Employment-to-population ratio

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines the employment rate as the employment-to-population ratio. This is a statistical ratio that measures the proportion of the country's working age population (statistics are often given for ages 15 to 64[1][2]) that is employed. This includes people that have stopped looking for work.[3] The International Labour Organization states that a person is considered employed if they have worked at least 1 hour in "gainful" employment in the most recent week.[4]

Unemployment and employment statistics for the US since 2000
U.S. unemployment rate and employment to population ratio (EM ratio)

Background

The employment-population ratio has not always been looked at for labor statistics and where specific areas are economically, but after the recent recession it has been given more attention worldwide, especially by economists. The National Bureau Of Economic Research (NBER) states that the Great Recession ended in June 2009.[5] During 2009 and 2010, however, many areas were still struggling economically, which is the reason the employment-population ratio is still used by both Americans and people around the world.

Key definitions

US Employment Statistics - March 2015
U.S. employment statistics and ratios for March 2015

Key terms that explain the use of the ratio follow:

Employed persons. All those who, (1) do any work at all as paid employees, work in their own business or profession or on their own farm, or work 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; and (2) all those who do not work but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, childcare problems, labor dispute, maternity or paternity leave, or other family or personal obligations—whether or not they were paid by their employers for the time off and whether or not they were seeking other jobs.

Unemployed persons. All those who, (1) have no employment during the reference week; (2) are available for work, except for temporary illness; and (3) have made specific efforts, such as contacting employers, to find employment sometime during the past 4-week period.

Participant rate This represents the proportion of the population that is in the labor force.

Not in the labor force. Included in this group are all persons in the civilian noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed. Information is collected on their desire for and availability to take a job at the time of the CPS interview, jobsearch activity in the prior year, and reason for not looking for work in past 4-week period.

Multiple jobholders. These are employed persons who, have two or more jobs as a wage and salary worker, are self-employed and also held a wage and salary job, or work as an unpaid family worker and also hold a wage and salary job.

[6]

Use

The ratio is used to evaluate the ability of the economy to create jobs and therefore is used in conjunction with the unemployment rate for a general evaluation of the labour market stance. Having a high ratio means that an important proportion of the population in working age is employed, which in general will have positive effects on the GDP per capita. Nevertheless, the ratio does not give an indication of working conditions, number of hours worked per person, earnings or the size of the black market. Therefore, the analysis of the labour market must be done in conjunction with other statistics.

This measure comes from dividing the civilian noninstitutionalized population who are employed by the total noninstitutionalized population and multiplying by 100.[7]

Employment-to-population ratio in the world

In general, a high ratio is considered to be above 70 percent of the working-age population whereas a ratio below 50 percent is considered to be low. The economies with low ratios are generally situated in the Middle East and North Africa.

Employment-to-population ratios are typically higher for men than for women. Nevertheless, in the past decades, the ratios tended to fall for men and increase in the case of women, which made the differences between both to be reduced.

