Enchin (円珍) (814–891) was a Japanese Buddhist monk who founded of the Jimon school of Tendai Buddhism and Chief Abbot of Mii-dera at the foot of Mount Hiei. After succeeding to the post of Tendai zasu (座主, "Head of the Tendai Order"), in 873, a strong rivalry developed between his followers and those of Ennin's at Enryaku-ji (note: Ennin had died in 864).[1][2]

The rivalry was largely geographical, and was not based much on sectarian differences over interpretations of practice or doctrine; nevertheless, the friction between the followers of the two zasu finally broke out into a violent conflict. Rivalres between the followers of different zasu were not anything new at that time. During his twelve years on Hiei, Enchin himself saw a conflict between direct disciples of Saichō (namely Enchō and Kōshō) and the disciples of his own master, the second Tendai zasu Gishin. After the death of Gishin, his main follower, Enshu, was elected as the third zasu, but Enchō and Kōshō objected and finally forced Enshu and his followers to leave Mount Hiei.

Most significantly, Enchin united the Tendai school's teachings with those of Chinese Esoteric Buddhism, and interpreted the Lotus Sutra from the point of view of esoteric teachings as well as used Tendai terminology in order to explain the esoteric Mahavairocana Tantra.

Enchin is said to have supported the worship of native gods (kami) and certain elements of Confucianism. In a memorial speech in 887, he noted the respect the court of Tang China had for Japan because of Japan's encouragement and welcoming of the ideals of li (Chinese: ) and yi (Chinese: ). He warned that though Enryaku-ji was founded with the native gods in mind, "no such officiating monks are provided for the main deities of the mountain. This is certainly a breach of Li. There ought to be two monks to worship the two gods."[1]:231


  1. ^ a b Sansom, George (1958). A History of Japan to 1334. Stanford University Press. p. 221. ISBN 0804705232.
  2. ^ Hinago, Motoo (1986). Japanese Castles. Kodansha International Ltd. and Shibundo. p. 41. ISBN 0870117661.
12th Malaysian Parliament

The 12th Malaysian Parliament is the last meeting of the legislative branch of the government of Malaysia, the Parliament, comprising the directly elected lower house, the Dewan Rakyat, and the appointed upper house, the Dewan Negara. It met for the first time at the Malaysian Houses of Parliament on 28 April 2008 and met for the last time on 29 November 2012. The King then dissolved the Parliament on 3 April 2013. The dissolution was announced by the Prime Minister Najib Razak after it consented by the King.The 12th Parliament was the first to meet where the governing Barisan Nasional coalition does not have a 2/3 supermajority in the Dewan Rakyat necessary to amend the Constitution. In the 2008 general election, opposition parties won a record 82 of the 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat, quadrupling the share they held previously. On 1 April, leaders from Parti Keadilan Rakyat, the Democratic Action Party and PAS announced the formation of the Pakatan Rakyat, a coalition comprising the three main opposition parties in Parliament. They also announced that Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, president of PKR, would be the new Leader of the Opposition, making her the first woman to assume the post. The 12th Parliament was also the first to have regular live broadcasts of Dewan Rakyat debates on national public television, and saw the first instance of a supply bill approved by division instead of a voice vote. In June 2008, the two members of parliament from the Sabah Progressive Party (SAPP, a BN component party) announced they would be filing a motion of no confidence against the Prime Minister, a first in Malaysian Parliamentary history.

1998 Quebec municipal elections

More than two hundred and forty municipalities in the Canadian province of Quebec held mayoral and council elections on November 1, 1998.

2010 Guelph municipal election

The 2010 Guelph municipal election were held on October 25, 2010 in Guelph, Ontario, Canada, to elect the Mayor of Guelph, Guelph City Council and the Guelph members of the Upper Grand District School Board (Public) and Wellington Catholic District School Board. The election was held in conjunction with the provincewide 2010 municipal elections.


