Enez

Enez is a town and a district of Edirne Province, in Thrace, Turkey. The pre-Turkish name of the town was Ainos (Greek: Αἶνος), Latinized as Aenus.

The mayor is Ahmet Çayır (DSP). The population is 3,826 as of 2010.

Enez
Enez is located in Turkey
Enez
Enez
Coordinates: 40°44′00″N 26°04′00″E / 40.73333°N 26.06667°ECoordinates: 40°44′00″N 26°04′00″E / 40.73333°N 26.06667°E
CountryTurkey
ProvinceEdirne
Government
 • MayorAhmet Çayır (DSP)
 • KaymakamFatih Baysal
Area
 • District438.18 km2 (169.18 sq mi)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
3,723
 • District
10,516
 • District density24/km2 (62/sq mi)
Websitewww.enez.bel.tr

Location

The town is located on the left (eastern) bank of the river Hebrus, where its estuary broadens to flow into the Gulf of Saros, the ancient Melas Gulf, and so into the Aegean Sea. Enez occupies a ridge of rock surrounded by broad marshes. In ancient Greek times, it lay on a land route for trade from the Black Sea to the Aegean and was a port for the corn, wood and fruit produced in eastern and central Thrace.[3]

History

Antiquity

The mythical and eponymous founder of the ancient Greek city of Ainos/Aenus was said to be Aeneus, a son of the god Apollo and father of Cyzicus. Another mythical ruler, named Poltys, son of Poseidon, entertained Heracles when he came to Aenus. On that occasion, Heracles slew Poltys' insolent brother Sarpedon on the beach of Aenus. According to Strabo, Sarpedon is the name of the coastline near Aenus, so both Poltys and Sarpedon would appear to be eponyms.

Presumably because of the similarity of the names, Virgil has Aeneas found the city after the destruction of Troy.[4] A surer sign of its antiquity is in the Iliad, where Homer mentions that Peirous, who led Troy's Thracian allies, came from Aenus.[5]

Herodotus (7.58) and Thucydides[6] say Aenus was an Aeolian colony. Scymnus Chius (696) says the colonists came from Mytilene on Lesbos Island, while Stephanus Byzantius says they came (also?) from Cumae.[7] According to Strabo (p. 319), a more ancient name of the place was Poltyobria and Stephanus says it was also called Apsinthus.[7]

As a subject ally of Athens, Aenus provided peltasts at the Battle of Sphacteria in 425 BC and sent forces to the Sicilian Expedition in 415.[3]

During the Hellenistic period Ainos changed hands multiple times. After a spell of Macedonian rule, the city passed to Lysimachos of Thrace after the death of Alexander the Great, and was subsequently taken by the Seleucid Empire after his defeat and death at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. It then became a possession of the Ptolemaic Kingdom , when it was captured as a result of the Third Syrian War around 246 BC, it was subsequently captured by Philip V of Macedon in 200 BC, and later of Antiochus the Great, who lost it to the Romans in 185 BC, whereupon the Romans declared Aenus a free city. It was still a free city in the time of Pliny the Elder.[3][7]

Byzantine period

The city is mentioned first among the cities of the province Rhodope in the 6th-century Synecdemus of Hierocles.[8] Under Justinian I (r. 527–565), the city wall was heightened and the previously unprotected shore fortified.[8] In the middle Byzantine period, the city was part of the Theme of Thrace.[8] In 1091, in the nearby hamlet of Lebounion, Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and his Cuman allies dealt a crushing defeat on the Pechenegs.[8] In 1189, the town was plundered by soldiers of the Third Crusade under Duke Frederick of Swabia, with the inhabitants fleeing by ship.[8] In the Partitio Romaniae of 1204, the city is attested as a distinct district (catepanikium de Eno). Under Latin rule, it was the seat of a Catholic bishop (a suffragan of Trajanopolis), while in a document of 1219 the Crusader barons Balduin de Aino and Goffred de Mairi are mentioned as lords of the city.[8] In 1237 a Cuman raid reached the city, and in 1294 it was besieged by the Bulgarians under Constantine Tikh and his Tatar allies until the Byzantines released Sultan Kaykawus II.[8] In June 1265 Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos granted the Venetians the right to settle and trade in the city.[8]

