Endo's pipistrelle

Endo's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus endoi) is a species of vesper bat that is endemic to Japan. It is found in temperate forests.[1]

Endo's pipistrelle
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Pipistrellus
Species:
P. endoi
Binomial name
Pipistrellus endoi
Imaizumi, 1959
Pipistrellus endoi distribution
Distribution of Endo's pipistrelle

Etymology

This species was described by Japanese zoologist Yoshinori Imaizumi in 1959.[2] He named it endoi after Kimio Endo, saying that Endo was deserving of the honor because he had "recently collected several important specimens of bats in Iwate Prefecture, including the type specimen of this species."[3]

Description

It is similar in appearance to the Japanese house bat.[4] The baculum, however, is different. Its baculum is short and relatively straight, measuring 9–10 mm (0.35–0.39 in).[2] They weigh 5.6–8.7 g (0.20–0.31 oz). Their forearms are 30.8–34.2 mm (1.21–1.35 in) long.[4]

Biology

This species has a sperm storage mechanism, in which the females retains sperm in the isthmus of uterine tube after mating. All sperm not stored in the isthmus is rapidly metabolized by the enzymatic secretions of uterine epithelial cells. This species mates in autumn.[5] Females give birth in the summer. The average litter size is unknown, but twins have been observed. Hibernating individuals have been encountered hibernating November through March. Rock crevices appear to be important habitat for hibernation.[4]

Range and habitat

Of the bats that have been captured, most have been in the forest, creating the impression that it was totally dependent on forest for necessary habitat.[4][6] However, in 2006, an individual was found in a secondary forest in suburban Tokyo.[7] They have been found 100–1,500 m (330–4,920 ft) above sea level.[1]

Conservation

It is listed as endangered by the IUCN. This designation is based on it meeting the following criteria: area of occupancy less than 500 km2 (190 sq mi), severely fragmented range, and ongoing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Maeda, K. 2008. Pipistrellus endoi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T17340A7005575. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T17340A7005575.en. Downloaded on 30 August 2017.
  2. ^ a b Imaizumi, Y., 1959: A new bat of the Pipistrellus javanicus group from Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum Tokyo, no. 45: 363-371
  3. ^ Beolens, B., Watkins, M., & Grayson, M. (2009). The eponym dictionary of mammals. JHU Press.
  4. ^ a b c d KAWAI, K., ECHENIQUE-DÍAZ, L. M., TAKAHASHI, O., & SAITO, C. (2015). Insights into the Natural History of Pipistrellus endoi Imaizumi, 1959 from Survey Records in Miyagi Prefecture. 宮城教育大学環境教育研究紀要, 17, 53-57.
  5. ^ Son, S. W., MORI, T., YOON, M. H., & UCHIDA, T. A. (1988). Reproduction of two rare Pipistrellus species, with special attention to the fate of spermatozoa in their female genital tracts. Journal of the Mammalogical Society of Japan, 13(2), 77-91.
  6. ^ Kawai, K. 2009. Pipistrellus endoi Imaizumi, 1959. In: The Wild Mammals of Japan. Ohdachi, S.D., Ishibashi, Y., Iwasa, M.A. and Saitoh,T.(eds.). Shoukadoh, Kyoto, pp. 81-82
  7. ^ Kasahi, T., Urano, M., Ando, K. and Takamizu, Y. 2006. Spring roosts of the Endo's pipistrelle, Pipistrellus endoi, in Okutama region, central Japan. Animate, 6, 12-26.(in Japanese)
Aeorestes

Aeorestes is a genus of vesper bat commonly known as the hoary bats. This genus includes species that were formerly included in the genus Lasiurus.

Arielulus

Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)

Asian barbastelle

The Asian barbastelle (Barbastella leucomelas), also known as the levant barbastelle or eastern barbastelle, is a species of vesper bat. Its habitat is temperate forests and caves. It is threatened by habitat loss. It can be found in Egypt (Sinai), Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Eritrea.