Year 814 (DCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 891 (DCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Annen (monk)

Annen (安然, also known as 五大院 安然, 841–889?) was a Japanese Buddhist monk and scholar who systematized the esoteric teachings in the Tendai school, otherwise known as Taimitsu (台密). He thereby became the first to complete the formal esoterization of Japanese Tendai.

Classification of Buddha's teaching

The schools of Mahayana Buddhism developed several different schemes of doctrinal classification (Chinese: 教判, pinyin: jiàopan, Japanese: kyōhan, Korean:교판, RR: gyopan).

Daxingshan Temple

Daxingshan Temple (Chinese: 大兴善寺; pinyin: Dàxīngshàn Sì) is a Buddhist temple located in Yanta District of Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.The temple had reached unprecedented heyday in the Tang dynasty (618–907), when Śubhakarasiṃha, Vajrabodhi and Amoghavajra taught Chinese Esoteric Buddhism in the temple, known as the "Three Prominent Buddhist Monks in the Kaiyuan Period" (开元三大士). Then Japanese Buddhist monks Ennin and Enchin introduced it to Japan, since then, Daxingshan Temple became the cradle of Chinese Esoteric Buddhism. Daxingshan Temple, Daci'en Temple and Jianfu Temple became the three sutras translation sites (三大译经场) in the Tang dynasty.

Daxingshan Temple was completely damaged in the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution, after the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907, most parts of the temple were ruined in wars and natural disasters, and gradually it became unknown to public. Most of the present structures in the temple were repaired or built in the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) and modern China.


Echoworx, an email encryption software company, is based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, with offices in Hermosa Beach, California and London, UK. As a certificate authority, Echoworx is a member of both the Microsoft Root Certificate Program and Apple Root Certificate Program. Echoworx operates several data centers, including locations in the United States and Europe.


Enryaku-ji (延暦寺, Enryaku-ji) is a Tendai monastery located on Mount Hiei in Ōtsu, overlooking Kyoto. It was founded in 788 during the early Heian period (794-1185). The temple complex was established by Saichō (767–822), also known as Dengyō Daishi, who introduced the Tendai sect of Mahayana Buddhism to Japan from China. Enryaku-ji is the headquarters of the Tendai sect and one of the most significant monasteries in Japanese history. As such, it is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities)". The founders of Jōdo-shū, Sōtō Zen, and Nichiren Buddhism all spent time at the monastery. Enryaku-ji is also the center for the practice of kaihōgyō (aka the "marathon monks").

Eric Majimbun

Datuk Eric Majimbun (born 7 February 1950) was the Member of the Parliament of Malaysia for the Sepanggar constituency in Sabah from 2004 to 2013, as a member of the Sabah Progressive Party (SAPP).Majimbun was elected to federal Parliament in the 2004 election for the seat of Sepanggar. SAPP was a member of the governing Barisan Nasional coalition until it left in 2008, which Majimbun claimed gave him more freedom to represent his constituents. In the 2013 election, Majimbun contested the Sabah State Legislative Assembly seat of Inanam, but was squeezed into third place behind candidates from the two major national coalitions, the Barisan Nasional and Pakatan Rakyat.

Jay Firestone

Jay Firestone (born 13 October 1956) is a Canadian film and television producer.

Jimon and Sanmon

Jimon (寺門) and Sanmon (山門), also known as the Enchin and Ennin factions, respectively, were rival branches of the Tendai sect of Buddhism created in the 9th century and based on Mount Hiei just outside Kyoto.

Jimon's head temple was Mii-dera, at the foot of Mount Hiei, while the Sanmon sect was based at Enryaku-ji, at the summit of the mountain. This rivalry does not appear to be based on differing opinions on dogma or doctrine, only a sort of jealousy, with each sect seeking to be the chief or sole Tendai core temple. Following the deaths of Enchin in 891, this rivalry only deepened, and over the next several centuries, led to a number of armed conflicts. Most were the result of a monk from one faction becoming appointed Abbot (zasu) of the other faction's temple, or of one faction not being invited to events, conferences, or festivals held by the other.

