End of World War II in Asia

The end of World War II in Asia occurred on 2 September 1945, when armed forces of the Empire of Japan surrendered to the forces of the Allies. The surrender came almost four months after the surrender of the Axis forces in Europe and brought an end to World War II.

Prelude

November 28, 1943

Tehran Conference: Soviet Union agrees to invade Japan "after the defeat of Germany" and begins stockpiling resources in the Far East.

February 4, 1945

Yalta Conference: Soviet Union agrees to invade Japan within 3 months of German surrender.

April 5, 1945

Soviet Union denounces the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact that had been signed on April 13, 1941.

April 29, 1945

Italian Fascist Republican troops, under Rodolfo Graziani’s command, surrender in the "Rendition of Cazerta".

May 8, 1945

Germany surrenders.

July 16, 1945

Potsdam Conference begins.

July 26, 1945

Potsdam Declaration issued, calling for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces.

Final stages

August 3, 1945

Soviet General Vasilevskii reported to Stalin that Soviet forces ready for invasion from August 7.

August 6, 1945

An atomic bomb, Little Boy, dropped on Hiroshima from a special B-29 Superfortress named Enola Gay, flown by Col. Paul Tibbets. It is the first use of atomic weapons in combat. (Atomic bombing of Hiroshima)

August 8, 1945

The Soviet Union declares war on Japan against the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact.

August 9, 1945

Second, and more powerful plutonium implosion atomic bomb, Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki from a different Silverplate B-29 named Bockscar, flown by Maj. Charles Sweeney (Atomic bombing of Nagasaki)

August 9, 1945

Soviet Armies launch the Soviet invasion of Manchuria.

August 10, 1945

The 38th Parallel is set as the delineation between the Soviet and US occupation zones in Korea.

August 14, 1945 (noon JST on August 15, 1945)

Emperor Shōwa's decree to accept the Potsdam Declaration is announced over radio.

August 14, 1945

General Douglas MacArthur is appointed to head the occupation forces in Japan.

August 16, 1945

Gen. Jonathan Wainwright, a POW since May 6, 1942 following the surrender of U.S. forces in the Philippines under his command, is released from a POW camp in Manchuria.

August 17, 1945

Japanese IGHQ issues formal cease-fire in Manchuria.

August 17, 1945

General MacArthur issues General Order No. 1.

August 18, 1945

Soviet Army invades Karafuto on southern Sakhalin Island.

August 18, 1945

Soviet amphibious landings begin in northern Korea.

August 18, 1945

Japanese pilots attack two Consolidated B-32 Dominators of the 386th Bomb Squadron, 312th Bomb Group, on a photo reconnaissance mission over Japan. Sgt. Anthony Marchione, 19, a photographer's assistant on the B-32 Hobo Queen II, was fatally wounded in the attack. Marchione would be the last American killed in air combat in the Second World War.[1]

August 18, 1945

Soviet invasion of the Kuril Islands begins with amphibious landings on Shumshu.[2]

August 19, 1945

Kwantung Army HQ transmit capitulation order to Japanese troops in Manchuria.

August 23, 1945

Last Japanese troops on Shumshu surrender to Soviet forces.[3]

August 25, 1945

Japanese surrender in Karafuto (south Sakhalin Island).

August 27, 1945

B-29s drop supplies to Allied POWs in China.

August 29, 1945

The Soviets shoot down a B-29 Superfortress dropping supplies to POWs in Korea

August 29, 1945

U.S. troops land near Tokyo to begin the occupation of Japan by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers.

August 30, 1945

The United Kingdom reoccupies Hong Kong.

September 2, 1945

Formal Japanese surrender ceremony aboard USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay; U.S. President Harry S. Truman declares VJ Day.

Aftermath

September 2, 1945

The Japanese garrison in Penang surrenders, while the British retake Penang under Operation Jurist.

September 3, 1945

The Japanese commander in the Philippines, Gen. Yamashita, surrenders to Gen. Wainwright at Baguio.

September 4, 1945

Japanese troops on Wake Island surrender.

September 5, 1945

The British land in Singapore.

September 5, 1945

The Soviets complete their occupation of the Kuril Islands.[4]

September 6, 1945

Japanese forces in Rabaul surrender.

September 8, 1945

MacArthur enters Tokyo.

