Emperor Wen of Chen

Emperor Wen of Chen (陳文帝) (522–566), personal name Chen Qian (陳蒨), courtesy name Zihua (子華), was an emperor of the Chinese Chen Dynasty. He was the nephew of the founding emperor, Emperor Wu (Chen Baxian), and after Emperor Wu's death in 559, the officials supported him to be emperor since Emperor Wu's only surviving son, Chen Chang, was detained by rival Northern Zhou. At the time he took the throne, Chen had been devastated by war during the preceding Liang Dynasty, and many provinces nominally loyal to him were under control of relatively independent warlords. During his reign, he consolidated the state against warlords, and he also seized territory belonging to claimants to the Liang throne, Xiao Zhuang and Emperor Xuan of Western Liang, greatly expanding Chen's territory and strength.

Emperor Wen of Chen
陳文帝
Chen Wendi Tang
Tang dynasty portrait of Emperor Wen by Yan Liben
Emperor of the Chen dynasty
Reign559 – 566
PredecessorEmperor Wu of Chen
SuccessorEmperor Fei of Chen
Born522
Died566 (aged 43–44)
SpouseShen Miaorong
Issuesee #Personal information
Full name
Family name: Chen (陳)
Given name: Qian (蒨)
Courtesy name: Zihua (子華)
Posthumous name
Emperor Wen (文帝)
Temple name
Shizu (世祖)
DynastyChen dynasty
FatherChen Daotan

During Liang Dynasty

Chen Qian was born in 522, as the oldest son of Chen Daotan (陳道譚), a commander of the Liang Dynasty palace guards. His mother's name is not recorded in history. When the rebel general Hou Jing attacked the capital Jiankang in 548 and put it under siege, Chen Daotan participated in the defense of Jiankang against Hou's siege, commanding archers, and he was killed by a stray arrow during the siege. (As the palace did not fall to Hou until 549, it is not clear whether Chen Daotan died in 548 or 549.) It appeared that during the disturbance, in order to avoid the banditry that was common in the countryside, Chen Qian went to the Chens' home commandery of Wuxing (吳興, roughly modern Huzhou, Zhejiang). After his uncle Chen Baxian joined the campaign of Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong (later Emperor Yuan) against Hou, Hou arrested both Chen Qian and Chen Baxian's son Chen Chang and imprisoned them. Only after the victory of Emperor Yuan's forces (commanded by Wang Sengbian with Chen Baxian as Wang's lieutenant) over Hou were Chen Qian and Chen Chang freed, and Chen Qian joined Chen Baxian's army. He quickly distinguished himself in minor campaigns against local bandits, and he became one of Chen Baxian's trusted generals.

In 554, Western Wei forces attacked Emperor Yuan's new capital Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei) and captured it, putting Emperor Yuan to death around new year 555. Western Wei declared Emperor Yuan's nephew Xiao Cha emperor (as Emperor Xuan), but Wang and Chen Baxian refused to recognize Xiao Cha as emperor. They welcomed Emperor Yuan's only surviving son Xiao Fangzhi the Prince of Jin'an to Jiankang, declaring him the Prince of Liang and preparing to declare him emperor. However, after Wang's forces suffered several defeats at the hands of Northern Qi forces, Wang accepted the proposal of Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi to make Emperor Yuan's cousin Xiao Yuanming emperor, and he declared Xiao Yuanming emperor in summer 555. Chen Baxian was displeased with Xiao Yuanming's ascension, and in fall 555, with Chen Qian as one of his confidants, he launched a surprise attack on Jiankang, killing Wang and deposing Xiao Yuanming. He declared Xiao Fangzhi emperor (as Emperor Jing).

