a 4.0 V8 engine). As such, racing regulations actually use a much higher conversion factor.

## Automotive model names

In the automotive industry, engine displacement is frequently encoded in the auto manufacturer's model names. For instance, Nissan's Teana 350JM is a car with a 3,498 cubic centimetres (213.5 cu in) displacement engine. Motorcycles are often labeled similarly.

However, this nomenclature can be misleading. For instance, the BMW 3 Series (F30) 320i, 328i and 330i all have a 2.0-litre engine; the Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W205) C 200, C 250, C 300 and C 350 Plug-In Hybrid all have a 2.0-litre engine; and the Bugatti Veyron 16.4 has an 8.0-litre (quad-turbocharged W16) engine.

Lexus hybrid vehicles ("h") are marked higher than true engine size to signify the extra power from auxiliary systems. For example, the RX450h has a 3.5 L engine, and the LS600h has a 5.0 L engine.

## References

1. ^ Direct.gov.uk Archived 16 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine: The Cost of Vehicle Tax for Cars, Motorcycles, Light Goods Vehicles and Trade Licences.
2. ^ SAAQ. "Additional Registration Fee for Large Cylinder Capacity Vehicles". SAAQ. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
3. ^ Belastingdienst. "Hoeveel motorrijtuigenbelasting moet ik betalen?". www.belastingdienst.nl.
Bore (engine)

In a piston engine, the bore (or cylinder bore) is the diameter of each cylinder.

Engine displacement is calculated based on bore, stroke length and the number of cylinders:

displacement = π ( 1/2 × bore )2 × stroke × ncylinders

The stroke ratio, determined by dividing the bore by the stroke, traditionally indicated whether an engine was designed for power at high engine speeds (rpm) or torque at lower engine speeds. The term "bore" can also be applied to the bore of a locomotive cylinder or steam engine pistons.

Cubic centimetre

A cubic centimetre (or cubic centimeter in US English) (SI unit symbol: cm3; non-SI abbreviations: cc and ccm) is a commonly used unit of volume that extends the derived SI-unit cubic metre, and corresponds to the volume of a cube that measures 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm. One cubic centimetre corresponds to a volume of 1/1,000,000 of a cubic metre, or 1/1,000 of a litre, or one millilitre; thus, 1 cm3 ≡ 1 mL. The mass of one cubic centimetre of water at 3.98 °C (the temperature at which it attains its maximum density) is closely equal to one gram. SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of any abbreviations for units. Hence cm3 is preferred to cc or ccm.

Many scientific disciplines have replaced cubic centimeter measurements with milliliters, but the medical and automotive fields in the United States still use the term cubic centimetre. Much of the automotive industry outside the U.S. has switched to litres. The United Kingdom uses millilitres in preference to cubic centimetres in the medical field, but not the automotive. Most other English-speaking countries follow the UK example.[citation needed]

There is currently a movement within the medical field to discontinue the use of cc in prescriptions and on medical documents, as it can be misread as "00". This could cause a hundredfold overdose of medication, which could be dangerous or even lethal. In the United States, such confusion accounts for 12.6% of all errors associated with medical abbreviations.

In automobile engines, "cc" refers to the total volume of its engine displacement in cubic centimetres. The displacement can be calculated using the formula

${\displaystyle d={\pi \over 4}\times b^{2}\times s\times n}$

where d is engine displacement, b is the bore of the cylinders, s is length of the stroke and n is the number of cylinders.

Conversions

Cubic inch

The cubic inch (symbol in3) is a unit of measurement for volume in the Imperial units and United States customary units systems. It is the volume of a cube with each of its three dimensions (length, width, and depth) being one inch long.

The cubic inch and the cubic foot are still used as units of volume in the United States, although the common SI units of volume, the liter, milliliter, and cubic meter, are also used, especially in manufacturing and high technology. One cubic inch is approximately 16.387 mL.

One cubic foot is equal to exactly 1,728 cubic inches because 123 = 1,728.

Cylinder (engine)

A cylinder is the central working part of a reciprocating engine or pump, the space in which a piston travels. Multiple cylinders are commonly arranged side by side in a bank, or engine block, which is typically cast from aluminum or cast iron before receiving precision machine work. Cylinders may be sleeved (lined with a harder metal) or sleeveless (with a wear-resistant coating such as Nikasil). A sleeveless engine may also be referred to as a "parent-bore engine".