In 1347, John Palaiologos, Marquess of Montferrat, planned to take over the city.[8] In 1351, John V Palaiologos demanded possession of Ainos from the senior emperor John VI Kantakouzenos.[8] In the ensuing civil war, Palaiologos signed a treaty with Venice there on 10 October 1352, securing financial assistance in exchange for ceding the island of Tenedos as collateral.[8] After Palaiologos' Serbian and Bulgarian allies were defeated by Kantakouzenos' Ottoman allies, Ainos was captured by the Kantakouzenos loyalists and was placed under the rule of the exiled ruler of Epirus, Nikephoros II Orsini.[9] Following the death of the Serbian emperor Stephen Dushan and his governor of Thessaly, Preljub, in 1355, however, Nikephoros abandoned the city and sailed to Thessaly to claim his ancestral inheritance. His admiral Limpidarios took over control of the city in his absence, despite the opposition of Nikephoros' wife Maria Kantakouzene (daughter of John VI). Maria locked herself in the city's citadel and continued to resist for a while, before agreeing to depart.[10]

With the gradual Ottoman conquest of Thrace in the 1360s and 1370s, the city became a haven for the Greek population.[10] From ca. 1384 on the city came under the rule of the Genoese Gattilusio family, beginning with Niccolo Gattilusio. The Gattilusi maintained their possession by exploiting the city's wealth, chiefly deriving from the area's salt pans and fisheries, and sending an annual tribute to the Ottomans. Niccolo Gattilusio was deposed by his son Palamede in 1408/9, who ruled until his death in 1454. His younger son, Dorino II, squabbled with Helena Notaras, the widow of Niccolo's elder son Giorgio Gattilusio and ruled only for two years. Helena Notaras appealed to the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II who attacked the city from land and sea and forced its surrender in January 1456.[10][11]

In 1463 Ainos was given by Mehmed II to the deposed Despot of the Morea, Demetrios Palaiologos, as an appanage (along with parts of Thasos and Samothrace). He remained in possession of the town until 1467, when he fell into disgrace.[10][12] The Venetians briefly captured the city in 1469.[10]

Ecclesiastical history

The city was an episcopal see already in the 4th century: bishop Olympius under Constantius II.[8] At first it was a suffragan of Trajanopolis, the capital and metropolitan see of the Roman province of Rhodope, but by the time of the Notitia Episcopatuum of Pseudo-Epiphanius (c. 640), it was an autocephalous archbishopric, and rose to a separate metropolitan see (without suffragans) at the end of the 11th century. Its bishop Olympius was driven from the see by the Arians under Constantius II. Macarius took part in the Council of Chalcedon (451), Paul in the Second Council of Constantinople (553), George in the Trullan Council of 692, and John in the Photian Council of Constantinople (879). Another John took part in the Council of 1030/38, and Michael in the councils of 1092 and 1094.[8][13][14]

Between 1285 and 1315, the see was awarded to the Metropolitan of Antioch in Pisidia.[8] In 1361 the see was awarded to the Metropolitan of Makre, two years later to the Metropolitan of Sougdaia and in 1369 to the Bishop of Athyra.[10] It remained a residential see of the Greek Orthodox Church until the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey and is now a titular metropolis. No longer a residential bishopric, Aenus is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[15]

References

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ a b c Simon Hornblower, Antony Spawforth, Esther Eidinow (editors), The Oxford Classical Dictionary 2012 ISBN 978-0-19954556-8, "Aenus"
  4. ^ Virgil, Aeneid, 3,18
  5. ^ Iliad, 4,520
  6. ^ Thucydides, Peloponnesian War, 7.57
  7. ^ a b c William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), "Aenus"
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Soustal 1991, p. 170.
  9. ^ Soustal 1991, pp. 170-171.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Soustal 1991, p. 171.
  11. ^ William Miller, "The Gattilusj of Lesbos (1355–1462)", Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 22 (1913), pp. 431f
  12. ^ Runciman, Steven (2009). Lost Capital of Byzantium: The History of Mistra and the Peloponnese. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-84511-895-2.
  13. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 1199-1202
  14. ^ Sophrone Pétridès, v. 2. Aenus, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. I, Paris 1909, coll. 660-661
  15. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 888

Sources

  • Soustal, Peter (1991). Tabula Imperii Byzantini, Band 6: Thrakien (Thrakē, Rodopē und Haimimontos) (in German). Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. pp. 170–173. ISBN 3-7001-1898-8.