Employment-to-population ratio in OECD countries
Persons aged 15–64 years (percentages)
Country 1970 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Australia 66.7 65.2 68.4 69.3 69.0 69.4 70.0 70.3 71.5 72.2 72.9 73.2 72.0 72.4 72.7 72.4 72.0
Austria 68.3 68.2 68.8 68.9 67.8 68.6 70.2 71.4 72.1 71.6 71.7 72.1 72.5 72.3
Belgium 54.4 60.9 59.7 59.9 59.6 60.3 61.1 61.0 62.0 62.4 61.6 62.0 61.9 61.8 61.8
Canada 66.1 70.3 70.9 70.8 71.4 72.2 72.5 72.4 72.8 73.5 73.6 71.5 71.5 72.0 72.2 72.5
Chile 53.3 52.7 52.6 53.5 53.6 54.4 55.5 56.3 57.3 56.1 59.3 61.3 61.8 62.3
Czech Republic 65.2 65.3 65.7 64.9 64.2 64.8 65.3 66.1 66.6 65.4 65.0 65.7 66.5 67.7
Denmark 75.4 76.4 75.9 75.9 75.1 75.7 75.9 77.4 77.0 77.9 75.3 73.3 73.1 72.6 72.5
Estonia 78.2 61.0 61.4 62.0 62.8 62.9 64.2 67.9 69.2 69.7 63.5 61.0 65.2 67.2 68.5
Finland 70.4 70.7 74.7 67.5 68.3 68.3 67.9 67.8 68.5 69.6 70.5 71.3 68.4 68.3 69.2 69.5 68.5
France 60.8 61.7 62.7 62.9 64.0 63.7 63.7 63.6 64.3 64.8 64.0 63.9 63.9 63.9 64.1
Germany 66.9 65.2 64.1 65.6 65.8 65.3 64.6 65.0 65.5 67.2 69.0 70.2 70.4 71.2 72.6 72.8 73.3
Greece 54.8 55.9 55.6 57.5 58.7 59.4 60.1 61.0 61.4 61.9 61.2 59.6 55.6 51.3 49.3
Hungary 56.0 56.2 56.2 57.0 56.8 56.9 57.3 57.3 56.7 55.4 55.4 55.8 57.2 58.4
Iceland 84.6 84.6 82.8 84.1 82.8 84.4 85.3 85.7 84.2 78.9 78.9 79.0 80.2 81.8
Ireland 52.1 65.1 65.7 65.2 65.2 65.9 67.5 68.5 69.2 67.9 62.2 60.0 59.2 58.8 60.2
Israel 51.8 56.1 55.7 54.8 55.0 55.7 56.7 57.6 58.9 59.8 59.2 60.2 60.9 66.5 67.1
Italy 52.0 53.9 52.6 53.9 54.9 55.6 56.2 57.4 57.5 58.4 58.7 58.7 58.3 57.7 57.8 57.6 56.4
Japan 67.9 66.8 68.6 68.9 68.8 68.2 68.4 68.7 69.3 70.0 70.7 70.7 70.0 70.1 70.3 70.6 71.7
Korea 59.2 61.2 61.5 62.1 63.3 63.0 63.6 63.7 63.8 63.9 63.8 62.9 63.3 63.9 64.2 64.4
Luxembourg 59.2 62.7 63.0 63.6 62.2 62.5 63.6 63.6 64.2 63.4 65.2 65.2 64.6 65.8 65.7
Mexico 60.1 59.4 59.3 58.8 59.9 59.6 61.0 61.1 61.3 59.4 60.3 59.8 61.3 61.0
Netherlands 54.5 61.8 72.1 72.6 73.0 71.6 71.1 71.5 72.5 74.4 75.9 75.6 74.7 74.9 75.1 74.3
New Zealand 67.5 70.4 71.4 72.2 72.2 73.2 74.3 74.9 75.2 74.7 72.9 72.3 72.6 72.1 73.1
Norway 72.2 73.0 77.9 77.5 77.1 75.8 75.6 75.2 75.5 76.9 78.1 76.5 75.4 75.3 75.8 75.5
Poland 55.0 53.5 51.7 51.4 51.9 53.0 54.5 57.0 59.2 59.3 58.9 59.3 59.7 60.0
Portugal 64.3 65.6 68.3 68.9 68.7 68.0 67.8 67.5 67.9 67.8 68.2 66.3 65.6 64.2 61.8 60.6
Slovak Republic 56.8 56.9 56.9 57.7 57.0 57.7 59.4 60.7 62.3 60.2 58.8 59.5 59.7 59.9
Slovenia 63.4 62.6 65.3 66.0 66.6 67.8 68.6 67.5 66.2 64.4 64.1 63.3
Spain 52.7 51.8 57.4 58.8 59.5 60.7 62.0 64.3 65.7 66.6 65.3 60.6 59.4 58.5 56.2 55.6
Sweden 72.3 79.8 83.1 74.3 75.4 75.2 74.4 73.7 74.0 74.6 74.2 74.3 72.2 72.1 73.6 73.8 74.4
Switzerland 78.4 79.2 78.9 77.9 77.4 77.2 77.9 78.6 79.5 79.0 78.6 79.3 79.4 79.6
Turkey 54.5 48.9 47.8 46.7 45.5 44.1 44.4 44.6 44.6 44.9 44.3 46.3 48.4 48.9 49.5
United Kingdom 72.5 72.2 72.5 72.3 72.6 72.7 72.7 72.6 72.4 72.7 70.6 70.3 70.4 70.9 71.3
United States 57.4[8] 59.2[8] 62.8[8] 74.1 73.1 71.9 71.2 71.2 71.5 72.0 71.8 70.9 67.6 66.7 66.6 67.1 67.4
Brazil 64.3 65.4 65.0 66.5 67.0 67.4 67.4 68.3 67.7 66.9 67.2 66.7
China 79.3 75.1
Colombia 57.5 57.0 58.5 57.5 58.1 56.7 56.9 58.9 60.2 61.4 62.5 62.7
India 54.8 53.3
Russian Federation 63.3 63.2 64.5 64.1 65.5 66.3 66.8 68.5 68.6 66.9 67.3 68.0 69.0 68.8
South Africa 44.1 42.8 41.5 41.6 43.4 44.9 44.4 44.8 42.7 40.8 40.8 41.0 42.7
Latvia 63.3 66.3 68.1 68.2 60.3 58.5 60.8 63.0 65.0
EU-21 61.0 59.5 61.7 62.6 63.0 63.0 63.2 63.5 64.1 64.9 65.9 66.4 65.2 64.8 65.0 64.8 64.8
EU-15 61.0 59.5 61.6 63.6 64.3 64.4 64.6 65.0 65.5 66.3 67.0 67.4 66.1 65.8 65.9 65.6 65.4
Europe 61.0 59.7 60.9 61.3 61.5 61.3 61.2 61.4 61.9 62.7 63.4 63.9 62.8 62.7 63.1 63.0 63.0
G7 Countries 63.9 65.2 67.7 69.0 68.9 68.3 68.2 68.4 68.7 69.3 69.7 69.5 67.7 67.3 67.5 67.9 68.2
OECD Countries 64.2 64.2 65.7 65.4 65.2 64.9 64.7 65.0 65.3 66.0 66.5 66.5 64.8 64.6 64.8 65.1 65.3
Country 1970 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Source: OECD.StatExtracts[1], except as noted