A cylinder's displacement, or swept volume, can be calculated by multiplying its cross-sectional area (the square of half the bore by pi) by the distance of piston travels within the cylinder (the stroke). The engine displacement can be calculated by multiplying the swept volume of one cylinder by the number of cylinders.

Presented symbolically,

${\displaystyle {\text{(Cylinder Volume)}}=\pi \cdot \left({\frac {\text{bore}}{2}}\right)^{2}\cdot {\text{Stroke}}}$
${\displaystyle {\text{(Engine Displacement)}}={\text{(Cylinder Volume)}}\cdot {\text{(Number of Cylinders)}}}$

A piston is seated inside each cylinder by several metal piston rings fitted around its outside surface in machined grooves; typically two for compressional sealing and one to seal the oil. The rings make near contact with the cylinder walls (sleeved or sleeveless), riding on a thin layer of lubricating oil; essential to keep the engine from seizing and necessitating a cylinder wall's durable surface.

During the earliest stage of an engine's life, its initial breaking-in or running-in period, small irregularities in the metals are encouraged to gradually form congruent grooves by avoiding extreme operating conditions. Later in its life, after mechanical wear has increased the spacing between the piston and the cylinder (with a consequent decrease in power output) the cylinders may be machined to a slightly larger diameter to receive new sleeves (where applicable) and piston rings, a process sometimes known as reboring.

Driving license in South Korea

Driving licenses in the Republic of Korea may be attained at age 16 for cars and motorcycles. South Korea is one of the few nations that issue International Driving Permits (IDP) to sixteen-year-olds. This was made possible by a South Korean law in 2009, which gave Military cadets the requirement of driving a motor-vehicle.

Dubai 24 Hour

The Dubai 24 Hour Race is both a sports car and touring car automobile endurance race held annually at the Dubai Autodrome. It was inaugurated in 2006.

Honda S500

The S500 was the second production car from Honda, released in 1963, following the T360 truck into production by four months. It was a larger displacement variant of the S360 roadster which, though developed for sale in 1962, was never produced.

Like the S360, the S500 used a high-tech engine developed from Honda's motorcycle expertise. It was a dual overhead cam straight-4 with four Keihin carburettors and a 9500 rpm redline. Originally intended to displace 492 cc, the production version was 531 cc and produced 44 hp at 8000 rpm. Weighing just 1500 lb (680 kg), the tiny S500 could hit 80 mph (129 km/h).At the time of its introduction, its dimensions and engine displacement were larger than established Kei car regulations.

The S500 used a four-speed manual transmission with chain drive at the rear wheels. A four-wheel independent suspension was also novel, with torsion bars in front and diagonal coilover shock absorbers at the rear.

The car was priced at \$1,275 in 1963. An optional fiberglass hardtop was also available. 1,363 S500s were produced from October 1963 through September 1964.

The S500 saw competitors during its introduction, with examples called the Datsun Fairlady, the Toyota Sports 800, and the Daihatsu Compagno.

Killinger and Freund Motorcycle

The Killinger and Freund Motorcycle was an attempt in 1935 by a group of five German engineers from Munich to design a more streamlined and modified version of the German Megola front-wheel drive motorcycle. The work took three years to complete but the result was impressive. The engine displacement stayed the same as the Megola at 600 cc but was much lighter and more simplified than a standard 100 cc motorcycle of the time.

List of Volkswagen Group diesel engines

List of Volkswagen Group diesel engines. The compression-ignition diesel engines listed below are currently used by various marques of automobiles and commercial vehicles of the German automotive concern, Volkswagen Group, and also in Volkswagen Marine and Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications. All listed engines operate on the four-stroke cycle, and unless stated otherwise, use a wet sump lubrication system, and are water-cooled.Previous Volkswagen Group Diesel engines are in the list of discontinued Volkswagen Group diesel engines article.