September 8, 1945

U.S. forces land at Incheon to occupy Korea south of the 38th Parallel

September 9, 1945

The remaining Japanese forces in China surrender.

September 9, 1945

The remaining Japanese forces on the Korean Peninsula surrender.

September 10, 1945

Japanese in Labuan surrender.

September 11, 1945

Japanese in Sarawak surrender.

September 12, 1945

Japanese in Singapore formally surrender.

September 13, 1945

Japanese in Burma formally surrender.

September 14, 1945

Japanese in Sulawesi surrender.

September 16, 1945

Japanese in Hong Kong formally surrender.

October 25, 1945

Japanese in Taiwan surrender to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek as part of General Order No. 1, which later led to the ambiguous and unresolved political status of Taiwan.

Thailand (Siam)

After Japan's defeat in 1945, with the help of Seri Thai, Thailand was treated as a defeated country by the British and French, although American support mitigated the Allied terms. Thailand was not occupied by the Allies, but it was forced to return the territory it had regained to the British and the French. In the postwar period Thailand had relations with the United States, which it saw as a protector from the communist revolutions in neighbouring countries.[5]

Occupation of Japan

At the end of World War II, Japan was occupied by the Allies, led by the United States with contributions also from Australia, India, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. This foreign presence marked the first time in its history that the island nation had been occupied by a foreign power.[6] The San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed on September 8, 1951, marked the end of the Allied occupation, and after it came into force on April 28, 1952, Japan was once again an independent country.

International Military Tribunal for the Far East

During the occupation, leading Japanese war crime charges were reserved for those who participated in a joint conspiracy to start and wage war, termed "Class A" (crimes against peace), and were brought against those in the highest decision-making bodies; "Class B" crimes were reserved for those who committed "conventional" atrocities or crimes against humanity; "Class C" crimes were reserved for those in "the planning, ordering, authorization, or failure to prevent such transgressions at higher levels in the command structure."

Twenty-eight Japanese military and political leaders were charged with Class A crimes, and more than 5,700 Japanese nationals were charged with Class B and C crimes, mostly entailing prisoner abuse. China held 13 tribunals of its own, resulting in 504 convictions and 149 executions.

The Japanese Emperor Hirohito and all members of the imperial family such as Prince Asaka, were not prosecuted for involvement in any the three categories of crimes. Herbert Bix explains that "the Truman administration and General MacArthur both believed the occupation reforms would be implemented smoothly if they used Hirohito to legitimise their changes."[7] As many as 50 suspects, such as Nobusuke Kishi, who later became Prime Minister, and Yoshisuke Aikawa, head of the zaibatsu Nissan Group, and future leader of the Chuseiren (a body representing small and medium-sized Japanese companies) were charged but released without ever being brought to trial in 1947 and 1948. Shiro Ishii received immunity in exchange for data gathered from his experiments on live prisoners. The lone dissenting judge to exonerate all indictees was Indian jurist Radhabinod Pal.

The tribunal was adjourned on 12 November 1948.

See also

References

  1. ^ Roblin, Sébastien (February 10, 2018). "The B-32 Waged America's Last Air Battle in World War II (After the War Ended)". The National Interest. Retrieved February 11, 2018 – via Yahoo.com.
  2. ^ Russell, Richard A., Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997, ISBN 0-945274-35-1, pp. 30-31.
  3. ^ Russell, Richard A., Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997, ISBN 0-945274-35-1, p. 31.
  4. ^ Russell, Richard A., Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997, ISBN 0-945274-35-1, pp. 33, 34.
  5. ^ http://www.endofempire.asia/0827-the-lost-territories-franco-thai-relations-after-wwii-3/
  6. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Japan, 1900 a.d.–present". Retrieved 2009-02-01.
  7. ^ "Herbert P. Bix". HarperCollins US.
Battle of Changsha (1941)

The Battle of Changsha (6 September – 8 October 1941) was Japan's second attempt at taking the city of Changsha, China, the capital of Hunan Province, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Battle of Changsha (1942)

The third Battle of Changsha (24 December 1941 – 15 January 1942) was the first major offensive in China by Imperial Japanese forces following the Japanese attack on the Western Allies.

