Energy policy of China

Ensuring adequate energy supply to sustain economic growth has been a core concern of the Chinese government since 1949.[1] Primary energy use in China was 26,250 TWh and 20 TWh per million persons in 2009.[2] According to the International Energy Agency, the primary energy use grew 40% and electricity use 70% from 2004 to 2009.[2]

The energy import was three times bigger in 2009 compared to 2004. The share of energy import of the primary energy use was 12% in 2009.[2]

The country is the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases,[3][4][5] with carbon emission growth of 44% from 2004 to 2009.[2] However, from 2010 to 2015 China reduced energy consumption per unit of GDP by 18%, and CO2 emissions per unit of GDP by 20%.[6] On a per-capita basis, it was the world's 42nd largest emitter of greenhouse gases in 2014.[7]

China is also the world's largest renewable energy producer.[8] China is the largest producer of hydroelectricity, solar power and wind power in the world.

Energy policymaking in China is largely decentralised. There has been no Ministry of Energy since it was dissolved in 1993, and it was only in 2002–2003 that serious governmental dialogue on re-centralising energy administration began.[9] China's energy industries are governed by a number of ministries and commissions, and companies with varying levels of power and influence, such as the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and the China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation (Sinopec). Both of these companies originally comprised one ministry before being converted to state companies in the 1980s. They have retained the same hierarchical rank as government ministries, putting them higher than the sub-ministerial bureau charged with supervising them.[10] These complicated organisational structures and interrelationships complicate any efforts to change the way energy is priced and billed.[9]

The 22,500 MW Three Gorges Dam hydroelectric power plant in China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world.
China's primary energy production and consumption 1980 to 2011


20180724 - PRC - Chinese GDP and energy consumption 2015 (43568277842)
Growth in Chinese GDP and energy use since 1983
Energy in China[11]
Primary energy
CO2 emissions
2004 1,296 18,717 17,873 1,051 2,055 4,732
2007 1,320 22,746 21,097 1,939 3,073 6,028
2008 1,326 24,614 23,182 2,148 3,252 6,508
2009 1,331 26,250 24,248 3,197 3,503 6,832
2010 1,338 28,111 25,690 3,905 3,938 7,270
Change 2004-10 3.3% 50% 44% 272% 92% 54%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, excludes Hong Kong.

Environment and carbon emissions

Countries by carbon dioxide emissions world map deobfuscated
Countries by carbon dioxide emissions (blue the highest)
CO2 per capita per country
CO2 emission per capita per year per country (2000 data)

On June 19, 2007, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency announced that a preliminary study had indicated that China's greenhouse gas emissions for 2006 had exceeded those of the United States for the first time. The agency calculated that China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuels increased by 9% in 2006, while those of the United States fell by 1.4%, compared to 2005.[12] The study used energy and cement production data from British Petroleum which they believed to be 'reasonably accurate', while warning that statistics for rapidly changing economies such as China are less reliable than data on OECD countries.[13]

The Initial National Communication on Climate Change of the People's Republic of China calculated that carbon dioxide emissions in 2004 had risen to approximately 5.05 billion metric tons, with total greenhouse gas emissions reaching about 6.1 billion metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent.[14]

In 2002, China ranked 2nd (after the United States) in the list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, with emissions of 3.3 billion metric tons, representing 14.5% of the world total.[15] However, due to its huge population size (the largest in the world), it only ranked 43 in the list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita, with emissions of 7.6 metric tons per person (compared to 16.4 metric tons per person in the United States).[16] In addition, it has been estimated that around a third of China's carbon emissions in 2005 were due to manufacturing exported goods.[17]

Since 2006, China has overtaken the US, producing 8% more emissions than the US to become the world's biggest emitter of pollution.[18]

Energy use and carbon emissions by sector

In the industrial sector, six industries – electricity generation, steel, non-ferrous metals, construction materials, oil processing and chemicals – account for nearly 70% of energy use.[19]

In the construction materials sector, China produced about 44% of the world's cement in 2006.[13] Cement production produces more carbon emissions than any other industrial process, accounting for around 4% of global carbon emissions.[13]

