Emperor Kōmyō

Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇 Kōmyō Tennō) (January 11, 1322 – July 26, 1380) was the second of the Emperors of Northern Court, although he was the first to be supported by the Ashikaga Bakufu. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1336 through 1348.[1]

Kōmyō
Emperor Kōmyō
2nd Northern Emperor
Reign1336–1348
PredecessorKōgon
SuccessorSukō
BornJanuary 11, 1322
DiedJuly 26, 1380 (aged 58)
FatherEmperor Go-Fushimi
MotherSaionji (Fujiwara) Neishi

Genealogy

His personal name was Yutahito (豊仁), second son of Emperor Go-Fushimi. His mother was Neishi (寧子), the daughter of Saionji Kinhira (西園寺公衡)

  • Naishi: Ogimachi Sanjo Sanemi’s daughter
    • daughter: Jogakuin-dono (長照院; d.1422)
    • daughter
  • Naishi: Mikawa-no-kami’s daughter
    • son: Shuson (周尊)

Events of Kōmyō's life

In his own lifetime, Kōmyō and those around him believed that he occupied the Chrysanthemum Throne from September 20, 1336 to November 18, 1348.

When Ashikaga Takauji rebelled against Emperor Go-Daigo's Kenmu Restoration and entered Kyōto in 1336, Go-Daigo fled to Enryaku-ji on Mount Hiei. Despite lacking the sacred treasures, Prince Yutahito was enthroned as emperor, beginning the Northern Court. On the 12th month, 21st day, Go-Daigo escaped to Yoshino, founding the Southern Court.

On November 18, 1348, he abdicated in favor of the eldest son of his older brother, the former claimant to the throne Emperor Kōgon, who became Emperor Sukō.

In April 1352, taking advantage of the Kan'ō Disturbance, a family feud in the Ashikaga clan, the Southern Emperor Emperor Go-Murakami entered Kyoto, capturing it and carrying away Kōmyō along with Emperor Kōgon, Emperor Sukō, and the Crown Prince Tadahito. They all ended up finally in Anau, the location of the Southern Court.[2]

In the Shōhei Reunification, Kōmyō and his companions were placed under house arrest in Yamato Province, in what is today the village of Nishiyoshino, Yoshino District, Nara. In 1355, returning to Kyōto, he entered a monastery.

  • July 26, 1380 (Kōryaku 2, 24th day of the 6th month): The former emperor died at age 60.[3]

Eras of Kōmyō's reign

The years of Kōmyō's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[4]

Nanboku-chō Northern court
Nanboku-chō Southern court

Southern Court Rivals

Notes

Imperial Seal of Japan
Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
  1. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 294–295.
  2. ^ Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334-1615. Stanford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 0804705259.
  3. ^ Titsingh, p. 315.
  4. ^ Titsingh, p. 294.

References

See also

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Kōgon
Northern Emperor
1336–1348
Succeeded by
Emperor Sukō
1322 in Japan

Events in the year 1322 in Japan.

1380 in Japan

Events in the year 1380 in Japan.

Emperor Go-Kōmyō

Emperor Go-Kōmyō (後光明天皇, Go-Kōmyō-tennō, April 20, 1633 – October 30, 1654) was the 110th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Go-Kōmyō's reign spanned the years from 1643 through 1654.This 17th-century sovereign was named after the 14th-century Nanboku-chō Emperor Kōmyō and go- (後), translates as later, and thus, he could be called the "Later Emperor Kōmyō". The Japanese word go has also been translated to mean the second one, and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Kōmyō, the second", or as Kōmyō II".

Emperor Kōgon

Emperor Kōgon (光厳天皇 Kōgon-tennō) (August 1, 1313 – August 5, 1364) was the first of the Emperors of Northern Court during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan. His reign spanned the years from 1331 through 1333.

Emperor Sukō

Emperor Sukō (崇光天皇, Sukō Tennō) (May 25, 1334 – January 31, 1398) was the third of Emperors of Northern Court during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1348 through 1351.

Enbun

Enbun (延文), also transcribed Embun, was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Bunna and before Kōan. This period spanned the years from March 1356 through March 1361; The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Go-Kōgon (後光厳天皇, Go-Kōgon-tennō). Go-Kōgon's Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Go-Murakami (後村上天皇, Go-Murakami-tennō)

Engen

Engen (延元) was a Japanese era of the Southern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kenmu and before Kōkoku, lasting from February 1336 to April 1340. Reigning Emperors were Emperor Go-Daigo and Emperor Go-Murakami in the south and Emperor Kōmyō in the north.

Jōwa (Muromachi period)

Jōwa (貞和) was a Japanese era or nengō which was promulgated by the more militarily powerful of two Imperial rival courts during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts (南北朝時代, nanbokuchō jidai). This nengō came after Kōei and before Kannō and lasting from October 1345 through February 1350. The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇, Kōmyō-tennō). Go-Kōgon's Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Go-Murakami (後村上天皇, Go-Murakami-tennō).