The offensive was originally intended to prevent Chinese forces from reinforcing the British Commonwealth forces engaged in Hong Kong. With the capture of Hong Kong on 25 December, however, it was decided to continue the offensive against Changsha in order to maximize the blow against the Chinese government.The offensive resulted in failure for the Japanese, as Chinese forces were able to lure them into a trap and encircle them. After suffering heavy casualties, Japanese forces were forced to carry out a general retreat.

End of World War II

End of World War II can refer to:

End of World War II in Europe

End of World War II in Asia

End of World War II in Europe

The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.

Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union

There were two waves of the Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union during World War II: POWs during the Winter War and the Continuation War.

France during World War II

The following are articles about the topic of France during World War II:

Maginot Line and Alpine Line of fortifications and defences along the borders with Germany and Italy

Phoney War, or drôle de guerre ("strange war"), the period of little military activity between the defeat of Poland in October 1939 and April 1940.

Anglo-French Supreme War Council set up to organize a joint Entente Cordiale strategy against Germany

The Battle of France, in which the German victory led to the fall of the Third Republic in May and June 1940.

Free France (La France Libre) the government-in-exile in London and provisional government over unoccupied and liberated territories, and the forces under its control (Forces françaises libres or FFL), fighting on the Allies' side after the Appeal of 18 June of its leader, General de Gaulle.

French Liberation Army (Armée française de la Libération) formed on 1 August 1943 by the merger of the FFL and all other Free French units, principally the Army of Africa

French Forces of the Interior (Forces françaises de l'intérieur) elements of the Resistance loyal to London and under its operational military command

Free French Air Force

Free French Naval Forces

Vichy France, the rump state established in June 1940 under Marshal Philippe Pétain in the non-occupied Zone libre, officially neutral and independent until invaded by the Axis and the Allies in November 1942

Vichy French Air Force

Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon

Axis occupation of France:

German occupation of France during World War II - 1940-1944 in the northern zones, and 1942-1944 in the southern zone

French Resistance and the National Council of the Resistance which coordinated the various groups that made up the resistance

Service du travail obligatoire - the provision of French citizens as forced labour in Germany

The Holocaust in France

Italian occupation of France during World War II - limited to border areas 1940-1942, almost all Rhône left-bank territory 1942-1943

Japanese and Thai occupation of French Indochina - beginning with the Japanese invasion in September 1940 and with the Franco-Thai War which started in October 1940

Liberation of France

Operation Overlord - the invasion of northern France by the western Allies in June 1944

Operation Dragoon - the invasion of southern France by the western Allies in August 1944

Liberation of Paris - the freeing of the French capital in August 1944

Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine - advance (as the right flank of the western front) into Alsace-Lorraine in 1944

Western Allied invasion of Germany - invasion (as the right flank of the western front) of Baden-Württemberg in 1945

Imperial Rescript on Education

The Imperial Rescript on Education (教育に関する勅語, Kyōiku ni Kansuru Chokugo) was signed by Emperor Meiji of Japan on 30 October 1890 to articulate government policy on the guiding principles of education on the Empire of Japan. The 315 character document was read aloud at all important school events, and students were required to study and memorize the text.

Invasion of the Kuril Islands

The Invasion of the Kuril Islands (Russian: Курильская десантная операция "Kuril Islands Landing Operation") was the World War II Soviet military operation to capture the Kuril Islands from Japan in 1945. The invasion was part of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation, and was decided on when plans to land on Hokkaido were abandoned. The successful military operations of the Red Army at Mudanjiang and during the Invasion of South Sakhalin created the necessary prerequisites for invasion of the Kuril Islands.

Japanese diaspora

The Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei (日系) or nikkeijin (日系人), are the Japanese immigrants from Japan and their descendants that reside in a foreign country. Emigration from Japan was recorded as early as the 12th century to the Philippines, but did not become a mass phenomenon until the Meiji period, when Japanese began to go to the Philippines and the Americas. There was also significant emigration to the territories of the Empire of Japan during the colonial period; however, most emigrants repatriated to Japan after the surrender of Japan and the end of World War II in Asia.According to the Association of Nikkei and Japanese Abroad, there are about 3.8 million nikkei living in their adopted countries. The largest of these foreign communities are in Brazil, the United States, the Philippines, China, Canada, and Peru. Descendants of emigrants from the Meiji period still hold recognizable communities in those countries, forming separate ethnic groups from Japanese people in Japan. Nevertheless, most Japanese are largely assimilated outside of Japan.