As the disagreements escalated into armed conflicts, both sects formed the first standing armies of warrior monks, called sōhei. When the Genpei War broke out in 1180, the warrior monks of the two sects found themselves on opposing sides, the Enryaku-ji Sanmon monks supporting the Taira clan while Mii-dera's Jimon monks supported the Minamoto clan.

Only after the end of the Genpei War and the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate did the conflicts between the two sects settle down. However, the division and disagreement lasted several centuries longer, until both temples were destroyed by the forces of Oda Nobunaga at the end of the 16th century. Though it is unclear when the names Jimon and Sanmon fell out of use, and when the two temples ceased fighting, the destruction of both temples by a greater, larger outside force brought a definite end to their quarrels.

List of National Treasures of Japan (ancient documents)

The term "National Treasure" has been used in Japan to denote cultural properties since 1897.

The definition and the criteria have changed since the introduction of the term. These ancient documents adhere to the current definition, and have been designated National Treasures since the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties came into effect on June 9, 1951. The items are selected by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, a special body of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, based on their "especially high historical or artistic value". "Ancient documents" is one of thirteen categories of National Treasures recognized by the agency. The list presents 62 documents or sets of documents from classical to early modern Japan, from the Asuka period to the Meiji period. The actual number of items is more than 62 because groups of related objects have been combined into single entries. The list contains items of various type such as letters, diaries, records or catalogues, certificates, imperial decrees, testaments and maps. The documents record early Japanese government and Buddhism including early Japanese contact with China, the organization of the state and life at the Japanese imperial court. They are housed in 14 Japanese cities in temples (35), museums (13), libraries or archives (6), shrines (4), universities (2) and in private collections (2). Most entries (28) in the list are located in Kyoto. The documents in this list were made predominantly with a writing brush on paper and, in many cases, present important examples of calligraphy.Writing was physically introduced to Japan from China in the form of inscribed artefacts at the beginning of the Christian era. Examples, some of which have been designated as archaeological National Treasures, include coins of the reign of Wang Mang (AD 8–25), a 1st-century gold seal from Shikanoshima, a late 2nd century iron sword from the Tōdaijiyama burial mound, the Seven-Branched Sword with inscription from 369 and a large number of bronze mirrors—the oldest dating to the 3rd century. All of these artefacts originated on the continent, most likely in China. However, the written inscriptions on them may not have been recognized as writing but instead may have been mistaken for decorations by the Japanese. When the Japanese later manufactured locally copies of original Chinese mirrors, they may have continued to believe the written inscriptions to be merely decorative.The concept of writing came to Japan from the Korean kingdom of Baekje in the form of classical Chinese books likely written on paper and in the form of manuscript rolls (kansubon). This probably happened at the beginning of the 5th century (around 400), and certainly during the 6th century. According to legend the scholar Wani introduced the Chinese writing system as well as Confucianism to Japan. The oldest texts of Japanese origin, which show a clear understanding of the concept of writing, date to the 5th century and are—like most texts from before 700—inscriptions on stone or metal.

