Energy Information Administration

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. EIA programs cover data on coal, petroleum, natural gas, electric, renewable and nuclear energy. EIA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy.

U.S. Energy Information Administration
Energy Information Administration logo
Agency overview
FormedOctober 1, 1977
JurisdictionFederal Government of the United States
HeadquartersWashington, D.C.
United States
Annual budget$122 million (FY2017)[1]
Agency executives
  • Linda Capuano[2], Administrator
  • Steve Nalley, Deputy Administrator
Parent agencyUnited States Department of Energy


The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 established EIA as the primary federal government authority on energy statistics and analysis, building upon systems and organizations first established in 1974 following the oil market disruption of 1973.

EIA conducts a comprehensive data collection program that covers the full spectrum of energy sources, end uses, and energy flows; generates short- and long-term domestic and international energy projections; and performs informative energy analyses.

EIA disseminates its data products, analyses, reports, and services to customers and stakeholders primarily through its website and the customer contact center.

Located in Washington, D.C., EIA has about 325 federal employees and a budget of $122 million in fiscal year 2017. [1][3]


By law, EIA’s products are prepared independently of policy considerations. EIA neither formulates nor advocates any policy conclusions. The Department of Energy Organization Act allows EIA’s processes and products to be independent from review by Executive Branch officials; specifically, Section 205(d) says:

“The Administrator shall not be required to obtain the approval of any other officer or employee of the Department in connection with the collection or analysis of any information; nor shall the Administrator be required, prior to publication, to obtain the approval of any other officer or employee of the United States with respect to the substance of any statistical or forecasting technical reports which he has prepared in accordance with law.” [4]


More than 2 million people use the EIA’s information online each month. Some of the EIA’s products include:

  • General Interest Energy Information
    • Energy Explained: Energy information written for a general, non-technical audience. A nonpartisan guide to the entire range of energy topics from biodiesel to uranium.[5]
    • Energy Kids: Educates students, citizens, and even policymakers and journalists about energy.[6]
    • Energy Glossary: Common energy terms defined in plain language.[7]
  • Timely Analysis
    • Today in Energy: Informative content published every weekday that includes a graph or map and a short, timely story written in plain language that highlights current energy issues, topics, and data trends.[8]
    • This Week in Petroleum: Weekly summary and explanation of events in United States and world petroleum markets, including weekly data.[9]
    • Natural Gas Weekly Update: Weekly summary and discussion of events and trends in U.S. natural gas markets.[10]
  • Data and Surveys
    • Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update: Weekly price data for U.S. national and regional averages.
    • Monthly Energy Review: Provides statistics on monthly and annual U.S. energy consumption going back in some cases to 1949. The figures are given in units of quads (quadrillion BTUs.)[11]
    • Annual Energy Review: EIA's primary report of historical annual energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. This report has been superseded by the Monthly Energy Review and was not produced for 2012.[12]
    • Country Energy Profiles: Data by country, region, and commercial group (OECD, OPEC) for 219 countries with additional country analysis notes for 87 of these.[13]
    • Country Analysis Briefs: EIA's in-depth analyses of energy production, consumption, imports, and exports for 36 individual countries and regions.
    • Residential Energy Consumption Survey: EIA's comprehensive survey and analysis of residential energy consumption, household characteristics, and appliance saturation.[14]
    • Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: A national sample survey that collects information on the stock of U.S. commercial buildings, including their energy-related building characteristics and energy usage data (consumption and expenditures).[15]
  • Projections and Outlooks
    • Short-Term Energy Outlook: Energy projections for the next 13-24 months, updated monthly.[16]
    • Annual Energy Outlook: Projection and analysis of U.S. energy supply, demand, and prices through 2040 based on EIA's National Energy Modeling System. Projections are currently based on existing legislation, without assumption of any future congressional action or technological advancement.[17] In 2015, EIA has been criticized by the Advanced Energy Economy (AEE) Institute after its release of the AEO 2015-report to "consistently underestimate the growth rate of renewable energy, leading to 'misperceptions' about the performance of these resources in the marketplace". AEE points out that the average power purchase agreement (PPA) for wind power was already at $24/MWh in 2013. Likewise, PPA for utility-scale solar PV are seen at current levels of $50–$75/MWh.[18] These figures contrast strongly with EIA's estimated LCOE of $125/MWh (or $114/MWh including subsidies) for solar PV in 2020.[19] This criticism has been repeated every year since.[20]
    • International Energy Outlook: EIA's assessment of the outlook for international energy markets through 2040.[21]


The Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 created the Federal Energy Administration (FEA), the first U.S. agency with the primary focus on energy and mandated it to collect, assemble, evaluate, and analyze energy information. It also provided the FEA with data collection enforcement authority for gathering data from energy producing and major consuming firms. Section 52 of the FEA Act mandated establishment of the National Energy Information System to “… contain such energy information as is necessary to carry out the Administration’s statistical and forecasting activities …”

The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, Public Law 95-91, created the Department of Energy. Section 205 of this law established the Energy Information Administration (EIA) as the primary federal government authority on energy statistics and analysis to carry out a " ...central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information which is relevant to energy resource reserves, energy production, demand, and technology, and related economic and statistical information, or which is relevant to the adequacy of energy resources to meet demands in the near and longer term future for the Nation’s economic and social needs."[4]

The same law established that EIA’s processes and products are independent from review by Executive Branch officials.

The majority of EIA energy data surveys are based on the general mandates set forth above. However, there are some surveys specifically mandated by law, including:

  • EIA-28, Financial Reporting System - Section 205(h) of the DOE Organization Act.
  • EIA-1605 and 1605EZ, Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases - Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.
  • EIA-886, Annual Survey of Alternative Fueled Vehicle Suppliers and Users - Section 503(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.
  • EIA-858, Uranium Marketing Annual Survey - Section 1015 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.
  • EIA-846A-C, Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey - Section 205(i) of the DOE Organization Act (the Act calls for a biennial survey; however, this survey is done quadrennially due to resource constraints).
  • EIA-457A-G, Residential Energy Consumption Survey - Section 205(k) of the DOE Organization Act (the Act calls for a triennial survey; however, this survey is done quadrennially due to resource constraints).
  • EIA-871A-F, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Section 205(k) of the DOE Organization Act (the Act calls for a triennial survey; however, this survey is done quadrennially due to resource constraints).
  • Petroleum Marketing Surveys - Section 507 of Part A of Title V of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 broadly directs EIA to collect information on the pricing, supply, and distribution of petroleum products by product category at the wholesale and retail levels, on a State-by-State basis, which was collected as of September 1, 1981, by the Energy Information Administration.


  1. ^ a b "About EIA - Budget - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)".
  2. ^ Linda Capuano
  3. ^ "About EIA - Ourwork - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)".
  4. ^ a b "Public Law 95-91 - Aug 4, 1977" (PDF). US Government Printing Office. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
  5. ^ "Home - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy - Energy Information Administration".
  6. ^ "EIA Energy Kids - Energy Kids: Energy Information Administration".
  7. ^ "Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)".
  8. ^ "Today in Energy - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)".
  9. ^ "This Week in Petroleum".
  10. ^ "U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)".
  11. ^ "Monthly Energy Review - Energy Information Administration".
  12. ^ "EIA has expanded the Monthly Energy Review (MER) to include annual data as far back as 1949 for those data tables that are found in both the Annual Energy Review (AER) and the MER. During this transition, EIA will not publish the 2012 edition of the AER". U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2013.
  13. ^ "International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)".
  14. ^ "Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) - Energy Information Administration".
  15. ^ "Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)".
  16. ^ "Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)".
  17. ^ "EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2018".
  18. ^ "New Report: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Will Grow, Provide Options for Clean Power Plan Compliance Based on Cost Competitiveness—Official Projections Fail to Capture Market Realities, Skewing Policy Considerations". PR newswire. 22 June 2015.
  19. ^ US Energy Information Administration, Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2015, 14 April 2015
  20. ^ "Coal will remain part of the US grid until 2050, federal energy projections say". 26 January 2019.
  21. ^ "EIA - International Energy Outlook 2017".