External links

Adrianople Vilayet

The Vilayet of Adrianople or Vilayet of Edirne (Ottoman Turkish: ولايت ادرنه‎, Vilâyet-i Edirne) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.

This vilayet was split between Turkey and Greece in 1923, culminating in the formation of Western and Eastern Thrace after World War I as part of the Treaty of Lausanne. A small portion of the Vilayet was given to Bulgaria in the Treaty of Bucharest (1913) after the Balkan wars. In the late 19th century it reportedly had an area of 26,160 square miles (67,800 km2). In the east it bordered with the Istanbul Vilayet, the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, in the west with the Salonica Vilayet, in the north with Eastern Rumelia (Bulgaria since 1885) and in the south with the Aegean Sea. Sometimes the area is described also as Southern Thrace, or Adrianopolitan Thrace.After the city of Edirne (pop. in 1905 about 80,000), the principal towns were Tekirdağ (35,000), Gelibolu (25,000), Kırklareli (16,000), İskeçe (14,000), Çorlu (11,500), Dimetoka (10,000), Enez (8000), Gümülcine (8000) and Dedeağaç (3000).

Edirne Province

Edirne Province (Turkish: Edirne ili, Bulgarian: Одрин, Greek: Επαρχία Αδριανούπολης) is a Turkish province located in East Thrace. Part of European Turkey, it is one of only three provinces located entirely within continental Europe. Edirne Province is bordered by Tekirdağ Province and Kırklareli Province to the east, and the Gallipoli peninsula of Çanakkale Province to the south-east. It shares international borders with Bulgaria to the north and Greece to the west.

Edirne is the capital of the province, notable for serving as the third capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1363 to 1453.

Groix

Groix (French: Île de Groix, Breton: Enez Groe) is an island and a commune in the Morbihan department of the region of Brittany in north-western France.

Groix lies a few kilometres off the coast of Lorient. Several ferries a day run from Lorient to Groix.

There are a few small towns on the island. High cliffs are on its north coast and sandy beaches in secluded coves on the south coast. Groix is also home to a wide variety of sea birds. Groix is also famous for hosting the only convex beach in Europe, which also moves following sea currents. During the last 15 years, the beach moved half a kilometer westbound.

The geology of Groix is distinct from that of the nearby continent, and the east and south coasts have been designated a mineral nature reserve since 1982. More than 60 minerals can be found on the island, particularly blue glaucophane (observable on the surface), epidote or garnet. The island mainly consists of schist.Groix provides a dramatic backdrop for the fourth novel of Peter May's "Enzo" series, Freeze Frame, published in 2010.

Gulf of Saros

Saros Bay or Gulf of Saros (Turkish: Saros Körfezi) is an inlet of the northern Aegean Sea located north of the Gallipoli Peninsula in northwestern Turkey. The Archipelago of Saros is in the gulf. It consists the three small islands - The Big island (Büyükada or Yunus adası), The Small island (Küçükada or Defne adası) and The Little island (Minikada or Böcek adası).The bay is 75 km (47 mi) long and 35 km (22 mi) wide. Far from industrialized areas and thanks to underwater currents, it is a popular summer recreation resort with sandy strands and crystal-clear sea. Scuba diving, windsurfing and fishing are the most practiced water sports here.

Settlements around the bay are: Gökçetepe, Mecidiye, Erikli, Danişment, Yayla, Karaincirli, Vakıf, Büyükevren, Sultaniçe, Gülçavuş and Enez, all in Edirne Province. The islands of Gökçeada (Imbros) lie outside Saros Bay and Samothrace in the Aegean Sea, Greece, is in short distance.