National Action Plan on Climate Change

China has been taking action on climate change for some years, with the publication on June 4, 2007 of China's first National Action Plan on Climate Change,[1] and in that year China became the first developing country to publish a national strategy addressing global warming.[20] The plan did not include targets for carbon dioxide emission reductions, but it has been estimated that, if fully implemented, China's annual emissions of greenhouse gases would be reduced by 1.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2010.[20] Other commentators, however, put the figure at 0.950 billion metric tons.[21]

The publication of the strategy was officially announced during a meeting of the State Council, which called on governments and all sectors of the economy to implement the plan, and for the launch of a public environmental protection awareness campaign.[22]

The National Action Plan includes increasing the proportion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources and from nuclear power, increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power stations,[23] the use of cogeneration, and the development of coal-bed and coal-mine methane.[21]

In addition, the one child policy in China has successfully slowed down the population increase, preventing 300 million births, the equivalent of 1.3 billion tons of CO2 emissions based on average world per capita emissions of 4.2 tons at 2005 level.[24]

12th Five-year Plan 2011-2015

In January 2012, as part of its 12th Five-year Plan, China published a report 12th Five-year Plan on Greenhouse Emission Control (guofa [2011] No. 41), which establishes goals of reducing carbon intensity by 17% by 2015, compared with 2010 levels and raising energy consumption intensity by 16%, relative to GDP.[25] More demanding targets were set for the most developed regions and those with most heavy industry, including Guangdong, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Tianjin.[25] China also plans to meet 11.4% of its primary energy requirements from non-fossil sources by 2015.[25]

The plan will also pilot the construction of a number of low-carbon Development Zones and low-carbon residential communities, which it hopes will result in a cluster effect among businesses and consumers.[25]

In addition, the Government will in future include data on greenhouse emissions in its official statistics.[25]

Carbon trading scheme

In a separate development, on January 13, 2012,[26] the National Development and Reform Commission announced that the cities of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing and Shenzhen, and the provinces of Hubei and Guangdong would become the first to participate in a pilot carbon cap and trade scheme that would operate in a similar way to the European Union Emission Trading Scheme.[25] The development follows an unsuccessful experiment with voluntary carbon exchanges that was set up in 2009 in Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin.[25]

Fossil fuels

Coal mine in Inner Mongolia 002
A coal mine near Hailar, Inner Mongolia
Ganjiaxiang - industrial panorama - P1070643
Jinling Oil Refinery, Qixia, Nanjing
Oil well in Tsaidam
Oil well in Qaidam Basin, Qinghai


Coal in China (Mt) [27]
Production Net import Net available
2005 2,226 -47 2,179
2008 2,761 nd 2,761
2009 2,971 114 3,085
2010 3,162 157 3,319
2011 3,576 177 3,753
2015 3,527 199 3,726
Excludes Hong Kong

Coal remains the foundation of the Chinese energy system, covering close to 70 percent of the country's primary energy needs and representing 80 percent of the fuel used in electricity generation. China is the world's top coal producer and ranks third in the amounts of coal reserves. China consumes more coal than any other country. Analysis in 2016 shows that China's coal consumption appears to have peaked in 2014.[28][29]


China's oil supply was 4,855 TWh in 2009 which represented 10% of the world's supply.[30]

Although China is still a major crude oil producer, it became an oil importer in the 1990s. China became dependent on imported oil for the first time in its history in 1993 due to demand rising faster than domestic production.[1] In 2002, annual crude petroleum production was 1,298,000,000 barrels, and annual crude petroleum consumption was 1,670,000,000 barrels. In 2006, it imported 145 million tons of crude oil, accounting for 47% of its total oil consumption.[31][32] By 2014 China was importing approximately 7 mil. barrels of oil per day. Three state-owned oil companies – Sinopec, CNPC, and CNOOC – dominate its domestic market.

China announced on June 20, 2008 plans to raise petrol, diesel and aviation kerosene prices. This decision appeared to reflect a need to reduce the unsustainably high level of subsidies these fuels attract, given the global trend in the price of oil.[33]

Top oil producers were in 2010: Russia 502 Mt (13%), Saudi Arabia 471 Mt (12%), US 336 Mt (8%), Iran 227 Mt (6%), China 200 Mt (5%), Canada 159 Mt (4%), Mexico 144 Mt (4%), UAE 129 Mt (3%). The world oil production increased from 2005 to 2010 1.3% and from 2009 to 2010 3.4%.[34]

Natural gas

China's natural gas supply was 1,015 TWh in 2009 that was 3% of the world supply.[35]

CNPC, Sinopec, and CNOOC are all active in the upstream gas sector, as well as in LNG import, and in midstream pipelines. Branch pipelines and urban networks are run by city gas companies including China Gas Holdings, ENN Energy, Towngas China, Beijing Enterprises Holdings and Kunlun Energy.