External links

Alta Wind Energy Center

Alta Wind Energy Center (AWEC), also known as Mojave Wind Farm, is the third largest onshore wind energy project in the world. The Alta Wind Energy Center is a wind farm located in Tehachapi Pass of the Tehachapi Mountains, in Kern County, California. As of 2013, it is the largest wind farm in the United States, with a combined installed capacity of 1,547 MW (2,075,000 hp). The project, being developed near Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm— site of the first large-scale wind farms installed in the U.S. in the 1970s and 1980s—is "a powerful illustration of the growing size and scope of modern wind projects".Southern California Edison has agreed to a 25-year power purchase agreement for the power produced as part of the power purchase agreements for up to 1,500 MW (2,000,000 hp) or more of power generated from new projects to be built in the Tehachapi area. The project will "reduce carbon dioxide emissions by more than 5.2 million metric tons, which is equivalent to taking 446,000 cars off the road". A total of 3,000 MW (4,000,000 hp) is planned.The wind farm was developed by Terra-Gen Power which closed a US$1.2 billion financing deal in July 2010 with partners that included Citibank, Barclays Capital, and Credit Suisse. After many delays, the first phase began construction in 2010. Financing for additional phases of $650 million was secured in April 2012. Construction of the Alta Wind Energy Center is expected to create more than 3,000 domestic manufacturing, construction, and maintenance jobs, and contribute more than one billion dollars to the local economy.

Coal mining in the United States

Coal mining in the United States is an industry in transition. Production in 2017 was down 33% from the peak production of 1,162.7 million tons (about 1054.8 million metric tonnes) in 2006. Employment of 50,000 coal miners is down from a peak of 883,000 in 1923. Generation of electricity is the largest user of coal, being used to produce 50% of electric power in 2005 and 30% in 2016. The U.S. is a net exporter of coal. U.S. coal exports, for which Europe is the largest customer, peaked in 2012. In 2015, the U.S. exported 7.0 percent of mined coal.Coal remains an important factor in the 25 states in which it is mined. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), in 2015 Wyoming, West Virginia, Kentucky, Illinois, and Pennsylvania produced about 639 millions of short tons (MST) representing 71% of total U.S. coal production in the United States.In 2015, four publicly-traded US coal companies filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, including Patriot Coal Corporation, Walter Energy, and the fourth-largest Alpha Natural Resources. By January 2016, more than 25% of coal production was in bankruptcy in the United States including the top two producers Peabody Energy and Arch Coal. When Arch Coal filed for bankruptcy protection, the price of coal had dropped 50% since 2011 and it was $4.5 billion in debt. On October 5, 2016, Arch Coal emerged from chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. In October 2018, Westmoreland Coal Company filed for bankruptcy protection.

Coal power in the United States

Coal power in the United States accounted for 39% of the country's electricity production at utility-scale facilities in 2014, 33% in 2015, 30.4% in 2016 and 27.4% in 2018 Coal supplied 12.6 quadrillion BTUs of primary energy to electric power plants in 2017, which made up 91% of coal's contribution to US energy supply. Utilities buy more than 90% of the coal consumed in the United States.Coal has been used to generate electricity in the United States since an Edison plant was built in New York City in 1882. The first AC power station was opened by General Electric in Ehrenfeld, Pennsylvania in 1902, servicing the Webster Coal and Coke Company. By the mid-20th century, coal had become the leading fuel for generating electricity in the US. The long, steady rise of coal-fired generation of electricity shifted to a decline after 2007. The decline has been linked to the increased availability of natural gas, decreased consumption, renewable power, and more stringent environmental regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency has advanced restrictions on coal plants to counteract mercury pollution, smog, and global warming.

Cost of electricity by source

The distinct ways of electricity generation can incur significantly different costs. Calculations of these costs can be made at the point of connection to a load or to the electricity grid. The cost is typically given per kilowatt-hour or megawatt-hour. It includes the initial capital, discount rate, as well as the costs of continuous operation, fuel, and maintenance. This type of calculation assists policymakers, researchers and others to guide discussions and decision making.

The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is a measure of a power source that allows comparison of different methods of electricity generation on a consistent basis. It is an economic assessment of the average total cost to build and operate a power-generating asset over its lifetime divided by the total energy output of the asset over that lifetime. The LCOE can also be regarded as the average minimum price at which electricity must be sold in order to break-even over the lifetime of the project.

Energy in Arkansas

The U.S. state of Arkansas is a significant producer of natural gas and a minor producer of petroleum.

Though a small percentage of total consumption, its many waterways provide for a higher than average hydroelectric generation capacity. A higher than average solar exposure has recently begun to be taken advantage of in the state, with three solar photovoltaic generation facilities going online in 2016 and more under construction. Wind power potential is modest in Arkansas and the state has no utility-scale wind generation facilities.