List of Volkswagen Group petrol engines

List of Volkswagen Group petrol engines. The spark-ignition petrol engines listed below are currently used by 2010 and also in Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications. All listed engines operate on the four-stroke cycle, and unless stated otherwise, use a wet sump lubrication system, and are water-cooled.Since the Volkswagen Group is German, official internal combustion engine performance ratings are published using the International System of Units (commonly abbreviated "SI"), a modern form of the metric system of figures. Motor vehicle engines will have been tested by a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) accredited testing facility, to either the original 80/1269/EEC, or the later 1999/99/EC standards. The standard initial measuring unit for establishing the rated motive power output is the kilowatt (kW); and in their official literature, the power rating may be published in either the kW, or the 'Pferdestärke' (PS, which is sometimes incorrectly referred to as 'metric horsepower'), or both, and may also include conversions to imperial units such as the horsepower (hp) or brake horsepower (bhp). (Conversions: one PS ˜ 735.5 watts (W), ˜ 0.98632 hp (SAE)). In case of conflict, the metric power figure of kilowatts (kW) will be stated as the primary figure of reference. For the turning force generated by the engine, the Newton metre (Nm) will be the reference figure of torque. Furthermore, in accordance with European automotive traditions, engines shall be listed in the following ascending order of preference:

Number of cylinders,

Engine displacement (in litres),

Engine configuration, and

Rated motive power output (in kilowatts).The petrol engines which Volkswagen Group previously manufactured and installed are in the list of discontinued Volkswagen Group petrol engines article.

List of discontinued Volkswagen Group diesel engines

List of discontinued Volkswagen Group diesel engines. The compression-ignition diesel engines listed below were formerly used by various marques of automobiles and commercial vehicles of the German automotive concern, Volkswagen Group, and also in Volkswagen Marine and Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications, but are now discontinued. All listed engines operate on the four-stroke cycle, and unless stated otherwise, use a wet sump lubrication system, and are water-cooled.

List of discontinued Volkswagen Group petrol engines

The spark-ignition petrol engines listed below were formerly used by various marques of automobiles and commercial vehicles of the German automotive concern, Volkswagen Group, and also in Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications, but are now discontinued. All listed engines operate on the four-stroke cycle, and unless stated otherwise, use a wet sump lubrication system, and are water-cooled.Since the Volkswagen Group is European, official internal combustion engine performance ratings are published using the International System of Units (commonly abbreviated "SI"), a modern form of the metric system of figures. Motor vehicle engines will have been tested by a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) accredited testing facility, to either the original 80/1269/ EEC, or the later 1999/99/EC standards. The standard initial measuring unit for establishing the rated motive power output is the kilowatt (kW); and in their official literature, the power rating may be published in either the kW, or the 'Pferdestärke' (PS, which is sometimes incorrectly referred to as 'metric horsepower'), or both, and may also include conversions to imperial units such as the horsepower (hp) or brake horsepower (bhp). (Conversions: one PS ≈ 735.5 watts (W), ≈ 0.98632 hp (SAE)). In case of conflict, the metric power figure of kilowatts (kW) will be stated as the primary figure of reference. For the turning force generated by the engine, the Newton metre (Nm) will be the reference figure of torque. Furthermore, in accordance with European automotive traditions, engines shall be listed in the following ascending order of preference:

Number of cylinders,

engine displacement (in litres),

engine configuration, and

Rated motive power output (in kilowatts).The petrol engines which Volkswagen Group are currently manufactured and installed in today's vehicles can be found in the list of Volkswagen Group petrol engines article.

Mazda CX-9

The Mazda CX-9 is a full-size crossover SUV manufactured since April 2006 by Mazda in Japan, at its Ujina #1 plant in Hiroshima Prefecture.

Despite being built in Japan, the CX-9 is not sold in Japan's domestic market, as it exceeds Japanese government dimension regulations and the engine displacement obligates a large annual road tax bill. Instead, the closely related Mazda CX-8 is sold in the market in Japan.

Porsche 928

The Porsche 928 is a luxury grand tourer produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1978 to 1995. Originally intended to replace the company's iconic 911, the 928 combined the power, poise, and handling of a sports car with the refinement, comfort, and equipment of a luxury saloon. Porsche executives believed such a flagship would have wider appeal than the compact, quirky and sometimes difficult to drive 911.

The 928 has the distinction of being the company's first production V8 powered model and the only coupé powered by a front-mounted V8 engine.

Porsche Supercup

The Porsche Mobil 1 Supercup (known as Porsche Michelin Supercup prior to 2007) is the international stock car production racing series supporting the FIA Formula One World Championship organized by Porsche AG.