Prior to taking action against Wang, Chen Baxian considered the probability that Wang's son-in-law Du Kan (杜龕), then the governor of Wuxing Commandery, would act against Chen Baxian, and secretly sent Chen Qian back to their home county of Changcheng (長城) to prepare to intercept Du if he tried to come to Wang's aid. When Chen Baxian succeeded surprisingly quickly, Du, along with Wei Zai (韋載) the governor of Yixing Commandery (義興, roughly modern Wuxi, Jiangsu), and Wang Sengzhi (王僧智, Wang Sengbian's brother) the governor of Wu Commandery (roughly modern Suzhou, Jiangsu) rose against Chen Baxian. Chen Qian was holding his position at Changcheng with several hundred men, and when Du's army attacked him with 5,000 men, he was able to hold against Du's attack, preventing Du from attacking Chen Baxian. This allowed Chen Baxian to come to his aid, forcing Wei to surrender and Wang Sengzhi to flee to Du. Chen Baxian subsequently returned to Jiankang (with Northern Qi forces, along with those of the generals Xu Sihui (徐嗣徽) and Ren Yue (任約), attacking Jiankang), leaving Chen Qian in command of the armies facing Du, joined by Chen Baxian's general Zhou Wenyu (周文育). In spring 556, Chen Qian secretly persuaded Du Kan's general Du Tai (杜泰) to surrender to him, and subsequently, Du Kan was captured and executed. Chen Qian and Zhou were subsequently also able to take over Eastern Yang Province (東揚州, modern northeastern Zhejiang) from its governor Zhang Biao (張彪), who was loyal to Wang Sengbian. With Chen Baxian still facing Northern Qi troops at Jiankang and lacking food supplies, Chen Qian was able to round up supplies of rice and ducks and deliver them to Jiankang to supply Chen Baxian's army, which subsequently defeated an even-worse-supplied Northern Qi force.

During Emperor Wu's reign

In 557, Chen Baxian had Emperor Jing yield the throne to him, establishing Chen Dynasty as its Emperor Wu. He created Chen Qian, as his only close male relative in his territory, the Prince of Linchuan. (His son Chen Chang, along with Chen Qian's brother Chen Xu, had been taken captive by Western Wei in 554, as they were serving as low level officials in Emperor Yuan's administration.) Chen Qian's father Chen Daotan was posthumously honored as the Prince of Shixing, and Chen Xu, although not physically in Chen territory, was created the Prince of Shixing to inherit Chen Daotan's title.

In fall 558, after the Liang general Wang Lin (who had by that point declared Emperor Yuan's grandson Xiao Zhuang emperor) had defeated and captured Emperor Wu's key generals Zhou Wenyu and Hou Andu (although both Zhou and Hou were about to flee from their captivity soon thereafter), Emperor Wu, while negotiating a peace settlement with Wang, also sent Chen Qian with a large fleet to prepare to attack Wang should a peace agreement not happen. Subsequently, a peace was negotiated with Wang, although border conflicts continued, and Chen Qian, by Emperor Wu's orders, constructed a fortress at Nanhuan (南皖, in modern Anqing, Anhui) to defend a potential Wang attack.

While Chen Qian was still at Nanhuan, in summer 559, Emperor Wu grew ill and quickly died. Emperor Wu's wife Empress Zhang Yao'er, after consulting the officials Du Leng (杜稜) and Cai Jingli (蔡景歷), chose not to announce Emperor Wu's death and summoned Chen Qian back from Nanhuan. The imperial officials, led by Hou, decided to support Chen Qian as emperor, and while Empress Zhang was initially hesitant, hoping that Chen Chang would return, she eventually agreed, and Chen Qian took the throne as Emperor Wen.

Reign

Tomb Yongning of the Ts'en Dynasty
A "pixiu"[1] male, otherwise known as a "tiān lù",[2] is a winged, mythological, guardian animal with a head like a dragon, a body like a lion and a single horn on its head; photo from the Yongning Tomb of Emperor Wen. Note: Pixiu females of this ancient, mythological species are known as "bìxié",[3] the only difference being that the females have a pair of horns on their heads.[4]

Emperor Wen honored Empress Zhang as empress dowager. He created his wife Princess Shen Miaorong empress and her son Chen Bozong crown prince. As he inherited the throne from Emperor Wu, he did not posthumously honor his father Chen Daotan as an emperor as might otherwise have been expected, but, in order to make sure that his father would be properly venerated (which would require Chen Daotan's legal heir—Emperor Wen's brother Chen Xu—to be present to offer sacrifices to him), he created his own son Chen Bomao (陳伯茂) the Prince of Shixing instead, and created Chen Xu, who was then still at Chang'an, the capital of Western Wei's successor state Northern Zhou, the Prince of Ancheng. (In 563, Emperor Wen himself began to offer sacrifices to Chen Daotan using ceremonies due an emperor, but never honored his father as an emperor.)

