Energy in India describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in India. Energy policy of India describes the policies and strategies of India for achieving sustainable energy security to its people. Electricity sector in India is the main article of electricity in India. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy provides data regarding progress in the non-conventional energy sector.
Since 2013, total primary energy consumption in India has been the third highest in the world (see world energy consumption) after China (see energy in China) and the United States (see energy in the United States). India is the second top coal consumer in the year 2017 after China. India ranks third in oil consumption with 221 million tons in 2017 after the United States and China. India is net energy importer to meet nearly 45% of its total primary energy.
| Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power
2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated
According to Greenpeace the largest coal belt in India is at Jharia. Before coal mining Jharia had forests inhabited by tribes. In 1971 the coal mines were nationalised. Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL) took over Jharia coal mines.
India was the third top crude oil consumer globally (4.8% of the world) with 221 Mt in 2017. India is also the top third globally the net crude oil (including crude oil products) importer of 188 Mt in 2017. India has 4.972 million barrels per day (5.1% of the world) crude oil refinery capacity which is ranked 4th globally in 2017.
Nearly 10.52 million tons Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was consumed during April to September 2018 (six months) in domestic sector mainly for cooking. The number of domestic connections are 247 million (one connection for five people) with a circulation of more than 368 million LPG cylinders whose net aggregate length would form a 150,000 km long pipe line which is more than the length of total railway track laid in India. India is second largest consumer of LPG globally. Most of the LPG requirement is imported. Piped city gas supply in India is not yet developed on major scale.
Biomass is a renewable energy source and its use for energy generation is carbon-neutral fuel. It is carbon neutral because it would also release global warming green house gasses like methane and carbon dioxide when it is left to degenerate without using as energy source. Presently, only 20% of house holds in India use biomass and charcoal for cooking purpose as LPG use for cooking purpose is rising rapidly. In addition biomass is also used marginally in commercial cooking, electricity generation, process industries, etc. The total biomass use in India is nearly 177 Mtoe in the year 2013. Substantial surplus crop residue is also burnt in agriculture fields for clearing the land for the next crop. Nearly 750 million tons of non edible (by cattle) biomass is available annually in India which can be put to use for higher value addition.
Huge quantity of imported coal is being used in pulverised coal-fired power stations. Raw biomass is not suitable for use in the pulverised coal mills as they are difficult to grind into fine powder due to caking problem. However 100% biomass can be fired after Torrefaction in the pulverised coal mills for replacing imported coal. Torrefied biomass plants can be integrated with existing pulverised coal-fired power stations using the available hot flue gas as heat source. Cofiring dry biomass up to 20% heat input with coal is also possible directly in pulverised coal-fired power stations without facing caking problem. North west and southern regions can replace imported coal use with biomass where surplus agriculture/crop residue biomass is burnt in the fields causing pollution problems. As traditional use of biomass is being replaced by LPG at faster pace, biomass burning in agriculture fields would become major source for causing higher level air pollution.
Biogas which is mainly methane/natural gas can also be used for generating protein rich cattle, poultry and fish feed in villages economically by cultivating Methylococcus capsulatus bacteria culture with tiny land and water foot print. The carbon dioxide gas produced as by product from these plants can be put to use in cheaper production of algae oil from algae particularly in tropical countries like India which can displace the prime position of crude oil in near future. Union government is implementing many schemes to utilise productively the agro waste or biomass in rural areas to uplift rural economy and job potential.
India was the third largest electricity producer in the world 1272 TWh in FY 2014–15, though only about 80% of the population had access to mains power. By 2013, India became the world's third largest producer of electricity with 4.8% global share, surpassing Japan and Russia. India ranks 7th globally in hydropower generation during the year 2015.
India has set a set a target of 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022. This would include 100 GW capacity from solar energy sources, 60 GW from wind power, 10 GW from biopower, and 5 GW from small hydropower.
A bidding process for a further 115 GW (excluding large hydropower) is expected by the end of FY 2019-20 to achieve 175 GW total installed capacity and in early 2018 the central government set up a US$350-million fund to finance solar projects.