Issued by China's State Council in September 2013, China's Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution illustrates government desire to increase the share of natural gas in China's energy mix.[1] In May 2014 China signed a 30-year deal with Russia to deliver 38 billion cubic metres of natural gas each year.[36]

China was top seventh in natural gas production in 2010.[34]

Electricity generation

Electricity Production in China
Electricity production in China by source
Liujiaxia Dam in Gansu, China.

In 2013, China's total annual electricity output was 5.398 trillion kWh and the annual consumption was 5.380 trillion kWh with an installed capacity of 1247 GW (all the largest in the world). [37]

This is an increase from 2009, when China's total annual electricity output was 3.71465 trillion kWh,[38] and the annual consumption was 3.6430 trillion kWh (second largest in the world).[39] In the same year, the total installed electricity generating capacity was 874 GW.[40] China is undertaking substantial long distance transmission projects with record breaking capacities, and has the goal of achieving an integrated nationwide grid in the period between 2015 and 2020.[41]


In 2015, China generated 73% of its electricity from coal-fired power stations, which has been dropping from a peak of 81% in 2007.[27]

Coal electricity in China (TWh) [27]
From coal Total %
2004 1,713 2,200 78%
2007 2,656 3,279 81%
2008 2,733 3,457 79%
2009 2,913 3,696 79%
2010 3,273 4,208 78%
2011 3,724 4,715 79%
2012 3,850 4,937 78%
2013 4,200 5,398 78%
2014 4,354 5,583 78%
2015 4,115 5,666 73%


China is the world's leading renewable energy producer, with an installed capacity of 152 GW.[8] China has been investing heavily in the renewable energy field in recent years. In 2007, the total renewable energy investment was US$12 billion, second only to Germany.[42] In 2012, China invested US$65.1 billion in clean energy (20% more than in 2011), fully 30% of the total investment by the G-20, including 25% (US$31.2 billion) of global solar energy investment, 37% percent (US$27.2 billion) of global wind energy investment, and 47% (US$6.3 billion) of global investment in "other renewable energy" (small hydro, geothermal, marine, and biomass); 23 GW of clean generation capacity was installed.[43]

China is also the largest producer of wind turbines and solar panels.[44] Approximately 7% of China's energy was from renewable sources in 2006, a figure targeted to rise to 10% by 2010 and to 16% by 2020.[21] The major renewable energy source in China is hydropower. Total hydro-electric output in China in 2009 was 615.64 TWh, constituting 16.6% of all electricity generated. The country already has the most hydro-electric capacity in the world, and the Three Gorges Dam is currently the largest hydro-electric power station in the world, with a total capacity of 22.5 GW. It has been in full operation since May 2012.

Nuclear power

In 2012, China had 15 nuclear power units with a total electric capacity of 11 GW and total output of 54.8 billion kWh, accounting for 1.9% country's total electricity output. This rose to 17 reactors in 2013. By 2016 the number of operating nuclear reactors was 32 with 22 under construction and other dozen to start construction this year. There are plans to increase nuclear power capacity and nuclear power percentage, bringing the total electricity output to 86 GW and 4% respectively by 2020.[45] Plans are to increase this to 200 GWe by 2030, and 400 GWe by 2050. China has set an end-of-the-Century goal 1500GWs of nuclear energy, most of this from fast reactors. China has 32[46] reactors under construction, the highest number in the world.

Rural electrification

Following the completion of the similar Township Electrification Program in 2005, the Village Electrification Program plans to provide renewable electricity to 3.5 million households in 10,000 villages by 2010. This is to be followed by full rural electrification using renewable energy by 2015.[47]

Renewable energy sources

Although a majority of the renewable energy in China is from hydropower, other renewable energy sources are in rapid development. In 2006, a total of 10 billion US dollars had been invested in renewable energy, second only to Germany.[48]


Jatropha curcas1 henning
Jatropha curcas is to be grown for biofuel production

In 2006, 16 million tons of corn have been used to produce a first generation biofuel (ethanol).[49] However, because food prices in China rose sharply during 2007, China has decided to ban the further expansion of the corn ethanol industry.