A network of 17 regional cooperatives, four investor-owned companies, and a number of municipal providers generate and deliver electricity to Arkansas customers. Five utilities deliver natural gas.

Energy in the United States

The United States was the second-largest energy consumer in 2010 after China.

The country is ranked seventh in energy consumption per-capita after Canada and several small nations.

Not included is the significant amount of energy used overseas in the production of retail and industrial goods consumed in the United States.

Most of this energy comes from fossil fuels: in 2010, data showed that 25% of the nation's energy originates from petroleum, 22% from coal, and 22% from natural gas.

Nuclear energy supplied 8.4% and renewable energy supplied 8%, mainly from hydroelectric dams and biomass; however, this also includes other renewable sources like wind, geothermal, and solar.

As of 2006, energy consumption had increased more rapidly than domestic energy production over the last 50 years in the nation (when they were roughly equal). This difference was largely met through imports.According to the Energy Information Administration's statistics, the per-capita energy consumption in the US has been somewhat consistent from the 1970s to the present time. The average was about 334 million British thermal units [BTU] (352 GJ) per person from 1980 to 2010. One explanation suggested that the energy required to increase the nation's consumption of manufactured equipment, cars, and other goods has been shifted to other countries producing and transporting those goods to the US with a corresponding shift of green house gases and pollution. In comparison, the world average increased from 63.7 to 75 million BTU (67.2 to 79.1 GJ) per person between 1980 and 2008.

Energy policy of the United States

The energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state, and local entities in the United States, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption, such as building codes and gas mileage standards. Energy policy may include legislation, international treaties, subsidies and incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation, taxation and other public policy techniques.

Several mandates have been proposed over the years, such as gasoline will never exceed $1.00/gallon (Nixon), and the United States will never again import as much oil as it did in 1977 (Carter), but no comprehensive long-term energy policy has been proposed, although there has been concern over this failure. Three Energy Policy Acts have been passed, in 1992, 2005, 2007, 2008, and 2009 which include many provisions for conservation, such as the Energy Star program, and energy development, with grants and tax incentives for both renewable energy and non-renewable energy.

There is also criticism that federal energy policies since the 1973 oil crisis have been dominated by crisis-mentality thinking, promoting expensive quick fixes and single-shot solutions that ignore market and technology realities. Instead of providing stable rules that support basic research while leaving plenty of scope for American entrepreneurship and innovation, congresses and presidents have repeatedly backed policies which promise solutions that are politically expedient, but whose prospects are doubtful, without adequate consideration of the dollar costs, environmental costs, or national security costs of their actions. By 2018, the US is on the verge of achieving energy security or self-sufficiency as the total export of coal, natural gas, crude oil and petroleum products are exceeding imports. The US had a trade surplus in the energy sector by 2018.State-specific energy efficiency incentive programs also play a significant role in the overall energy policy of the United States.

The United States refused to endorse the Kyoto Protocol, preferring to let the market drive CO2 reductions to mitigate global warming, which will require CO2 emission taxation. The administration of Barack Obama has proposed an aggressive energy policy reform, including the need for a reduction of CO2 emissions, with a cap and trade program, which could help encourage more clean renewable, sustainable energy development. Thanks to new technologies such as fracking, the United States has in 2014 resumed its former role as the top oil producer in the world.

List of countries by natural gas proven reserves

This is a list of countries by natural gas proven reserves based on The World Factbook (when no citation is given). or other authoritative third-party sources (as cited). Based on data from BP, at the end of 2009, proved gas reserves were dominated by three countries: Iran, Russia, and Qatar, which together held nearly half the world's proven reserves.There is some disagreement on which country has the largest proven gas reserves. Sources that consider that Russia has by far the largest proven reserves include the US CIA (47.6 trillion cubic meters), the US Energy Information Administration (49 tcm), and OPEC (48.81 tcm). However, BP credits Russia with only 32.9 tcm, which would place it in second place, slightly behind Iran (33.1 to 33.8 tcm, depending on the source).

Due to constant announcements of shale gas recoverable reserves, as well as drilling in Central Asia, South America and Africa, deepwater drilling, estimates are undergoing frequent updates, mostly increasing. Since 2000, some countries, notably the US and Canada, have seen large increases in proved gas reserves due to development of shale gas, but shale gas deposits in most countries are yet to be added to reserve calculations.