Hearing that Emperor Wu had died, Wang Lin launched a major attack on Chen in winter 559. He was initially successful, defeating the Chen general Wu Mingche, but when Emperor Wen sent Hou Tian (侯瑱) against Wang, the forces stalemated, even though Wang was also assisted by Northern Qi forces. In spring 560, Hou defeated Wang, and both Wang and Xiao Zhuang fled to Northern Qi. Chen forces took about half of Xiao Zhuang's territory, while the other half went to the Northern Zhou-supported Western Liang.

Wang's defeat brought a succession crisis. After hearing of Emperor Wu's death, Northern Zhou had sent Chen Chang back to Chen, but as his path was blocked by Wang's forces, he had to stop at Anlu (安陸, in modern Xiaogan, Hubei). After Wang was defeated, Chen Chang continued his journey, and as he proceeded from Anlu to the Yangtze River, he wrote impolite letters to Emperor Wen, which Emperor Wen took as a demand for the throne. Emperor Wen summoned Hou Andu, suggesting that perhaps he should yield the throne to Chen Chang and accept a princely title. Hou advised him not to, and offered to personally "greet" Chen Chang. Meanwhile, the officials were all suggesting creating Chen Chang an imperial prince, and Emperor Wen declared that Chen Chang was to be created the Prince of Hengyang. A month later, Chen Chang entered Chen territory and met Hou. However, as they travelled on the Yangtze River, Hou had him killed and his body thrown into the Yangtze, and then returned to Jiankang, claiming that Chen Chang had slipped into the river. Grateful that Hou had eliminated a rival for him, Emperor Wen created Hou the Duke of Qingyuan.

In fall 560, Chen forces under Hou Tian began to engage Northern Zhou and Western Liang forces in the modern Hunan region, which Western Liang had taken from Xiao Zhuang when he fled to Northern Qi. The armies stalemated, and in spring 561, unable to prevail over the Northern Zhou general Heruo Dun (賀若敦), Hou Tian offered to allow Heruo to withdraw with his army if he would yield the territory. Heruo agreed, and the territory became Chen possession. Seeking peace, Northern Zhou offered to return Chen Xu to Chen, and Emperor Wen, pleased, offered to trade the city of Lushan (魯山, in modern Wuhan, Hubei) for Chen Xu's release. Chen Xu returned to Chen in 562 and became a key official in Emperor Wen's administration. Initially, Northern Zhou continued to detain Chen Xu's wife Liu Jingyan and son Chen Shubao, but after further negotiations, Northern Zhou released them as well.

Meanwhile, Emperor Wen began to consider the problem of local warlordism—which rendered the modern Jiangxi, Fujian, and large parts of Zhejiang under warlord control and only nominally submissive to him. In spring 562, he tried to summon one of the key warlords, Zhou Di (周迪), to move from his base of Linchuan (臨川, in modern Fuzhou, Jiangxi), to Pencheng (湓城, in modern Jiujiang, Jiangxi). Zhou Di refused, and subsequently unsuccessfully attacked Emperor Wen's general Zhou Fu (周敷). Emperor Wen sent Wu Mingche to attack Zhou Di and sent Hou Andu against another warlord, Liu Yi (留異), who controlled modern southern Zhejiang. By summer 562, Hou had defeated Liu Yi, forcing him to flee to his son-in-law, Chen Baoying (陳寶應), who controlled modern Fujian. Wu, however, was unable to immediately defeat Zhou Di, and Emperor Wen sent Chen Xu to attack Zhou Di instead. In spring 563, Zhou Di's forces collapsed, and he fled to Chen Baoying as well. Chen Baoying, Liu Yi, and Zhou Di regrouped together and resisted Emperor Wen's forces and prepared to counterattack. Zhou soon began a guerrilla campaign, while Chen Baoying and Liu held out at Chen Baoying's headquarters at Jin'an (晉安, in modern Fuzhou, Fujian).

Meanwhile, Emperor Wen had become increasingly angry and suspicious of Hou Andu's arrogance and protection of his officers' misdeeds. In summer 563, he arrested Hou and forced him to commit suicide.

In summer 564, Zhou Di, after several successful battles, regained some of his following, and soon tricked and assassinated Zhou Fu. However, Emperor Wen's general Zhang Zhaoda (章昭達) was able to capture Jin'an. Chen Baoying and Liu fled but were captured and executed. By fall 565, Emperor Wen's general Cheng Lingxi (程靈洗) was able to defeat Zhou Di, who was subsequently betrayed by his own soldiers and killed. Emperor Wen had by now largely unified his state.