On February 7, a spokesman for the State Forestry Administration announced that 130,000 square kilometres (50,000 sq mi) would be devoted to biofuel production. Under an agreement reached with PetroChina in January 2007, 400 square kilometres of Jatropha curcas is to be grown for biodiesel production. Local governments are also developing oilseed projects. There were concerns that such developments may lead to environmental damage.[50]

In 2018, The Telegraph reported that the biofuel industry is further on the rise.[51] There also seems to be considerable interest in biofuels (i.e. biodiesel, green jet fuel, ...) [52][53][54][55] which use waste material as the input source (second generation biofuel).

Solar power

China has become the world's largest consumer of solar energy.[56] It is the largest producer of solar water heaters, accounting for 60 percent of the world's solar hot water heating capacity, and the total installed heaters is estimated at 30 million households.[57] Solar PV production in China is also in rapid development. In 2007, 0.82 GW of Solar PV was produced, second only to Japan.[8]

As part of the stimulus plan of "Golden Sun", announced by the government in 2009, several developments and projects became part of the milestones for the development of solar technology in China. These include the agreement signed by LDK for a 500MW solar project, a new thin film solar plant developed by Anwell Technologies in Henan province using its own proprietary solar technology and the solar power plant project in a desert, headed by First Solar and Ordos City. The effort to drive the renewable energy use in China was further assured after the speech by the Chinese President, given at the UN climate summit on 22 Sept 2009 in New York, pledging that China will plan to have 15% of its energy from renewable sources within a decade. China is using solar power in houses, buildings, and cars.[58][59][60]

Wind power

Huitengxile wind farm 874324260
Huitengxile wind farm, Inner Mongolia, China

China's total wind power capacity reached 2.67 gigawatts (GW) in 2006, 6.05 GW by 2007, 12.2 GW by 2008, 25 GW by 2009, and 44.7 GW by 2010, making China the world leader in installed wind power generation capacity.[61][62]

Energy conservation

General work plan

Officials were warned that violating energy conservation and environmental protection laws would lead to criminal proceedings, while failure to achieve targets would be taken into account in the performance assessment of officials and business leaders.[19]

After achieving less than half the 4% reduction in energy intensity targeted for 2006, all companies and local and national government were asked to submit detailed plans for compliance before June 30, 2007.[63][64]

During the first four years of the plan, energy intensity improved by 14.4%, but dropped sharply in the first quarter of 2010. In August 2010, China announced the closing of 2,087 steel mills, cement works and other energy-intensive factories by September 30, 2010. The factory closings were made more palatable by a labor shortage in much of China making it easier for workers to find other jobs.[65]

Space heating and air conditioning

A State Council circular issued on June 3, 2007, restricts the temperature of air conditioning in public buildings to no lower than 26 °C in summer (78.8 °F), and of heating to no higher than 20 °C (68 °F) in winter. The sale of inefficient air conditioning units has also been outlawed.[66]


Chinese billionaires in energy business by Forbes included in 2013 Wang Yusuo & family ($2.4 B) the chairman of ENN Group, one of China's largest non-government-controlled energy businesses and Huo Qinghua ( $1.1 B) chairman of China Kingho Energy Group, one of the country's largest privately held mining and energy companies, with operations in China, Africa and Mongolia.[67] and in Hong Kong Sit Kwong Lam ($1.35 B) the founder and chairman of Hong Kong-listed Brightoil Petroleum.[68]

Public opinion

The Chinese results from the 1st Annual World Environment Review, published on June 5, 2007 revealed that, in a sample of 1024 people (50% male):[69]

  • 88% are concerned about climate change.
  • 97% think their Government should do more to tackle global warming.
  • 63% think that China is too dependent on fossil fuels.
  • 56% think that China is too reliant on foreign oil.
  • 91% think that a minimum 25% of electricity should be generated from renewable energy sources.
  • 61% are concerned about nuclear power.
  • 79% are concerned about carbon dioxide emissions from developing countries.
  • 62% think it appropriate for developed countries to demand restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions from developing countries.