The Agency for Non-Conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT) is a government agency in the Kerala, India. Its mission is gathering and disseminating knowledge about non-conventional energy, energy conservation, and rural technology. The agency was established in 1986 with its headquarters at Thiruvananthapuram.Atomic Energy Commission of India
The Atomic Energy Commission is the governing body of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India. The DAE is under the direct charge of the Prime Minister.
The Indian Atomic Energy Commission was set up on 10 August 1948 under the late Department of Scientific Research. A resolution passed by the Government of India later replaced the commission by "Atomic Energy Commission of India" on 1 March 1958 under the Department of Atomic Energy with more financial and executive powers.
The functions of the Atomic Energy Commission are: (i) to organize research in atomic science in the country (ii) to train atomic scientists in the country (iii) to promote nuclear research in commission's own laboratories in India (iv) to undertake prospecting of atomic minerals in India and to extract such minerals for use on industrial scale.
It has five research centres in India viz.
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu)
Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore
Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata
Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), Hyderabad.It also gives financial assistance to autonomous national institutes doing research in the field and has various other organisations under it.Atomic Energy Regulatory Board
The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted on 15 November 1983 by the President of India by exercising the powers conferred by Section 27 of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962) to carry out certain regulatory and safety functions under the Act. The regulatory authority of AERB is derived from the rules and notifications promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986. The headquarters is in Mumbai.The mission of the Board is to ensure that the use of ionising radiation and nuclear energy in India does not cause undue risk to health and the environment. Currently, the Board consists of a full-time Chairman, an ex officio Member, three part-time Members and a Secretary.
AERB is supported by the Safety Review Committee for Operating Plants (SARCOP), Safety Review Committee for Applications of Radiation (SARCAR) and Advisory Committees for Project Safety Review (ACPSRs) (e.g. Pressurized heavy-water reactor, light water reactor, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor and waste management projects). ACPSRs recommend to AERB issuance of authorisations at different stages of a plant of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), after reviewing the submissions made by the plant authorities based on the recommendations of the associated Design Safety Committees. The SARCOP carries out safety surveillance and enforces safety stipulations in the operating units of the DAE. The SARCAR recommends measures to enforce radiation safety in medical, industrial and research institutions which use radiation and radioactive sources.
AERB also receives advice from the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS). ACNS is composed of experts from AERB, DAE and institutions outside the DAE. ACNS provides recommendations on the safety codes, Guides and manuals prepared for siting, design, construction, operation, quality assurance and decommissioning/life extension of nuclear power plants which have been prepared by the respective advisory committees for each of these areas. It also advises the Board on generic safety issues. ACNS examines and advice on any specific matter that are referred to it by AERB.
The administrative and regulatory mechanisms which are in place ensure multi-tier review by experts available nationwide. These experts come from reputed academic institutions and governmental agencies.Department of Atomic Energy
The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) (IAST: Paramāṇu Ūrjā Vibhāga) is a department directly under the Prime Minister of India with headquarters in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. DAE was established in 1954 by a Presidential Order. DAE has been engaged in the development of nuclear power technology, applications of radiation technologies in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry and basic research. DAE comprises five research centres, three industrial organisations, five public sector undertakings and three service organisations. It has under its aegis two boards for promoting and funding extramural research in nuclear and allied fields, mathematics and a national institute (deemed university). It also supports eight institutes of international repute engaged in research in basic sciences, astronomy, astrophysics, cancer research and education. It also has in its fold an educational society that provides educational facilities for children of DAE employees. The important programmes of the DAE are directed towards:
Enhancing the share of nuclear power in the Power Sector by deployment of indigenous and other proven technologies, and to develop fast breeder reactors, as well as thorium-based reactors with associated fuel cycle facilities;
Building and operating of research reactors for the production of radioisotopes, building other sources of radiation such as accelerators and lasers, and developing and deploying radiation technology applications in the fields of medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research.
Developing advanced technologies such as accelerators, lasers, supercomputers, robotics, areas related to Fusion research, strategic materials and instrumentation, and encouraging the transfer of technology to industry.