In summer 566, Emperor Wen grew ill. Fearing that Crown Prince Bozong was weak in personality and unable to serve competently as emperor, he offered to pass the throne to Chen Xu. Chen Xu himself declined, and the official Kong Huan (孔奐) also opposed. Emperor Wen therefore did not make Chen Xu crown prince instead, but entrusted the important matters to Chen Xu, Kong, Dao Zhongju (到仲舉), Yuan Shu (袁樞), and Liu Shizhi (劉師知). He soon died, and Crown Prince Bozong took the throne (as Emperor Fei).

The historian Yao Silian had this to say about Emperor Wen in his Book of Chen:

Shizu [Emperor Wen's temple name] grew up in difficult times, and he knew much about the people's suffering. He was observant of things and frugal in his lifestyle. Ever night, he would order his servants to open the door to his sleeping quarters, to bring in the emergency submissions so that he could review them. He also ordered that his guards, whenever they were to change shifts, should throw their shift plates on the stone steps so that they would be loud enough to wake him.

Era name

  • Tianjia (天嘉 tiān jiā) 560-566
  • Tiankang (天康 tiān kāng) 566

Family

  • Parents:
    • Chen Daotan (始興昭烈王 陳道譚), brother of Chen Baxian
  • Consorts and Issue:
  1. Lady Shen (安德皇后 沈氏; d. 605), personal name Miaorong (妙容)
    1. Chen Bozong (臨海王 陳伯宗; 552 – 570)
    2. Chen Bomao (溫麻侯 陳伯茂; 551 – 568)
  2. Lady Jiang (貴妃 江氏)
    1. Chen Bozhi (永陽王 陳伯智)
  3. Lady Kong (貴妃 孔氏)
    1. Chen Bomou (桂陽王 陳伯謀)
  4. Lady Yan (淑媛 嚴氏; d. 587)
    1. Chen Boshan (鄱陽王 陳伯山; 550 – 589)
    2. Chen Bogong (晉安王 陳伯恭)
  5. Lady Liu (昭華 劉氏)
    1. Chen Boxin (衡陽王 陳伯信; d. 589)
  6. Lady Han (修華 韓氏)
    1. Chen Boli (武陵王 陳伯禮)
  7. Lady Zhang (修容 張氏)
    1. Chen Boyi (江夏王 陳伯義; d. 589)
  8. Lady Pan (容華 潘氏)
    1. Chen Bogu (新安王 陳伯固; 555 – 582)
  9. Lady Wang (充華 王氏)
    1. Chen Boren (廬陵王 陳伯仁)
  10. Unknown
    1. Unnamed son
    2. Unnamed son
    3. Princess Feng'an (豐安公主)
    4. Princess Fuyang (富陽公主)

References

  1. ^ Bates, Roy (2008). "Chapter 7". 29 Chinese Mysteries. Beijing, China: TuDragon Books, Ltd. pp. 46–52.
  2. ^ Bates, Roy (2008). "Chapter 7". 29 Chinese Mysteries. Beijing, China: TuDragon Books, Ltd. pp. 46–52.
  3. ^ Bates, Roy (2008). "Chapter 7". 29 Chinese Mysteries. Beijing, China: TuDragon Books, Ltd. pp. 46–52.
  4. ^ Bates, Roy (2008). "Chapter 7". 29 Chinese Mysteries. Beijing, China: TuDragon Books, Ltd. pp. 46–52.
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Wu of Chen
Emperor of Chen Dynasty
559–566
Succeeded by
Emperor Fei of Chen
Emperor of China (Southeastern)
559–566
Preceded by
Xiao Zhuang of Liang Dynasty
Emperor of China (Eastern Hubei/Northern Jiangxi)
560–566
Preceded by
Emperor Xuan of Western Liang
Emperor of China (Hunan)
561–566
Chen Qian

Chen Qian may refer to:

Chen Qian (Jin dynasty) (陳騫), courtesy name Xiuyuan, Jin dynasty military general

Emperor Wen of Chen, named Chen Qian, emperor of the Chen dynasty

Chen Qian (handballer), female Chinese handballer

Chen Qian (pentathlete), female Chinese modern pentathlete

Chen Qian (swimmer), female Chinese swimmer

Chen Shubao

Chen Shubao (Chinese: 陳叔寶; pinyin: Chén Shúbǎo, 553–604), also known as the Final Lord of Chen (陳後主; Chén Hòuzhǔ), posthumous name Duke Yáng of Chángchéng (長城煬公; Chángchéng Yáng Gōng), courtesy name 元秀; Yuán Xiù), nickname 黃奴; Huángnú, was the last emperor of Chen China, which was conquered by Sui China.