Examples include three archaeological National Treasures: Suda Hachiman Shrine Mirror from about the 5th century, which is a poor copy of a Chinese original, the Inariyama Sword from 471 or 531 and the Eta Funayama burial mound sword from about the 5th century. The abrupt transition from an unfamiliarity with writing to reading and writing complicated works in a foreign language required the earliest Japanese texts be composed and read by people from the continent such as Wani. The Inariyama Sword is also the oldest example of man'yōgana use, a writing system that employs Chinese characters to represent the Japanese language. Soon after the introduction of writing, scribes were appointed to the provinces to "record events and report conditions".While writing in Japan was limited during the 5th and 6th centuries, the number of documents written locally increased in the 7th century; though most of them have been lost. By the end of the 7th century increased cultural dependence on China caused reading and writing, particularly in government and religion, to become an integral part of Japanese life. There were two major factors for this development: starting with the Taika Reforms (645–649) and continuing with the Asuka Kiyomihara Code (689) and censuses from 670 and 690, a Chinese style centralised state was formed, requiring the need for a large number of officials who were literate and educated in, among others, Confucian texts at the Daigakuryo ("University") founded under Emperor Tenchi. The second factor was the increasing popularity of Buddhism, which had been introduced to Japan in the mid-6th century and strongly promoted by Prince Shōtoku (574–622). The Sangyō Gisho ("Annotated Commentaries on the Three Sutras"), traditionally attributed to Prince Shōtoku, is the oldest extant Japanese text of any length. Buddhism required the study of sutras written in Chinese and the state founded a Sutra Copying Bureau (shakyōjo) before 727. The oldest Japanese books are two chronicles, Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, from the early 8th century. While the phonogram orthography enjoyed increasing popularity during the 8th century, it was not yet used for longer prose. The modern kana, notably hiragana and katakana were developed in the Heian period.

List of National Treasures of Japan (sculptures)

In the mid-6th century, the introduction of Buddhism from Korea (Baekje) to Japan resulted in a revival of Japanese sculpture. Buddhist monks, artisans and scholars settled around the capital in Yamato Province (present day Nara Prefecture) and passed their techniques to native craftsmen. Consequently, early Japanese sculptures from the Asuka and Hakuhō periods show strong influences of continental art, which initially were characterized by almond-shaped eyes, upward-turned crescent-shaped lips and symmetrically arranged folds in the clothing. The workshop of the Japanese sculptor Tori Busshi, who was strongly influenced by the Northern Wei style, produced works which exemplify such characteristics. The Shakyamuni triad and the Guze Kannon at Hōryū-ji are prime examples. By the late 7th century, wood replaced bronze and copper. By the early Tang dynasty, greater realism was expressed by fuller forms, long narrow slit eyes, softer facial features, flowing garments and embellishments with ornaments such as bracelets and jewels. Two prominent examples of sculptures of this period are the Shō Kannon at Yakushi-ji and the Yumechigai Kannon at Hōryū-ji.During the Nara period, from 710 to 794, the government established and supported workshops called zōbussho, the most prominent of which was located in the capital Nara at Tōdai-ji, which produced Buddhist statuary. Clay, lacquer and wood, in addition to bronze, were used. Stylistically, the sculptures were influenced by the high Tang style, showing fuller body modelling, more natural drapery and a greater sense of movement. Representative examples of Nara period sculpture include the Great Buddha and the Four Heavenly Kings at Tōdai-ji, or the Eight Legions at Kōfuku-ji.Early Heian period works before the mid-10th century appear heavy compared to Nara period statues, carved from single blocks of wood, and characterised by draperies carved with alternating round and sharply cut folds. Stylistically, they followed high to later Tang style. In the Heian period the zōbussho were replaced with temple-run and independent workshops; wood became the primary medium; and a specific Japanese style emerged. By the mid-10th century, the style was refined presenting a more calm and gentle appearance, with attenuated proportions. Jōchō was the most important sculptor of this time, and he used the yosegi technique, in which several pieces of wood are joined to sculpt a single figure. He was the ancestor of three important schools of Japanese Buddhist statuary: the Enpa, Inpa and Keiha school. The Amida Nyorai at Byōdō-in is the only extant work by Jōchō.

Japanese sculpture experienced a renaissance during the Kamakura period, led by the Kei school. Partially influenced by Song dynasty China, their sculpture is characterised by realism featuring elaborate top knots, jewelry, and wavy drapery. Although predominantly wooden, bronze was also used as a material for the statues. As a novelty, portrait sculptures of prominent monks were created adjacent to the depiction of Buddhist deities.The term "National Treasure" has been used in Japan to denote cultural properties since 1897.