Carrying out and supporting basic research in nuclear energy and related frontier areas of science; interaction with universities and academic institutions; support to research and development projects having a bearing on DAE’s programmes, and international cooperation in related advanced areas of research and contribution to national security.Dwarka Sector 21 metro station
The Dwarka Sector 21 Metro Station is located on the Blue Line of the Delhi Metro. This station was built as an extension together with Dwarka Sector 8 in order to serve Dwarka residents better and provide interchange with the Delhi Airport Express. It was designed by Absolute Architecture. The station was inaugurated on 30 October 2010 after the completion of successful trials and approval from the railway inspector.Interchange to the Delhi Airport Express are available. Besides serving as a transport hub for the Delhi Metro, two floors of the station will be used for commercial purposes. It will also be the first Delhi Metro station to feature hotel rooms within the complex. As of August 2014 it had the largest rooftop solar plant in the city. Through this plant, the DMRC plans to produce power for all operations at Dwarka Sector 21 station. The plant has a capacity of 500 kW every day, and is the largest of its kind in NCR under the Renewable Energy Service model and is a result of cooperation between DMRC and Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) through 'ComSolar', a project that supports commercialization of solar energy in India.This station has been installed with platform screen doors on the orange line.Heavy Water Board
Heavy Water Board (HWB) is a constituent unit under the Department of Atomic Energy in the Government of India. The organisation is primarily responsible for production of Heavy Water (D2O) which is used as a 'moderator' and 'Coolant' in nuclear power as well as research reactors. Other than Heavy Water, HWB is also engaged with production of different types of nuclear grade solvents and extraction of rare materials.
India is one of the largest manufacturers of heavy water in the world.Homi J. Bhabha
Dr Homi Jehangir Bhabha (30 October 1909 – 24 January 1966) was an Indian nuclear physicist, founding director, and professor of physics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR). Colloquially known as "father of the Indian nuclear programme", Bhabha was also the founding director of the Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay (AEET) which is now named the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in his honour. TIFR and AEET were the cornerstone of Indian development of nuclear weapons which Bhabha also supervised as director.Bhabha was awarded the Adams Prize (1942) and Padma Bhushan (1954). He was also nominated for the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1951 and 1953–1956.Indian Energy Exchange
The Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) is an electronic system based power trading exchange regulated by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC). IEX started its operations on June 27, 2008. Indian Energy Exchange pioneered the development of power trading in India and provides an electronic platform to the various participants in power market, comprising State Electricity Boards, Power producers, Power Traders and Open Access Consumers (both Industrial & Commercial).
IEX is one of the two operational Power Exchanges in India. Ever since its incorporation, it has held an influential market share. IEX operates a day-ahead market based on closed auctions with double-sided bidding and uniform pricing; it has over 3,800 registered clients, over 300 private generators and more than 3,300 industrial electricity consumers.Nuclear Liability Act
The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010 or Nuclear Liability Act is a highly debated and controversial Act which was passed by both houses of Indian parliament. The Act aims to provide a civil liability for nuclear damage and prompt compensation to the victims of a nuclear incident through a nofault liability to the operator, appointment of Claims Commissioner, establishment of Nuclear Damage Claims Commission and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.This is one of the last steps needed to activate the 2008 Indo-U.S. civilian nuclear agreement as the United state nuclear reactor manufacturing companies will require the liability bill to get insurance in their home state.
The government has encountered fierce opposition when trying to push this bill through parliament on several occasions. This is because it contains several controversial clauses that the opposition parties claim to be 'unconstitutional'. The opposition believes the bill is being pushed through due to US pressure though this is denied by the government.
The Act effectively caps the maximum amount of liability in case of each nuclear accident at ₹15 billion (US$220 million) to be paid by the operator of the nuclear plant, and if the cost of the damages exceeds this amount, special drawing rights up to 300 million will be paid by the Central Government.
The Act made amendments in the Atomic Energy Act 1962 allowing private investment in the Indian nuclear power program. The issue of an accident is sensitive in India, where a gas leak in a US company's Union Carbide factory in Bhopal city killed about 20,000 people in 1984 in one of the world's worst industrial disasters. The Act came into force from 11 November 2011.Nuclear Power Corporation of India
The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is an Indian public sector undertaking based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is wholly owned by the Government of India and is responsible for the generation of nuclear power for electricity. NPCIL is administered by the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE).
NPCIL was created in September 1987 under the Companies Act 1956, "with the objective of undertaking the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the atomic power stations for generation of electricity in pursuance of the schemes and programmes of the Government of India under the provision of the Atomic Energy Act 1962." All nuclear power plants operated by the company are certified for ISO-14001 (Environment Management System).