At the time of his ascension, Chen was already facing military pressure by the Sui on multiple fronts, and, according to traditional historians, Chen Shubao was an incompetent ruler who was more interested in literature and women than in the affairs of the state.

In 589, Sui forces captured his capital, Jiankang, and captured him, ending Chen rule and unifying China after nearly three centuries of division that had started with the conquests of Emperor Hui of Jin. He was taken to the Sui capital Chang'an, where he was treated kindly by Emperor Wen of Sui until his death in 604, during the reign of Emperor Wen's son, Emperor Yang.

Chen dynasty

The Chen dynasty (simplified Chinese: 陈朝; traditional Chinese: 陳朝; pinyin: Chén Cháo; 557-589), also known as the Southern Chen dynasty, was the fourth and last of the Southern Dynasties in China, eventually destroyed by the Sui dynasty.

While it is said that Chen is the only dynasty named after the ruling house in Chinese history, this is in fact a coincidence. The founder of the dynasty, Chen Baxian, had been granted the title of "Prince of Chen", and on taking the throne he followed the Chinese practice of using his former princely title as the name of the new dynasty.

When the dynasty was founded by Emperor Wu, it was exceedingly weak, possessing only a small portion of the territory once held by its predecessor Liang dynasty—and that portion was devastated by wars that had doomed Liang. However, Emperor Wu's successors Emperor Wen and Emperor Xuan were capable rulers, and the state gradually solidified and strengthened, becoming roughly equal in power to rivals Northern Zhou and Northern Qi. After Northern Zhou took over Northern Qi in 577 and reunited the North, Chen was cornered. To make matters worse, its final emperor Chen Shubao was an incompetent and indulgent ruler, and Chen was eventually destroyed by Northern Zhou's successor state Sui.

During the short-lived dynasty, the Rau peoples to the south resumed raids against the region of Jiaozhi, perceiving the dynasty to be weak. The raids ended with the conquest of the Southern Chen by the Sui. The Sui general Yang Su suppressed various Chen rebels in campaigns during the early 590s.

Emperor Fei of Chen

Emperor Fei of Chen (陳廢帝) (554? – 570), personal name Chen Bozong (陳伯宗), courtesy name Fengye (奉業), nickname Yaowang (藥王), also known by his post-removal title of Prince of Linhai (臨海王), was an emperor of the Chinese Chen Dynasty. He was the son and heir of Emperor Wen, but after he came to the throne in 566, the imperial administration fell into infighting almost immediately. The victor, Emperor Fei's uncle Chen Xu, deposed Emperor Fei in winter 568 and took the throne himself.

Emperor Wen

Emperor Wen, Wendi, or the Wen Emperor may refer to:

King Wen of Zhou (1112 BC–1050 BC),

Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC–157 BC),

Emperor Wen of Wei (187–226), see Cao Pi

Emperor Wen of Jin (211–264), see Sima Zhao

Emperor Wen of Eastern Wu (223–253), see Sun He

Emperor Wen of Liu Song (40 –453)

Emperor Wen of Western Wei (507–551)

Emperor Wen of Northern Zhou (507–556), see Yuwen Tai

Emperor Wen of Chen (522–566)

Emperor Wen of Sui (541–604)

Emperor Wu of Chen

Emperor Wu of Chen (陳武帝) (503–559), personal name Chen Baxian (陳霸先), courtesy name Xingguo (興國), nickname Fasheng (法生), was the first emperor of the Chen dynasty of China. He first distinguished himself as a Liang dynasty general during the campaign against the rebel general Hou Jing, and he was progressively promoted. In 555, he seized power after a coup against his superior, the general Wang Sengbian, and in 557 he forced Emperor Jing to yield the throne to him, establishing the Chen dynasty. He died in 559, and as his only surviving son Chen Chang was held by Northern Zhou as a hostage, he was succeeded by his nephew Chen Qian (Emperor Wen).