As of 2018, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs report that the top 5 countries with the highest number of Japanese expatriates are the United States (426,206), China (124,162), Australia (97,223), Thailand (72,754) and Canada (70,025).

List of World War II weapons

World War II saw rapid technological innovation in response to the needs of the various combatants. Many different weapons systems evolved as a result.

Note: This list does not consist of all weapons used by all countries in World War II.

List of military awards of World War II

Military awards of World War II were presented by most of the combatants.

The following is from the article World War II, removed from that article for clarity, and represents an incomplete list of some of the awards.

List of territories occupied by Imperial Japan

This is a list of regions occupied or annexed by the Empire of Japan until 1945, the year of the end of World War II in Asia, after the surrender of Japan. Control over all territories except the Japanese mainland (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, and some 6,000 small surrounding islands) was renounced by Japan in the Unconditional Surrender after World War II and the Treaty of San Francisco. A number of territories occupied by the United States after 1945 were returned to Japan, but there are still a number of disputed territories, with Russia (the Kuril Islands dispute), South Korea and North Korea (the Liancourt Rocks dispute), the People's Republic of China and Taiwan (the Senkaku Islands dispute).

Military ranks and insignia of the Japan Self-Defense Forces

Following the end of World War II in Asia, after the surrender of Japan, the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy were dissolved by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers during the occupation of Japan. The symbols below represent the ranks of the Japan Self-Defense Forces: the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force which have, since 1954, replaced the imperial military. The 1938–1945 Japanese military and naval ranks were phased out after World War II. The self-defense force breaks away from the Sino-centric tradition of non-branch-specified ranks, each JSDF rank with respect to each service carries a distinct Japanese title, although equivalent titles in different branches are still similar, differing only in the use of the morphemes riku (ground) for the army ranks, kai (maritime) for the naval ranks, and kū (air) for the aviation ranks.The pentagramic stars on the insignia represent cherry blossoms. Because Japanese soldiers take an oath to die to protect the lives and wealth of Japanese citizens, they have been compared to delicate cherry blossoms that break easily.

Operation Cottage

Operation Cottage was a tactical maneuver which completed the Aleutian Islands campaign. On August 15, 1943, Allied military forces landed on Kiska Island, which had been occupied by Japanese forces since June 1942.

The Japanese, however, had secretly abandoned the island two weeks prior, and so the Allied landings were unopposed. Allied forces suffered over 313 casualties in total during the operation, due to stray Japanese mines, friendly fire incidents, and battlefield combat.

Operation Keelhaul

Operation Keelhaul was a forced repatriation of former Soviet Armed Forces POWs of Germany to the Soviet Union, carried out in Northern Italy by British and American forces between 14 August 1946 and 9 May 1947.

Operation Starvation

Operation Starvation was a naval mining operation conducted in World War II by the United States Army Air Forces, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined from the air in order to disrupt enemy shipping.

Self-defense force

A self-defense force (SDF) is, in its stricter terms, a defense force composed by the local inhabitants of a territory joint together in order to protect themselves, their territory, their property, or their laws. The term, however, has come to refer to three different subjects in modern times:

Militia, under the sole and exclusive control of subnational authorities, in comparison to the typical armed forces that report to national authorities, or national guards that report to subnational authorities but may come into national authority in times of crisis.

Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF) established after the end of World War II in Asia

Self-Defense Forces (Rojava cantons), Syria

algérien combat système ACS Algeria

World War II cryptography

Cryptography was used extensively during World War II, with a plethora of code and cipher systems fielded by the nations involved. In addition, the theoretical and practical aspects of cryptanalysis, or codebreaking, was much advanced.

Probably the most important codebreaking event of the war was the successful decryption by the Allies of the German "Enigma" Cipher. The first complete break into Enigma was accomplished by Poland around 1932; the techniques and insights used were passed to the French and British Allies just before the outbreak of the war in 1939. They were substantially improved by British efforts at the Bletchley Park research station during the war. Decryption of the Enigma Cipher allowed the Allies to read important parts of German radio traffic on important networks and was an invaluable source of military intelligence throughout the war. Intelligence from this source (and other high level sources, including the Fish ciphers) was eventually called Ultra.A similar break into the most secure Japanese diplomatic cipher, designated Purple by the US Army Signals Intelligence Service, started before the US entered the war. Product from this source was called Magic.

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