Another survey published in August 2007 by China Youth Daily and the British Council sampled 2,500 Chinese people with an average age of 30.1. It showed that 80% of young Chinese are concerned about global warming.[70]


In December 2011 in Haimen, Guangdong, a coastal town of about 120,000 people, residents have protested ongoing for three days (22.12.2011) against plans for another coal-fired power plant. Police were armed with batons and shields and fired teargas to break up demonstrations.[71]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Andrews-Speed, Philip (November 2014). "China's Energy Policymaking Processes and Their Consequences". The National Bureau of Asian Research Energy Security Report. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page: Country specific indicator numbers from page 48
  3. ^ Catherine Brahic (April 25, 2007). "China's emissions may surpass the US in 2007". New Scientist. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
  4. ^ Saeed Shah (November 8, 2006). "China to pass US greenhouse gas levels by 2010". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
  5. ^ "China fears disasters, grain cut from global warming". Reuters AlertNet. December 27, 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
  6. ^ Ma Tianjie (August 6, 2016). "China's 5 Year Plan for Energy". The Diplomat. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
  7. ^ "CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)". World Bank. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c Alok Jha (August 1, 2008). "China 'leads the world' in renewable energy". The Guardian. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  9. ^ a b Grant, Dansie; Marc, Lanteigne; Overland, Indra (February 1, 2010). "Reducing Energy Subsidies in China, India and Russia: Dilemmas for Decision Makers". Sustainability. 2 (2): 475–493. doi:10.3390/su2020475.
  10. ^ Haley, U.C. Shedding light on energy subsidies in China: An analysis of China’s steel industry from 2000–2007. In Proceedings of the Alliance for American Manufacturing, Washington, DC, USA, 8 January 2008
  11. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 Archived October 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Archived October 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  12. ^ "China now no. 1 in CO
    emissions; USA in second position"
    . Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. June 19, 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2007.
  13. ^ a b c "China now no. 1 in CO
    emissions; USA in second position: more info"
    . Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. June 19, 2007. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
  14. ^ "Current greenhouse gas emissions in China". Xinhua News Agency. June 4, 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
  15. ^ Data source Dioxyde de carbone (CO
    ), émissions en mille tonnes de CO
    Archived March 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, United Nations. Retrieved 2005-04-09.
  16. ^ "World Development Indicators". The World Bank. 2013.
  17. ^ Catherine Brahic (July 29, 2008). "33% of China's Carbon Footprint Blamed on Exports". ABC News. Retrieved July 29, 2008.
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 11, 2011. Retrieved December 14, 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ a b China says energy efficiency key to performance of government & company leaders, Xinhua News Agency, published 2007-06-03. Retrieved 2007-06-04.
  20. ^ a b China issues first national plan to address climate change, Xinhua News Agency, June 4, 2007, retrieved June 4, 2007
  21. ^ a b c "China to Cut Greenhouse Emissions by 950 Million Tons". Bloomberg. June 2, 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
  22. ^ "National Action Plan on Climate Change". Xinhua News Agency. June 2, 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
  23. ^ "China unveils climate change plan". BBC. June 4, 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
  24. ^ "China says one-child policy helps protect climate". Reuters. August 30, 2007. Retrieved August 30, 2007.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Vivian Ni (January 18, 2012). "China Sets New Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Goals". China Briefing. Retrieved January 18, 2012.
  26. ^ China set to launch first caps on CO2 emissions New Scientist, 2012-01-17
  27. ^ a b c IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2015, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 Archived October 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Archived October 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine IEA coal production p. 15, electricity p. 25 and 27
  28. ^ Carrington, Damian (July 25, 2016). "China's coal peak hailed as turning point in climate change battle". The Guardian. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
  29. ^ Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus (July 25, 2016). "China's post-coal growth" (PDF). Nature Geoscience. 9 (8): 564–566. doi:10.1038/ngeo2777.