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou ((北)周武帝) (543–578), personal name Yuwen Yong (宇文邕), nickname Miluotu (禰羅突), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou. As was the case of the reigns of his brothers Emperor Xiaomin and Emperor Ming, the early part of his reign was dominated by his cousin Yuwen Hu, but in 572 he ambushed Yuwen Hu and seized power personally. He thereafter ruled ably and built up the power of his military, destroying rival Northern Qi in 577 and annexing its territory. His death the next year, however, ended his ambitions of uniting China, and under the reign of his erratic son Emperor Xuan (Yuwen Yun), Northern Zhou itself soon deteriorated and was usurped by Yang Jian in 581.

Jiankang

Jiankang (Chinese: 建康; pinyin: Jiànkāng), or Jianye (建業; Jiànyè), as it was originally called, was the capital city of the Eastern Wu (229–265 and 266–280 CE), the Jin dynasty (317–420 CE) and the Southern Dynasties (420–552 and 557–589 CE). Its walls are extant ruins in the modern municipal region of Nanjing.

Military history of the Northern and Southern dynasties

The military history of the Northern and Southern dynasties encompasses the period of Chinese military activity from 420 to 589. Officially starting with Liu Yu's usurpation of the Jin throne and creation of his Liu Song dynasty in 420, it ended in 589 with the Sui dynasty's conquest of Chen dynasty and reunification of China. The first of the Northern dynasties did not however begin in 420, but in 386 with the creation of Northern Wei. Thus there is some unofficial overlap with the era of the Sixteen Kingdoms.

Northern and Southern dynasties

The Northern and Southern dynasties (Chinese: 南北朝; pinyin: Nán-Běi Cháo) was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states. It is sometimes considered as the latter part of a longer period known as the Six Dynasties (220 to 589). Though an age of civil war and political chaos, it was also a time of flourishing arts and culture, advancement in technology, and the spread of Mahayana Buddhism and Daoism. The period saw large-scale migration of Han Chinese to the lands south of the Yangtze. The period came to an end with the unification of all of China proper by Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty.

During this period, the process of sinicization accelerated among the non-Chinese arrivals in the north and among the indigenous people in the south. This process was also accompanied by the increasing popularity of Buddhism (introduced into China in the 1st century) in both northern and southern China and Daoism gaining influence as well, with two essential Daoist canons written during this period.

Notable technological advances occurred during this period. The invention of the stirrup during the earlier Jin dynasty (265–420) helped spur the development of heavy cavalry as a combat standard. Historians also note advances in medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and cartography. Intellectuals of the period include the mathematician and astronomer Zu Chongzhi (429–500).

Ruyi (scepter)

Ruyi (Chinese: 如意; literally: "as desired; as [you] wish") is a curved decorative object that serves as a ceremonial sceptre in Chinese Buddhism or a talisman symbolizing power and good fortune in Chinese folklore. A traditional ruyi has a long S-shaped handle and a head fashioned like a fist, cloud, or lingzhi mushroom. Ruyi are constructed from diverse materials. For example, the Palace Museum in Beijing has nearly 3000 ruyi that are variously made from valuable materials like gold, silver, iron, bamboo, wood, ivory, coral, rhinoceros horn, lacquer, crystal, jade, and precious gems. The "ruyi" image frequently appears as a motif in Asian art.

Shizu

Shizu may refer to:

Posthumously named "Shizu" (世祖 shì zǔ)Kublai Khan

Shunzhi Emperor

Emperor Wen of Chen

Emperor Wu of Southern Qi

Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi

Emperor Xiaowu of Liu Song

Liu Chong (Northern Han)

Helian Bobo

Murong Chui

Wanyan Helibo

Cao Pi

Li TePosthumously named "Shizu" (始祖 shǐzǔ)King Wen of Zhou

Tai SiFictional charactersShizu, a character from Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Summoner: Raidou Kuzunoha vs. The Soulless Army

Shizu (シズ), a character from the video game Suikoden III

Shizu Shidō (祇堂 静珠), a character from Maria Holic

Princess Shizu, a character from Legend of the Eight Samurai

Princess Shizu, a character from Shogun Iemitsu Shinobi TabiOtherShizu Station (disambiguation) (しづ , シズ), several train stations in Japan

Shizu Station (Chiba) (志津駅)

Shizu Station (Ibaraki) (静駅)

Spirit way

A spirit way (Chinese: 神道; pinyin: Shéndào) is the ornate road leading to a Chinese tomb of a major dignitary.

The term is also sometimes translated as spirit road, spirit path or sacred way.