NPCIL was the sole body responsible for constructing and operating India's commercial nuclear power plants till setting up of BHAVINI (Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam) in October 2003. As of 10 August 2012 the company had 21 nuclear reactors in operation at seven locations, a total installed capacity of 6780 MWe. Subsequent to the government's decision to allow private companies to provide nuclear power, the company has experienced problems with private enterprises "poaching" its employees.Nuclear power in India
Nuclear power is the fifth-largest source of electricity in India after coal, gas, hydroelectricity and wind power. As of March 2018, India has 22 nuclear reactors in operation in 7 nuclear power plants, having a total installed capacity of 6,780 MW. Nuclear power produced a total of 35 TWh and supplied 3.22% of Indian electricity in 2017. 7 more reactors are under construction with a combined generation capacity of 4,300 MW.
In October 2010, India drew up a plan to reach a nuclear power capacity of 63 GW in 2032, but after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan people around proposed Indian nuclear power plant sites have launched protests, raising questions about atomic energy as a clean and safe alternative to fossil fuels.
There have been mass protests against the French-backed 9,900 MW Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project in Maharashtra and the Russian-backed 2,000 MW Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in Tamil Nadu.
The state government of West Bengal, has also refused permission to a proposed 6,000 MW facility near the town of Haripur that intended to host six Russian reactors.
A Public Interest Litigation (PIL) has also been filed against the government’s civil nuclear programme at the Supreme Court.Nuclear power in India has suffered from generally low capacity factors.
As of 2017, the lifetime weighted energy availability factor of the Indian fleet is 63.5%.
However, capacity factors have been improving in recent years. The availability factor of Indian reactors was 69.4% in the years 2015-2017.
One of the main reasons for the low capacity factors is lack of nuclear fuel.
India has been making advances in the field of thorium-based fuels, working to design and develop a prototype for an atomic reactor using thorium and low-enriched uranium, a key part of India's three stage nuclear power programme. The country has also recently re-initiated its involvement in the LENR research activities, in addition to supporting work done in the fusion power area through the ITER initiative.Oommen Chandy
Oommen Chandy is an Indian statesman and senior leader of the Indian National Congress party. He served as the Chief Minister of Kerala for two terms, from 2004 to 2006 and again from 2011 to 2016. He was also Leader of the Opposition in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 2006 to 2011. He has represented Puthuppally as MLA in the State Assembly since 1970.
On 6 June 2018 Congress President Rahul Gandhi appointed him as General Secretary of All India Congress Committee in charge of the crucial state of Andhra Pradesh. He is now the Congress Working Committee member.People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy
The People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy is an anti-nuclear power group in Tamil Nadu, India, founded by S. P. Udayakumar. Since September 2011 the aim of the group is to close the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant site and to preserve the largely untouched coastal landscape, as well as educate locals about nuclear power.On 10 September 2012 around 1,000 anti-nuclear protesters tried to march towards the plant. The police responded with tear-gas shells.Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor
The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a 500 MWe fast breeder nuclear reactor presently being constructed at the Madras Atomic Power Station in Kalpakkam, India. The Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) is responsible for the design of this reactor. The facility builds on the decades of experience gained from operating the lower power Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). Originally planned to be commissioned in 2012, the construction of the reactor suffered from multiple delays. As of February 2019, criticality is planned to be achieved in 2020.Renewable energy in India
India is one of the countries with the largest production of energy from renewable sources.
In the electricity sector, renewable energy account for 34.6% of the total installed power capacity.
Large hydro installed capacity was 45.399 GW as of 30 June 2019, contributing to 13% of the total power capacity.
The remaining renewable energy sources accounted for 22% of the total installed power capacity (80467 GW) as of 30 June 2019.Wind power capacity was 36,625 MW as of 31 March 2019, making India the fourth-largest wind power producer in the world.
The country has a strong manufacturing base in wind power with 20 manufactures of 53 different wind turbine models of international quality up to 3 MW in size with exports to Europe, the United States and other countries. Wind or Solar PV paired with four-hour battery storage systems is already cost competitive, without subsidy, as a source of dispatchable generation compared with new coal and new gas plants in India.The government target of installing 20 GW of solar power by 2022 was achieved four years ahead of schedule in January 2018, through both solar parks as well as roof-top solar panels.