  30. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures Archived October 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Table 47 Global supply of oil, 1990–2009 (TWh)
  31. ^ "China's oil imports set new record". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
  32. ^ "China's 2006 crude oil imports 145 mln tons, up 14.5 pct - customs -". November 19, 2007. Archived from the original on November 19, 2007. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  33. ^ Rise in global oil price dents China's petrol subsidy policy Archived June 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ a b IEA Key energy statistics 2010 and IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2011 October pages 11, 21
  35. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures Archived October 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Table 50 Global supply of gas 1990–2009 (TWh)
  36. ^ 38 billion cubic metres of natural gas
  37. ^ "COUNTRY COMPARISON :: ELECTRICITY - PRODUCTION". CIA. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  38. ^ "China Bureau of Statistics 2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报". Archived from the original on February 28, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  39. ^ "China's National Development and Reform Commission: 2009年全社会用电量稳定增长 清洁能源快速发展". Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  40. ^ "China installed capacity hits 710 GW in 2007". January 9, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  41. ^ Xiaoxin Zhou of Electric Power Research Institute,China (June 27, 2001). "Power System Development and Nationwide Grid Interconnection in China" (PDF). Workshop on Power Grid Interconnection in Northeast Asia, Beijing, China, May 14–16, 2001. Nautilus Institute: 42. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 25, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
  42. ^ Kinver, Mark (August 1, 2008). "China's 'rapid renewables surge'". BBC News. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  43. ^ "Who’s Winning the Clean Energy Race? 2012 Edition", The Pew Charitable Trusts
  44. ^ Bradsher, Keith (January 30, 2010). "China leads global race to make clean energy". The New York Times.
  45. ^ "China's nuclear plants generate 74.8 TWh of electricity in 2011". April 23, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2007.
  46. ^ "PRIS - Country Details". Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  47. ^ "Renewables Global Status Report 2006 Update" (PDF). REN21. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 18, 2011. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
  48. ^ China poised to lead renewables race Archived January 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ China corn for ethanol 16 m tons in 2006, published 2007-04-09. Retrieved 2007-08-27.
  50. ^ Chinese Biofuels Expansion Threatens Ecological Disaster, Worldwatch Institute, published 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
  51. ^ The coming biofuel revolution
  52. ^ Biofuels push to help clear the air
  53. ^ New energy
  54. ^ Sinopec company prepares to produce green jet fuel
  55. ^ Sinopec unit ready to produce biofuel
  56. ^ Energy: China becomes the world's largest solar power market published 2007-08-27. Retrieved 2007-08-27.
  57. ^ Kunming Heats Up as China’s “Solar City” published 2007-06-15. Retrieved 2007-08-27.
  58. ^ "LDK to develop 500 MW of PV power in China". PennWell. September 1, 2009.
  59. ^ "Anwell Produces its First and Thin Film Solar Panel". Solarbuzz. September 7, 2009.
  60. ^ "First Solar to Team With Ordos City on Major Solar Power Plant in China Desert". First Solar. September 8, 2009. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
  61. ^
  62. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-08.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  63. ^ China to stick to strict environment-protection plans, Xinhua News Agency, published 2007-06-03. Retrieved 2007-06-04.
  64. ^ Chinese government urges efforts for energy saving, Xinhua News Agency, published 2007-06-03. Retrieved 2007-06-04.
  65. ^ In Crackdown on Energy Use, China to Shut 2,000 Factories, The New York Times, published 2010-08-09. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
  66. ^ State Council: no lower than 26 degrees in air-conditioned rooms, Xinhua News Agency, published 2007-06-03. Retrieved 2007-06-04.
  67. ^ "The World's Billionaires". Forbes. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  68. ^ "The World's Billionaires". Forbes. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  69. ^ First Annual World Environment Review Poll Reveals Countries Want Governments to Take Strong Action on Climate Change Archived October 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Global Market Insite, published 2007-06-05. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
  70. ^ China's young favor sustainable consumption, but want cars first published 08-20-2007. Retrieved 08-28-07.
  71. ^ Chinese police fire teargas at power plant protesters Guardian 22.12.2011