The spirit way is lined on both sides by a succession of statues, pillars, and stelae. The statues along the spirit way depict real and mythical animals, as well as civilian and military officials.

Timeline of the Northern and Southern dynasties

This is a timeline of the Northern and Southern dynasties in China.

Wang Lin (general)

Wang Lin (526–573), courtesy name Ziheng (子珩), formally Prince Zhongwu of Baling (巴陵忠武王), was a general of the Chinese dynasties Liang Dynasty and Northern Qi. He initially became prominent during Emperor Yuan of Liang's campaign against the rebel general Hou Jing, and later, after Emperor Yuan was defeated and killed by Western Wei forces in 554, he maintained a separate center of power from the dominant general of the remaining Liang provinces, Chen Baxian. After Chen Baxian seized the Liang throne in 557 and established Chen Dynasty (as its Emperor Wu), Wang, with Northern Qi support, declared the Liang prince Xiao Zhuang emperor in 558, making Xiao Zhuang one of the three contestants for the Southern Dynasty throne, against Chen Baxian and Emperor Xuan of Western Liang, supported by Western Wei. In 560, while trying to attack Chen Baxian's nephew and successor Emperor Wen of Chen, Wang was defeated, and both he and Xiao Zhuang fled to Northern Qi. Wang subsequently served as a Northern Qi general, and during a major Chen offensive against Northern Qi in 573, he was captured by the Chen general Wu Mingche and executed.

Xiao Cha

Emperor Xuan of (Western) Liang ((西)梁宣帝; 519–562), personal name Xiao Cha (蕭詧), courtesy name Lisun (理孫), was the founding emperor of the Chinese Western Liang dynasty. He took the Liang throne under support from Western Wei after Western Wei forces had defeated and killed his uncle Emperor Yuan in 554, but many traditional historians, because he controlled little territory and relied heavily on military support by Western Wei and Western Wei's successor state Northern Zhou, did not consider him and his successors true emperors of Liang. Instead, their state is traditionally considered separate, as Western Liang (or Later Liang).

Xiao Kui

Emperor Ming of (Western) Liang ((西)梁明帝) (542–585), personal name Xiao Kui (蕭巋), courtesy name Renyuan (仁遠), was an emperor of the Chinese Western Liang dynasty. He, like his father Emperor Xuan and his son Emperor Jing, controlled little territory and relied heavily on military support from Northern Zhou and Northern Zhou's successor state Sui dynasty.

Xiao Zhuang

Xiao Zhuang (蕭莊) (548-577?), often known by his princely title of Prince of Yongjia (永嘉王), was a grandson of Emperor Yuan of Liang, who was declared by the general Wang Lin to be the legitimate emperor of Liang Dynasty in 558, under military assistance by Northern Qi. He thus was one of the three claimants to the Southern dynasties throne, competing with Emperor Xuan of Western Liang, who was supported by Northern Zhou, and Chen Dynasty's founder Emperor Wu of Chen and later his nephew Emperor Wen of Chen. In 560, with Wang Lin defeated by Chen troops, both Wang and Xiao Zhuang fled to Northern Qi, ending their rivalry with Chen and Western Liang. While Northern Qi emperors made promises to return Xiao Zhuang to the Liang throne, Northern Qi was never able to accomplish that promise, and Xiao Zhuang died shortly after Northern Qi's own destruction in 577.

Yan Liben

Yan Liben (Chinese: 閻立本; pinyin: Yán Lìběn; Wade–Giles: Yen Li-pen) (c. 600–673), formally Baron Wenzhen of Boling (博陵文貞男), was a Chinese architect, painter, and politician of the early Tang Dynasty. His most renowned work is the Thirteen Emperors Scroll. He also painted the Portraits at Lingyan Pavilion, under Emperor Taizong of Tang, commissioned in 643 to commemorate 24 of the greatest contributors to Emperor Taizong's reign, as well as 18 portraits commemorating the 18 great scholars who served Emperor Taizong when he was the Prince of Qin. Yan's paintings included painted portraits of various Chinese emperors from the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) up until the Sui Dynasty (581–618) period. His works were highly regarded by the Tang writers Zhu Jingxuan and Zhang Yanyuan, who noted his paintings were "works among the glories of all times".From the years 669 to 673, Yan Liben also served as a chancellor under Emperor Taizong's son Emperor Gaozong (r. 649–683).

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