The North Anatolian Fault Zone, the most prominent active fault in Turkey and the source of numerous large earthquakes throughout the history, passes through the Gulf of İzmit and traverses the Marmara Sea reaching to the Saros Bay to the southeast.On the Southern shore of the Dardanelles, across from Gallipoli, was the place of legendary Troy.

Houat

Houat (Enez Houad in Breton) is a French island off the south coast of Brittany in the department of Morbihan. It is located, along with two other major islands, in the entrance to the Baie de Quiberon. Its "twin sister" island is Hoëdic.

Administratively, Île-d'Houat is a commune of the Morbihan department.

Jentilez

For the city in Quebec, see Sept-Îles, Quebec

Sept-Îles (French for seven islands) or Jentilez (in Breton) is a small archipelago off the north coast of Brittany, in the Perros-Guirec commune of Côtes-d'Armor. This group of islands is home to an important bird reserve, and is the home of various seabirds, including northern gannets, cormorants, and members of the Alcidae family (puffins, common guillemots, razorbills). This is also a reserve for grey seals.

Keşan

Keşan is the name of a district of Edirne Province, Turkey, and also the name of the largest in the district town of Keşan (Bulgarian: Кешан; Greek: Κεσάνη, Bizantine Greek: Ρουσιον, Rusion) In 2010 Keşan had a permanent population of 54,314; in the summer this increases to 70,000 because of an influx of tourists. The mayor is Mehmet Özcan (CHP).

Keşan district is bordered by İpsala and Uzunköprü to the north, Malkara to the east, Şarköy to the southeast, Gelibolu and the Aegean Sea to the south and Enez to the west.

Agriculture and commerce are the two most important sources of income in Keşan. Because of its proximity to Greece, there is a daily flow of tourists in and out of the district.

Literacy is 98%.The local music includes gaida, tupan, and hora dance.

Lake Gala National Park

The Lake Gala National Park (Turkish: Gala Gölü Milli Parkı), established on March 5, 2005, is a national park located within Edirne Province in Marmara Region of Turkey.The national park covers an area consisting of Lake Pamuklu and Lake Küçük Gala within the boundaries of İpsala and Enez districts. In 1991, 2,369 ha (5,850 acres) of land was declared a nature reserve. In 2002, biologists from Trakya University in Edirne demanded transformation of the protected area into a national park status due to pollution of lakes by pesticide waste and fertilizer, used in agriculture, as well as uncontrolled fishing activities and bird poaching that reach a level of massacre. In 2005, the area was enlarged to 6,090 ha (15,000 acres), and it was established as a national park. Lake Gala National Park is an ecosystem of 3,090 ha (7,600 acres) wetland, lake and 3,000 ha (7,400 acres) forest. It is a habitat for various plant and animal species.The protected area is administered by the Directorate-General of Nature Protection and National Parks (Turkish: Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar Genel Müdürlüğü) of the Ministry of Environment and Forest.

Lillemer

Lillemer (Breton: Enez-Veur) is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department of Brittany in northwestern France.

List of populated places in Edirne Province

Below is the list of populated places in Edirne Province, Turkey by the districts. In the following lists first place in each list is the administrative center of the district.

Pointe du Raz

The Pointe du Raz is a promontory that extends into the Atlantic from western Brittany, in France. The local Breton name is Beg ar Raz. It is the western point of the commune of Plogoff, Finistère.

It is named after the Raz de Sein, the dangerous stretch of water between it and the island of Sein (Enez Sun in Breton). It is a dramatic place of crashing waves and strong winds. The word raz was borrowed from Norman by the Bretons and shares the same etymology as the English word race, "strong current of water"; both are from Old Norse rás.

It also marks the western end of the 3,200 km E5 European long distance path to Verona in Italy.

The "La Vieille" lighthouse can be clearly seen from the headland.