See also

References

  1. ^ OECD. "LFS by sex and age – indicators".
  2. ^ "File:Employment rates for selected population groups, 2004–14 (%) YB16.png – Statistics Explained".
  3. ^ Employment/Population Ratios for the 50 Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 2008, 2009, and 2010. (2011, September). Retrieved December 10, 2012, from United States Census Bureau website: https://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/ acsbr10-09.pdf
  4. ^ OECD Factbook 2007 (pdf), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007, ISBN 978-92-64-02946-0, retrieved 2008-01-31
  5. ^ Employment/Population Ratios for the 50 Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 2008, 2009, and 2010. (2011, September). Retrieved December 10, 2012, from United States Census Bureau website: https://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/ acsbr10-09.pdf
  6. ^ BLS Handbook Of Methods. (2003, April 17). Retrieved December 6, 2012, from Bureau Of Labor Statistics website: http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ homch1_c.htm
  7. ^ Employment/Population Ratios for the 50 Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 2008, 2009, and 2010. (2011, September). Retrieved December 10, 2012, from United States Census Bureau website: https://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/ acsbr10-09.pdf
  8. ^ a b c http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/LNS12300000
Banishment room

A banishment room (also known as a chasing-out-room and a boredom room) is a modern employee exit management strategy whereby employees are transferred to another department where they are assigned meaningless work until they become disheartened enough to quit. Since the resignation is voluntary, the employee would not be eligible for certain benefits. The legality and ethicality of the practice is questionable and may be construed as constructive dismissal in some regions.

The practice, which is not officially acknowledged, is common in Japan which has strong labor laws and a tradition of permanent employment.

Career break

A career break is a period of time out from employment. Traditionally, this is for women to raise children, but it is sometimes used for people taking time out of their career for personal development and/or professional development.

Civil conscription

Civil conscription is conscription used for forcing people to work in non-military projects.

Civil conscription is used by various governments around the world, among them Greece, where it has been used numerous times and it is called πολιτική επιστράτευση (politiki epistratevsi, "political mobilisation"). Temporary conscription for payment, typically of taxes, is known as corvée.