External links

BTW (company)

Baoding Tianwei Baobian Electric Co., Ltd., commonly known as BTW, is a Chinese manufacturer of power transformers and other electrical equipment. Along with competitors Tebian Electric Apparatus (TBEA) and the XD Group, it is among the major manufacturers of transformers in China.The company is engaged in manufacturing of wind turbines. In 2009, a wind power turbine subsidiary of the TWBB won a 300 million RMB contract to provide 33 units of wind turbines to the Zhuozi wind farm in Inner Mongolia, the first wind turbine deal for TWBB.

China Datang Corporation

China Datang Corporation (CDT) is one of the five large-scaled power generation enterprises in the People's Republic of China, established on the basis of former State Power Corporation of China in 2002. It is a solely state-owned enterprise directly managed by the CPC Central Committee and is the experimental state-authorized investment and state shareholding enterprise ratified by the State Council of the People's Republic of China.

China Huadian Corporation

China Huadian Corporation (Huadian Group, 华电集团) is one of the five largest state-owned power generation enterprises in China, administrated by SASAC for the State Council of the People's Republic of China, engaging in production and supply of electricity and heat, and the development of power-related primary energy. It produces about 10% of China's power along with Huaneng Group, Datang Group, Guodian Group and CPI Group.

China Resources Power

China Resources Power Holdings Company Limited (commonly known as CR Power, Chinese: 华润电力) was incorporated and registered in Hong Kong in 2001. It is a subsidiary of China Resources Holdings, a conglomerate in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Its business is concerned about the investment, development, operation and management of coal-burning power plants in the regions including Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong and Yunnan.China Resources Power was added to be Hang Seng Index Constituent Stock on 8 June 2009 to replace Yue Yuen Industrial.

China Shenhua Energy

China Shenhua Energy Company Limited known as Shenhua or China Shenhua or Shenhua Energy (Chinese: 神华能源) is the largest coal mining state-owned enterprise in Mainland China, and the largest coal mining enterprise in the world. It is a subsidiary of Shenhua Group. It is engaged in the production and sale of coal and the generation and sale of electric power in the PRC. It operates coal mines as well as an integrated railway network and a seaport that are primarily used to transport its coal. It also operates power plants in the PRC which are engaged in the generation and sales of coal-based power to provincial and regional electric companies.

China Southern Power Grid

China Southern Power Grid Company Limited (CSG; Chinese: 中国南方电网; pinyin: Zhōngguó Nánfāng Diànwǎng) is one of the two state-owned enterprises established in 2002 according to the precept to reform the power system promulgated by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, the other being State Grid Corporation of China. It takes charges of participating in the investment, construction and management of power transmission, transformation and distribution covering China's five southern provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hainan, while power generation is done by other five "power generation groups". The company is headquartered in Guangzhou.

Energy in Hong Kong

Energy in Hong Kong refers to the type of energy and its related infrastructure used in Hong Kong. Energy is crucial for the development of trade and industries in Hong Kong with its relatively small usable land. Hong Kong mostly imports its energy from outside or produces it through some intermediate process.

Energy in Macau

Energy in Macau is related to all of the type of energy and its related infrastructure used in Macau, China. Energy-related affairs is administered under the Secretariat for Transport and Public Works of the Government of Macau.

Energy security of the People's Republic of China

Energy security of the People's Republic of China concerns the need for the People's Republic of China to guarantee itself and its industries long- term access to sufficient energy and raw materials. China has been endeavoring to sign international agreements and secure such supplies; its energy security involves the internal and foreign energy policy of China. Currently, China's energy portfolio consists mainly of domestic coal, oil and gas from domestic and foreign sources, and small quantities of uranium. China has also created a strategic petroleum reserve, to secure emergency supplies of oil for temporary price and supply disruptions. Chinese policy focuses on diversification to reduce oil imports, which rely almost exclusively on producers in the Middle East.

According to Professor Zha Daojiong, China's dependence on foreign sources of energy is not a threat to China's energy security, since the world energy market is not opposed to China's pursuit of growth and prosperity. The key issue is actually internal: growing internal consumption without energy efficiency threatens both China's growth and world oil markets. Chinese imports are a new determinant encouraging oil price rises on the world market, a concern to developed countries. The international community advocates a move toward energy efficiency and more transparency in China's quest for energy worldwide, to confirm China's responsibility as a member of the international community. Energy efficiency is the only way to avoid excessive Chinese demands on oil at the expense of industrialized and industrializing countries. International projects and technology transfers are ongoing, improving China's energy consumption and benefit the whole energy-importing world; this will also calm Western-Chinese diplomatic tensions. China is trying to establish long-term energy security by investment in oil and gas fields abroad and by diversifying its providers.