Star denotes includes "recoverable portion of shale reserves"Comparison of proven natural gas reserves from different sources (billions of cubic meters, as of 31 Dec. 2014/1 Jan. 2015)

List of countries by oil production

This is a list of countries by oil production, as compiled from the U.S. Energy Information Administration database for calendar year 2019, tabulating all countries on a comparable best-estimate basis. Compared with shorter-term data, the full-year figures are less prone to distortion from periodic maintenance shutdowns and other seasonal cycles. The volumes in the table represent crude oil and lease condensate, the hydrocarbon liquids collected at or near the wellhead. The volumes in the table do not include biofuel. They also do not include the increase in liquid volumes during oil refining ("refinery gain"), or liquids separated from natural gas in gas processing plants (natural gas liquids).Under this definition, total world oil production in 2019 averaged 80,622,000 barrels per day. Approximately 68% came from the top ten countries, and an overlapping 44% came from the fourteen current OPEC members, in the table below.

The top three producers have in recent history been (alphabetically) Russia, Saudi Arabia, and the United States. Each of these countries experienced major production declines at different times in the past, but since 2014 all three have been producing near their peak rates of 9 to 11 million barrels per day. Saudi Arabia and Russia also top the list of oil exporting countries, while Russia is not a member of OPEC. The monthly U.S. oil production reached 10.07 million b/d in November 2017, the highest monthly level of crude oil production in U.S. history. In early 2018, the U.S. government forecast the country will become a net oil and gas exporter by 2022, the first time since 1953.

List of countries by recoverable shale gas

This is a list of countries by recoverable shale gas based on data collected by the Energy Information Administration agency of the United States Department of Energy. Numbers for the estimated amount of recoverable shale gas resources are provided alongside numbers for proven natural gas reserves.

List of regions of the United States

This is a list of some of the regions in the United States. Many regions are defined in law or regulations by the federal government; others by shared culture and history; and others by economic factors.

Meadow Lake Wind Farm

Meadow Lake Wind Farm is a 801.25 megawatt (MW) wind farm near Brookston and Chalmers, Indiana, spreading over portions of White, Jasper, and Benton Counties. It is owned and operated by EDP Renewables North America. The facility currently has six operational phases, with 414 turbines, and is a prominent feature on both sides of Interstate 65 in western Indiana.

Oil reserves in Mexico

As of 2007, the proven oil reserves in Mexico were 12.4 billion barrels (1.97×10^9 m3). The US Energy Information Administration estimated Mexican proved reserves to be 10.3 billion barrels (1.64×10^9 m3) as of 2013.

Peak coal

The term Peak coal is used to refer to the point in time at which coal production and consumption reaches its maximum, after which, it is assumed, production and consumption will decline steadily. The term was originally used in connection with M. King Hubbert's Hubbert peak theory, in which the finite nature of the resource determines a constraint on production. However, since the expansion of renewable energy particularly in electricity generation, the term is now commonly used with reference to a peak in coal demand, which may already have occurred.

Predicting the timing of peak oil

Peak oil is the point at which oil production, sometimes including unconventional oil sources, hits its maximum. Predicting the timing of peak oil involves estimation of future production from existing oil fields as well as future discoveries. The most influential production model is Hubbert peak theory, first proposed in the 1950s. The effect of peak oil on the world economy remains controversial.

Solar power in New Mexico

Solar power in New Mexico in 2016 generated 2.8% of the state's total electricity consumption, despite a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) projection suggesting a potential contribution three orders of magnitude larger.

Springbok Solar Farm

The Springbok Solar Farm is a 328 MWp (260 MWAC) photovoltaic power station in the northwestern Mojave Desert, near California City in eastern Kern County, California. The facility is being developed and constructed by 8minutenergy Renewables in three phases, with two completed as of 2016. At full build-out, it will be one of the world's largest PV solar farms with a capacity of about 440 MWp (350 MWAC).

Sweetwater Wind Farm

The Sweetwater Wind Farm is a 585.3 megawatt (MW) wind farm in Nolan County, Texas. The facility includes 392 wind turbines and was fully commissioned by 2007. The electricity is being sold to Austin Energy and to CPS Energy of San Antonio.

Wind power in Washington (state)

At the end of 2015, the installed capacity for wind power in Washington was 3,075 megawatts (MW) with wind power accounting for 7,100 GWh, or 7.1% of the electricity generated in the state during 2016. The state ranks among the top ten in terms of cumulative wind capacity.

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