Porsche Supercup drivers compete in identical Porsche 911 GT3 Cup cars. On average, 24 race cars take part in each race. Most circuits visited by the series are European, although circuits in Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, the United States and Mexico have been included in the calendar as well.

Selve

Selve Automobilwerke AG was a car maker located in Hameln (near Hannover, Germany).

After World War I, the Northern German Automobile Works (Norddeutsche Automobilwerke), which made the Colibri car and the Sperber, was absorbed by the Selve firm, which was already producing Basse & Selve engines for the automotive industry. The first cars produced were the 24 horsepower 1.5 litre engine displacement and the 32 horsepower 2 litre model. The 40 hp 2090 cc model (which was later carried over to the 40 hp and 2352 cc) was also available in a 65 hp (48 kW) sport version. Six-cylinder models of 2850 cc in engine displacement were produced in 1925 and the Selecta 3075 cc engine produced in 1927 completed the product line.

Adolf Hitler was a fan of the automobile mark in the 1920s having a Green Selve 6/20 in which he was chauffeured around by his adjutant Julius Schaub.

These automobiles were produced until 1929, when car manufacturing was suspended due to the economic crisis of 1929.

A front-wheel drive six-cylinder model designed by Paul Henze was shown at the 1928 Berlin Automobile Exposition, but was never put into production.

Toyota Progrès

The Toyota Progrès (pronounced "Prog-Ray") is a mid-size luxury sedan which was sold in Japan from May 1998 to June 2007, replacing the Toyota Corona EXiV. The engine which the Toyota Progrès used is an inline 6-cylinder of 2.5L or 3.0L with VVT-I. Since April 2001 Toyota put in Progres direct injection (D4) engines 1JZ-FSE (2.5L) and 2JZ-FSE (3.0L). It was exclusive to Toyota Japan dealerships Toyopet Store, while its twin the Brevis was exclusive to Toyota Store locations, and shared a marketing approach used on the Toyota Vista Store alternative, called the Toyota Verossa. The width and engine displacement exceed Japanese Government regulations concerning exterior dimensions and engine displacement, and therefore it classified in the larger "passenger car" tax bracket. Two engine sizes were offered to allow Japanese buyers which annual road tax they were willing to pay; the larger engine did offer higher levels of standard equipment and luxury features.

The name "progrès" is French for "progress".

Available with such luxuries for 1998 as 6 airbags, voice activated GPS system called G-Book, NAVI AI-SHIFT world first GPS-guided car transmission (mechanics), full wood and leather trim, gilt or silver analogue clock and full soft touch plastic interior, dual zone air conditioning and automatic head lights and wipers, the Progrès had an equipment specification that not only surpassed European sedans of similar exterior size, but could match much larger cars such as the BMW 5 series of the era and the Mercedes-Benz E Class. Interior size was also generous, offering the best cu. ft. of space in its class, despite its Lexus IS underpinnings – yet, unlike the Lexus IS, the ride was "willing and ready" rather than the sort of ride expected from a sport sedan, as it was installed with double wishbone suspension at both the front and rear wheels.

The Progrès was discontinued in Japan in June 2007, while the slightly smaller Toyota Premio continued as an affordable luxury car offering.

Vehicle size class

Vehicle size classes are series of ratings assigned to different segments of automotive vehicles for the purposes of vehicle emissions control and fuel economy calculation. Various methods are used to classify vehicles; in North America, passenger vehicles are classified by total interior capacity while trucks are classified by gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). Vehicle segments in the European Union use linear measurements to describe size. Asian vehicle classifications are a combination of dimensions and engine displacement.

Yamaha FZX750

The Yamaha FZX750 was a motorcycle made by Yamaha from the early 1980s until the mid-1990s. The US version was the FZX700 Fazer, imported only in 1986 and 1987, with a 50 cc smaller engine displacement to avoid import tariffs on motorcycles larger than 700 cc.Its engine was a retuned version of the four-stroke DOHC twenty-valve four-cylinder inline engine found in the FZ750, producing ten BHP less than the 105 of the sports model, but having a stronger midrange. It had an almost solid rear wheel, low seat, and more chrome than would normally be expected. Unusually, it had downdraft carburettors built into the design of the thirteen-litre tank.

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