Barbastella

Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.

Dark-winged lesser house bat

The dark-winged lesser house bat (Scotoecus hirundo) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and United States of Africa

Grey long-eared bat

The grey long-eared bat (Plecotus austriacus) is a fairly large European bat. It has distinctive ears, long and with a distinctive fold. It hunts above woodland, often by day, and mostly for moths. It is extremely similar to the more common brown long-eared bat, and was only distinguished in the 1960s, but has a paler belly.

Laephotis

Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

Marovaza house bat

The Marovaza house bat (Scotophilus marovaza) is a species of bat found in Madagascar.

Nyctalus

Nyctalus is a genus of vespertilionid bats commonly known as the noctule bats. They are distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa.

There are eight species within this genus:

Birdlike noctule, Nyctalus aviator

Azores noctule, Nyctalus azoreum

Japanese noctule, Nyctalus furvus

Greater noctule bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus

Lesser noctule, Nyctalus leisleri

Mountain noctule, Nyctalus montanus

Common noctule, Nyctalus noctula

Chinese noctule, Nyctalus plancyi

Pipistrellus

For the light aircraft manufacturer, see Pipistrel.

Pipistrellus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae and subfamily Vespertilioninae. The name of the genus is derived from the Italian word pipistrello, meaning "bat" (from Latin vespertilio "bird of evening, bat").

The size of the genus has been considerably reduced as a result of work during the 1990s and 2000s, with genera such as Arielulus, Hypsugo, Falsistrellus, Neoromicia, Parastrellus, Perimyotis, Scotozous, and Vespadelus being split off. Still, molecular evidence suggests the genus is not monophyletic. Several other genera in the subfamily Vespertilioninae have also been merged with Pipistrellus in previous classifications. Species in the genus may be referred to as "pipistrelles" or "pipistrelle bats", though these terms are also used for species now placed in other genera, such as the western pipistrelle (Parastrellus hesperus) and eastern pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) of North America. Species of the southern hemisphere separated to genus Falsistrellus are sometimes referred to as 'false pipistrelle' or 'falsistrelle'.They are somewhat distinguished from their much larger relatives, the noctule bats Nyctalus by their weak, fluttery flight reminiscent of a butterfly, though a few species are more direct in their flight.

Rusty pipistrelle

The rusty pipistrelle (Pipistrellus rusticus) is a species of vesper bat. It is found in Angola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its natural habitats are dry and moist savanna. It is of note as perhaps Africa's smallest bat, at average weight of 3.5 g (0.12 oz).

Rüppell's pipistrelle

Rüppell's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus rueppellii) is a species of vesper bat found in Africa and Asian republics such as Iraq and Israel. It is found in dry and moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and hot deserts.

Scotoecus

Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

Southern big-eared brown bat

The southern big-eared brown bat (Histiotus magellanicus) is a species of bat from the family Vespertilionidae. Although current taxonomy treats the southern big-eared brown bat as a separate species, it is often treated as a subspecies of the small big-eared brown bat. It lives in the forests of southern Argentina and Chile; though the population of the bat in the southern part of its habitat is low, there are no major concerns to justify anything lower than a Least Concern rating in the IUCN Red List. There is some habitat destruction, as well as trouble with beavers in Tierra del Fuego.Histiotus magellanicus occasionally use cavities in standing dead trees or large living trees in decays as roosting sites.

Vespertilio

Vespertilio is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. The common name for this family is vesper bats, which is a better known classification than Vespertilio. Also: frosted bats.

Species within the genus Vespertilio are:

Parti-coloured bat, Vespertilio murinus

Asian parti-coloured bat, Vespertilio sinensis

Vespertilioninae

The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.

White-bellied yellow bat

The white-bellied yellow bat (Scotophilus leucogaster) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. It is found in dry and moist savanna.

Yellow serotine

The yellow serotine (Neoromicia flavescens) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Malawi, and Mozambique.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, dry savanna, and moist savanna.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio

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