The definition and the criteria have changed since the inception of the term. These sculptures adhere to the current definition, and have been designated national treasures since the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties came into force on June 9, 1951. The items are selected by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology based on their "especially high historical or artistic value". This list presents 138 entries of sculptures, including those from Classical and early Feudal Japan of the 7th-century Asuka period to the 13th-century Kamakura period, although the number of sculptures is higher, because groups of related sculptures have sometimes been joined to form single entries. The sculptures listed depict Buddhist and Shintō deities or priests venerated as founders of temples. Some of the most ancient sculptures were imported directly from China.

M3 (Canadian TV channel)

M3 (formerly MuchMoreMusic and MuchMore) is a defunct Canadian English language Category A cable and satellite specialty channel owned by Bell Media. As with its sister networks, the network was headquartered at 299 Queen Street West in Toronto, Ontario.

Established in 1998 as MuchMoreMusic, the network began as a spin-off of the youth-oriented MuchMusic, targeting an older demographic with adult contemporary, classic hits and classic rock music videos, along with music news programs and concert specials. Its lineup later expanded to incorporate pop culture programming (often sourced from the similar U.S. network VH1), reality shows, dramas and sitcoms. Under Bell ownership and its final branding as M3, the network began to heavily downplay music programming outside non-peak hours (similarly to Much at the time).

On September 1, 2016, M3 was shut down and replaced under its license and most channel allotments by Gusto.


Mii-dera (三井寺,御井寺), formally called Onjō-ji (園城寺), is a Buddhist temple in Japan located at the foot of Mount Hiei, in the city of Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture. It is only a short distance from both Kyoto, and Lake Biwa, Japan's largest lake. The head temple of the Jimon sect of Tendai, it is something of a sister temple to Enryaku-ji, at the top of the mountain, and is one of the four largest temples in Japan. Altogether, there are 40 named buildings in the Mii-dera complex.

Mii-dera is temple 14 in the Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage.

Sepanggar (federal constituency)

Sepanggar is a federal constituency in Sabah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 2004.

The federal constituency was created in the 2003 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system.


Tendai (天台宗, Tendai-shū) is a Mahayana Buddhist school established in Japan in the year 806 by a monk named Saichō, also known as Dengyō Daishi (伝教大師, posthumous title). The Tendai school rose to prominence during the Heian period (794-1185), gradually eclipsing the powerful Yogācāra school (Hossō-shū) and competing with the upcoming Shingon Buddhism to become the most influential at the Imperial court.

However, political entanglements during the Genpei War led many disaffected monks to leave, and in some cases to establish their own schools of Buddhism such as Jōdo-shū, Nichiren-shū and the Sōtō school of Zen. Destruction of the head temple of Mount Hiei by warlord Oda Nobunaga, as well as the geographic shift of the capital away from Kyoto to Edo, further weakened Tendai's influence.

Tendai is a descendant of the parent Chinese school, Tiantai, but also introduced some novelties such as the exclusive use of the Bodhisattva Precepts for ordination, its emphasis on the "Four Integrated Schools" and Saichō's emphasis on the "One Vehicle" teaching. In keeping with its parent Tiantai school, the Tendai school holds the Lotus Sutra as the ultimate teaching of the Buddha and the teachings and practices of Chinese founder Zhiyi remain an important foundation today.

David W. Chappell frames the relevance of Tendai for a universal Buddhism:

Although Tendai (Chin., T'ien-t'ai) has the reputation of being a major denomination in Japanese history, and the most comprehensive and diversified school of Chinese Buddhism, it is almost unknown in the West. This meagre presence is in marked contrast to the vision of the founder of the movement in China, T'ien-t'ai Chih-i (538–597), who provided a religious framework which seemed suited to adapt to other cultures, to evolve new practices, and to universalize Buddhism.


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