Cover letter

A cover letter, covering letter, motivation letter, motivational letter or a letter of motivation is a letter of introduction attached to, or accompanying another document such as a résumé or curriculum vitae.

Curriculum vitae

A curriculum vitae (English: ), often shortened as CV or vita, is a written overview of someone's life's work (academic formation, publications, qualifications, etc.). Vitae often aim to be a complete record of someone's career, and can be extensive. So, they are different than a résumé, which is typically a brief 1–2 page summary of qualifications and work experience for the purposes of employment, and often only presents recent highlights. In many countries, a résumé is typically the first item that a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants, often followed by an interview. Vitae may also be requested for applicants to postsecondary programs, scholarships, grants and bursaries. In the 2010s, some applicants provide an electronic text of their CV to employers using email, an online employment website or using a job-oriented social-networking-service website, such as LinkedIn.

Discouraged worker

In economics, a discouraged worker is a person of legal employment age who is not actively seeking employment or who has not found employment after long-term unemployment, but who would prefer to be working. This is usually because an individual has given up looking, hence the term "discouraged".

A discouraged worker, since not actively seeking employment, has fallen out of the core statistics of the unemployment rate since he is neither working nor job-seeking. Their giving up on job-seeking may derive from a variety of factors including a shortage of jobs in their locality or line of work; discrimination for reasons such as age, race, sex, religion, sexual orientation, and disability; a lack of necessary skills, training, or experience; a chronic illness or disability; or simply a lack of success in finding a job.As a general practice, discouraged workers, who are often classified as marginally attached to the labor force, on the margins of the labor force, or as part of hidden unemployment, are not considered part of the labor force, and are thus not counted in most official unemployment rates—which influences the appearance and interpretation of unemployment statistics. Although some countries offer alternative measures of unemployment rate, the existence of discouraged workers can be inferred from a low employment-to-population ratio.

Income bracket

Income bracket is the bandwidth from a basic wage towards all possible salary components and is used to give employees a career perspective and to give the employer the possibility to reward achievements.

In governmental terms, entire populations are divided into income brackets. These brackets are used to categorize demographic data as well as determine levels of taxation and benefits.

Induction programme

An induction programme is the process used within many businesses to welcome new employees to the company and prepare them for their new role. It helps in the effective integration of the employee into the organisation.Induction training should, according to TPI-theory, include development of theoretical and practical skills, but also meet interaction needs that exist among the new employees.An Induction Programme can also include the safety training delivered to contractors before they are permitted to enter a site or begin their work. It is usually focused on the particular safety issues of an organisation but will often include much of the general company information delivered to employees.

Job fair

A job fair, also referred commonly as a career fair or career expo, is an event in which employers, recruiters, and schools give information to potential employees. Job seekers attend these while trying to make a good impression to potential coworkers by speaking face-to-face with one another, filling out résumés, and asking questions in attempt to get a good feel on the work needed. Likewise, online job fairs are held, giving job seekers another way to get in contact with probable employers using the internet.

Joram van Klaveren

Joram Jaron van Klaveren (born 23 January 1979) is a Dutch politician. As a member of the Party for Freedom he was an MP from 17 June 2010 until 21 March 2014. He subsequently was an independent until his term in office ended on 23 March 2017. He focused on matters of desegregation, employment-to-population ratio, egalitarianism and emancipation. From 24 March 2011 until 11 June 2014 he also was a member of the States-Provincial of Flevoland. He became well-known for anti-Muslim comments. In October 2018 he converted to Islam halfway through writing an anti-Islam book. After becoming a Muslim, he decided to rededicate his book to his search for religiosity and the subsequent conversion to Islam.

Letter of resignation

A letter of resignation is written to announce the author's intent to leave a position currently held, such as an office, employment or commission.

Such a letter will often take legal effect to terminate an appointment or employment, as notice under the relevant terms of the position; many appointments and contractual employments are terminable by unilateral notice, or advance notice of a specified period of time, with or without further conditions. Even where an oral notice would be effective, the effective date or time of termination may be directly or indirectly fixed on delivery of a written letter or email, for the sake of clarity and record. In response, different arrangements may be made or agreed, such as an earlier effective date, or improved terms and conditions of appointment upon withdrawal of the letter.