India has set a new target of achieving 100 GW of solar power by 2022.
Four of the top seven largest solar parks worldwide are in India including the second largest solar park in the world at Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, with a capacity of 1000 MW. The world's largest solar power plant, Bhadla Solar Park is being constructed in Rajasthan with a capacity of 2255 MW and is expected to be completed by the end of 2018.
Biomass power from biomass combustion, biomass gasification and bagasse cogeneration reached 9.1 GW installed capacity as of 31 March 2019. Family type biogas plants reached 3.98 million .Renewable energy in India comes under the purview of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
India was the first country in the world to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources, in the early 1980s. Solar Energy Corporation of India is responsible for the development of solar energy industry in India. Hydroelectricity is administered separately by the Ministry of Power and not included in MNRE targets.
India is running one of the largest and most ambitious renewable capacity expansion programs in the world.
Newer renewable electricity sources are projected to grow massively by nearer term 2022 targets, including a more than doubling of India's large wind power capacity and an almost 15 fold increase in solar power from April 2016 levels.
These targets would place India among the world leaders in renewable energy use and place India at the centre of its "Sunshine Countries" International Solar Alliance project promoting the growth and development of solar power internationally to over 120 countries.
India set a target of achieving 40% of its total electricity generation from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030, as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions statement in the Paris Agreement.
A blueprint draft published by Central Electricity Authority projects that 57% of the total electricity capacity will be from renewable sources by 2027.
In the 2027 forecasts, India aims to have a renewable energy installed capacity of 275 GW, in addition to 72 GW of hydro-energy, 15 GW of nuclear energy and nearly 100 GW from “other zero emission” sources.Solar power in India
Solar power in India is a fast developing industry. The country's solar installed capacity reached 29.55 GW as of 30 June 2019. India has become globally the lowest cost producer of solar power.The Indian government had an initial target of 20 GW capacity for 2022, which was achieved four years ahead of schedule.
In 2015 the target was raised to 100 GW of solar capacity (including 40 GW from rooftop solar) by 2022, targeting an investment of US$100 billion.India expanded its solar-generation capacity 8 times from 2,650 MW on 26 May 2014 to over 20 GW as on 31 January 2018.
The country added 3 GW of solar capacity in 2015-2016, 5 GW in 2016-2017 and over 10 GW in 2017-2018, with the average current price of solar electricity dropping to 18% below the average price of its coal-fired counterpart.Rooftop solar power accounts for 3.4 GW, of which 70% is industrial or commercial.
In addition to its large-scale grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) initiative, India is developing off-grid solar power for local energy needs.
Solar products have increasingly helped to meet rural needs; by the end of 2015 just under one million solar lanterns were sold in the country, reducing the need for kerosene.
That year, 118,700 solar home lighting systems were installed and 46,655 solar street lighting installations were provided under a national program; just over 1.4 million solar cookers were distributed in India.The International Solar Alliance (ISA), proposed by India as a founder member, is headquartered in India.States of India by installed power capacity
This is a list of states and territories of India by allocated power capacity from power generation utilities. When a power station has entered into power purchase agreement to supply electricity to more than one state, the total power station capacity is divided among the beneficiary states.
Other Renewable Energy Sources includes, wind, solar, tidal, biomass and urban & industrial waste power.Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency
Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA) (Tamil: தமிழ்நாடு எரிசக்தி வளர்ச்சி முகமை) is a state government owned agency in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Established in 1985, the agency takes the onus of promoting and proliferating the New and Renewable energy sources in this state. This government undertaking is also the Nodal agency for Renewable energy related interests in this state.Wind power in India
Wind power generation capacity in India has significantly increased in recent years. As of 31 March 2019 the total installed wind power capacity was 36.625 GW, the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. Wind power capacity is mainly spread across the South, West, North and East regions.Wind power costs in India are decreasing rapidly. The levelised tariff of wind power reached a record low of ₹2.43 (3.5¢ US) per kWh (without any direct or indirect subsidies) during auctions for wind projects in December 2017.
In December 2017, union government announced the applicable guidelines for tariff-based wind power auctions to bring more clarity and minimise the risk to the developers.
Energy in India
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Energy policy of Asia