Although it is not quite the westernmost extent of France—that would be Pointe de Corsen, just to the north—its rocky isolation makes it a popular tourist destination, comparable in some ways to Land's End in the southern UK.

Roscoff

Roscoff (Breton: Rosko) is a commune in the Finistère département of Brittany in northwestern France.

Roscoff is renowned for its picturesque architecture, labeled "petite cité de caractère de Bretagne" (small town of character) since 2009. Roscoff is also a traditional departure point for Onion Johnnies.

After lobbying by local economic leaders headed by Alexis Gourvennec, the French government agreed in 1968 to provide a deep water port at Roscoff. Existing ferry operators were reluctant to take on the relatively long Plymouth/Roscoff crossing, so Gourvennec and colleagues founded Brittany Ferries. Since the early 1970s, Roscoff has been developed as a ferry port for the transport of Breton agricultural produce, and for motor tourism. Brittany Ferries and Irish Ferries link Roscoff with both Ireland and the United Kingdom.

Due to the richness of iodine in the surrounding waters and the mild climate maintained by a sea current that only varies between 8 and 18 °C (46 and 64 °F), Roscoff is also a center of post-cure which gave rise to the concept of thalassotherapy in the latter half of the 19th century. A French doctor, Louis-Eugène Bagot opened Institut marin in Roscoff in 1899, the first center for thalassotherapy in Europe. Since then many important centers of thalassotherapy such as the Institut de Rockroum (originally Institut marin), the clinic Kerléna, and a heliomarin hospital founded in 1900, the Perharidy Center can be found on the edges of the sea of Roscoff.

The nearby Île de Batz, called Enez Vaz in Breton, is a small island that can be reached by launch from the harbour.

Saint-Jacut-de-la-Mer

Saint-Jacut-de-la-Mer (Breton: Sant-Yagu-an-Enez) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor département of Brittany in northwestern France.

Saint-Jouan-de-l'Isle

Saint-Jouan-de-l'Isle (Breton: Sant-Yowan-an-Enez) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor département of Brittany in northwestern France.

Sanjak of Dedeağaç

The Sanjak of Dedeağaç (Ottoman Turkish: Liva-i Dedeağaç, Greek: Υποδιοίκησις Δεδέαγατς), originally in 1878–1884 the Sanjak of Dimetoka (Liva-i Dimetoka, Υποδιοίκησις Διδυμοτείχου), was a second-level province (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire in Thrace, forming part of the Adrianople Vilayet. Its capital was Dedeağaç, modern Alexandroupoli in Greece.

Île-Tudy

Île-Tudy (Breton: Enez-Tudi) is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France.

Île-de-Bréhat

Bréhat (French: Île-de-Bréhat, Breton: Enez Vriad) is an island and commune located near Paimpol, a mile off the northern coast of Brittany. Administratively, it is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in northwestern France.

Bréhat is actually an archipelago composed of two main islands, separated only at high tide, and many smaller ones. It is famous for its pink granite rocks, very mild micro-climate and Mediterranean vegetation, due to the warm Gulf Stream coming from across the Atlantic.

Many day-trippers come to Brehat every day by the ferry service (les Vedettes de Bréhat) and visit the main tourist attractions, the Paon & Rosedo lighthouses, the St-Michel chapel, the Guerzido beach, the Birlot water-mill and the Verrerie of Bréhat.

Île de Batz

The Île de Batz (Enez Vaz in Breton) is an island off Roscoff in Brittany, France. Administratively, it is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France.

Île de Sein

The Île de Sein is a French island in the Atlantic Ocean, off Finistère, eight kilometres from the Pointe du Raz (raz meaning "water current"), from which it is separated by the Raz de Sein. Its Breton name is Enez Sun. The island, with its neighbouring islets, forms the commune of Île-de-Sein in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France. Inhabitants of Île-de-Sein are called in French Sénans.

Lying on the sea routes going south from the English Channel, Sein is well known for the dangers of its waters, the Chaussée de Sein, a vast zone of reefs stretching more than 30 miles from east to west, requiring numerous lighthouses, beacons, and buoys.

Districts
Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

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