It should normally be delivered in advance to the appropriate supervisor or superior, and contain such information as the intended last day at work. A period of notice may be required expressly by contract, impliedly by the pay interval, or otherwise. Nevertheless, in practice, some resignations can be effective immediately.

For courtesy's sake, a letter of resignation may thank the employer for the pleasure of working under them and the opportunities and experience gained thereby, and also offer to assist with the transition by, for example, training the replacement. A more hostile letter may assert other sentiments or claims, particularly that the contract or terms of employment have been broken. In any case, the terms of the letter and its consequences may often be negotiated, either before or after delivery.

A formal letter with minimal expression of courtesy is then-President Richard Nixon's letter of resignation under the terms of a relatively unknown law passed by Congress March 1, 1792, likely drafted in response to the Constitution having no direct procedure for how a president might resign. Delivered to then-Secretary of State Henry Kissinger on 9 August 1974, it read simply, "I hereby resign the Office of President of the United States." It was simply dated, but Kissinger also recorded upon it the time of receipt.

It is advisable to write a resignation letter in order to leave a good impression on one's employer. Such a resignation letter paves way for a smooth exit interview.

List of countries by employment rate

This is a list of countries by employment rate, this being the proportion of employed adults in the working age. The definition of "working age" varies: Many sources, including the OECD, use 15–64 years old, but the Office for National Statistics of the United Kingdom uses 16–64 years old and EUROSTAT uses 20–64 years old.

Marriage leave

Marriage leave is the legal right to enjoy leave of absence by an employee due to him or her getting married without loss of wages. Irish civil servants are entitled 5 days. In Malta, every employee is entitled 2 days marriage leave.

National average salary

The National Average Salary (or the National Average Wage) is the mean salary for the working population of a nation. It is calculated by summing all the annual salaries of all persons in work and dividing the total by the number of workers. It is not the same as the Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, which is calculated by dividing the GDP by the total population of a country, including the unemployed and those not in the workforce (e.g. retired people, children, students, etc.).

No call, no show

A no call, no show is an American term for absence from the workforce without notifying the employer. This form of absence is generally deemed inconsiderate and unprofessional.

Probation (workplace)

In a workplace setting, probation (or probationary period) is a status given to new employees of a company or business. It is widely termed as the Probation Period of an employee. This status allows a supervisor or other company manager to evaluate closely the progress and skills of the newly hired worker, determine appropriate assignments, and monitor other aspects of the employee such as honesty, reliability, and interactions with co-workers, supervisors or customers.

A probationary period varies widely depending on the business, but can last anywhere from 30 days to several years. In cases of several years, probationary levels may change as time goes on. If the new employee shows promise and does well during the probationary time, they are usually removed from probationary status, and may be given a raise or promotion as well (in addition to other privileges, as defined by the business). Probation is usually defined in a company's employee handbook, which is given to workers when they first begin a job.

The probationary period also allows an employer to terminate an employee who is not doing well at their job or is otherwise deemed not suitable for a particular position or any position. Whether or not this empowers employers to abuse their employees by, without warning, terminating their contract before the probation period has ended is open for debate. To avoid problems arising from the termination of a new employee, many companies are waiving the probationary period entirely, and instead conducting multiple interviews of the candidate, under a variety of conditions – before making the decision to hire.

The placement of an employee on probationary status is usually at the discretion of their manager.

Sabbatical

A sabbatical (from Hebrew: shabbat (שבת) (i.e., Sabbath), in Latin: sabbaticus, in Greek: sabbatikos (σαββατικός)) is a rest or break from work.

Working age

Working age is the range of ages at which people are typically engaged in either paid or unpaid work. It typically sits between the ages of adolescence and retirement.

In most countries there is a minimum age at which people can legally work.

Classifications
Hiring
Roles
Worker class
Career and training
Attendance
Schedules
Wages and salaries
Benefits
Safety and health
Equality
Infractions
Willingness
Termination
Unemployment

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