GD Power Development

GD Power Development Company, or Guodian Power Development Company, the subsidiary of China Guodian Corporation, engages in the generation and supply of electric power and heat. It was founded in 1992 and was listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 1997. It is headquartered in Beijing, China.

Harbin Electric

Harbin Electric Company Limited, formerly Harbin Power Equipment Company Limited, is a Chinese enterprise engaged in the research and development, manufacturing and construction of power plant equipment. Along with Shanghai Electric and Dongfang Electric it is one of the three largest manufacturers of power plant equipment in China. According to Platts the company in 2009-10 was the second largest manufacturer of steam turbines by worldwide market share, tying Dongfang Electric and slightly behind Shanghai Electric.

Huadian Energy

Huadian Energy Company Limited is an electric power company based in Harbin, Heilongjiang province. The significant shareholder of the listed company is the state-owned China Huadian.

Huadian Energy Company Limited was one of the first joint-stock pilot projects of the Heilongjiang Province government with the former State Ministry of Power Industry. The company was formed 2 February 1993. In 1996 A shares and B shares were listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange. The main businesses are power generation, heating, green energy and power equipment manufacturing.

As of the end of 2008 the company had 16.8 billion RMB total assets. Total installed capacity of 3.4 GW with 4.2 GW in construction. The company is also developing wind power projects and sludge incineration.

Huadian Power International

Huadian Power International Corporation, formerly Shandong International Power Development Company Limited, is the largest power producer in Shandong Province, China and it the Hong Kong listed subsidiary of China Huadian, one of the five largest power producers in China. The parent company produces about 10% of China's power, and the subsidiary produces approximately another 5%.

It is headquartered in Jinan, Shandong. It is engaged in the construction and operation of power plants and power generation.

H shares and A shares of the company were listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and Shanghai Stock Exchange in 1999 and 2005 respectively.

List of public policy topics by country

This is a list of articles on public policy topics, arranged by country.

Panjiang Investment Holdings

Panjiang Investment Holdings Group was known as Panjiang Coal and Electric Power Group (Chinese: 盤江煤電集團) is a coal mining and energy company in China.

Shanghai Electric

Shanghai Electric (SEHK: 2727, SSE: 601727) (officially Shanghai Electric Group Company Limited) is a Chinese multinational power generation and electrical equipment manufacturing company headquartered in Shanghai. With a long history, the company traces its roots to 1880.

Shanghai Electric is engaged in the design, manufacture and sale of products including power generation equipment, power transmission and distribution equipment, transformers, switchgear, circuit breakers, transport equipment, machine tools, elevators, packaging and print machinery, and environmental protection equipment.It is the world's largest manufacturer of steam turbines.

Shenergy Group

Shenergy Group Company Limited is a state-owned enterprise owned by Shanghai government in China. It is the parent company of Shenergy Company Limited, the listed company in the Shanghai Stock Exchange. It is engaged in the investments of electricity, petroleum and natural gas in Shanghai and Eastern China regions.

Its major subsidiary Shenergy Company Limited (SSE: 600642) was reorganized from Shenneng Electric Power Company in 1992. It is engaged in the investments of electricity, petroleum and natural gas. It was listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 1993, and it is the first Chinese electricity energy company listed in Shanghai. It invests in Shanghai Waigaoqiao Electric Power Generating Company Limited and Wujing Thermal Power Plant with Shanghai Electric Power Company. It also involves in energy saving and environmental protection.

Shenzhen Energy

Shenzhen Energy Group Company Limited, formerly Shenzhen Energy Investment Company Limited, is one of the main power generation companies in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. It involves in developing all types of energies, researching and investing high new energy-related technologies. Huaneng Power International is now the second largest shareholder of Shenzhen Energy.On 3 April 2010 a tanker owned by the Shenzhen Energy Group ran aground on Australia's Great Barrier Reef after straying out of shipping lanes.


TBEA Co., Ltd., previously known as Tebian Electric Apparatus, is a Chinese manufacturer of power transformers and other electrical equipment, and a developer of transmission projects. Along with competitors Tianwei Baobian Electric (TWBB) and the XD Group, it is one of the major Chinese manufacturers of transformers.


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.