Kenmu

Kenmu (建武) was a Japanese era name of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Shōkei and before Ryakuō. Although Kemmu is understood by the Southern Court as having begun at the same time, the era was construed to have begun after Genkō and before Engen.

This period spanned the years from January 1334 through August 1338 in the North, and until only February 1336 in the Southern Court. Reigning Emperors were Emperor Go-Daigo in the south and Emperor Kōmyō in the north.

Kōei

Kōei (康永) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Ryakuō and before Jōwa. This period spanned the years from April 1342 to October 1345. The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇, Kōmyō-tennō). Go-Kōgon's Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Go-Murakami (後村上天皇, Go-Murakami-tennō).

Kōkoku

Kōkoku (興国) was a Japanese era of the Southern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Engen and before Shōhei, lasting from April 1340 to December 1346. The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇, Kōmyō-tennō). Go-Kōgon's Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Go-Murakami (後村上天皇, Go-Murakami-tennō).

Kōryaku

Kōryaku (康暦) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Eiwa and before Eitoku. This period spanned the years from March 1379 through February 1381. The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Go-En'yū (後円融天皇, Go-En'yū-tennō) The Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Chōkei (長慶天皇, Chōkei-tennō).

Northern Court

The Northern Court (北朝, hokuchō), also known as the Ashikaga Pretenders or Northern Pretenders, were a set of six pretenders to the throne of Japan during the Nanboku-chō period from 1336 through 1392. The present Japanese Imperial Family is descended of the Northern Court emperors.

The Northern dynasty is also referred to as the "senior line" or the Jimyōin line (持明院統, Jimyōin-tō); Jimyō-in was a temple and retirement residence of this line's emperors Go-Fukakusa and Fushimi.

Prince Narinaga

Prince Narinaga (成良親王, Narinaga Shinnō, also called Prince Nariyoshi) (1326 – c. 1337–44) reigned from 1334 to 1338 and was one of two Sei-i Taishōguns during the Kenmu Restoration. He was also Crown Prince in 1336 (one month).

He was a son of the Emperor Go-Daigo and Fujiwara no Renshi (Ano Renshi) (藤原廉子/阿野廉子), daughter of Ano Kinkado. His brothers-uterine were Crown Prince Tsunenaga and Emperor Go-Murakami.

On 17 November 1336 Prince Narinaga became Crown Prince to Emperor Kōmyō. However, Ashikaga Takauji had the prince killed in 1337 when Go-Daigo continued to resist.Alternatively, Narinaga was placed with Konoe Mototsugu after deposal and died in 1344 (according to Diary by Nakahara no Moromori, 師守記).

Ryakuō

Ryakuō (暦応) was a Japanese era of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts, lasting from August 1338 to April 1342. The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇, Kōmyō-tennō). Go-Kōgon's Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Go-Murakami (後村上天皇, Go-Murakami-tennō).

Sesshō and Kampaku

In Japan, Sesshō (摂政) was a title given to a regent who was named to act on behalf of either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress regnant. The Kanpaku (関白) was theoretically a sort of chief advisor for the emperor, but was the title of both first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor. During a certain period in the Heian era, they were the effective rulers of Japan. There was little, if any, effective difference between the two titles, and several individuals merely changed titles as child emperors grew to adulthood, or adult emperors retired or died and were replaced by child emperors. The two titles were collectively known as Sekkan (摂関), and the families that exclusively held the titles were called Sekkan-ke or Sekkan family. After the Heian era, shogunates took over the power.

Both sesshō and kanpaku were styled as denka (or tenga in historical pronunciation; 殿下; translated as ‘’(Imperial) Highness’’), as were imperial princes and princesses.

A retired kanpaku is called Taikō (太閤), which came to commonly refer to Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Shōhei

Shōhei (正平) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Southern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kōkoku and before Kentoku. This period spanned the years from December 1346 to July 1370. The Southern Court emperors in Yoshino were Emperor Go-Murakami (後村上天皇, Go-Murakami-tennō) and Emperor Chōkei (長慶天皇, Chōkei-tennō). The emperors in Kyoto were Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇, Kōmyō-tennō), Emperor Sukō (崇光天皇, Sukō-tennō) and Emperor Go-Kōgon (後光厳天皇, Go-Kōgon-tennō) in the north.

Southern Court

The Southern Court (南朝, Nanchō) were a set of four emperors (Emperor Go-Daigo and his line) whose claims to sovereignty during the Nanboku-chō period spanning from 1336 through 1392 were usurped by the Northern Court. This period ended with the Southern Court definitively losing the war, and they were forced to completely submit sovereignty to the Northern Court. This had the result that, while later Japanese sovereigns were descended from the Northern Court, posterity assigns sole legitimacy during this period to the Southern Court.

The Southern descendants are also known as the "junior line" and the Daikakuji line (大覚寺統, Daikakuji-tō), Daikaku-ji being the cloistered home of Go-Uda, a Southern ruler. Because it was based in Yoshino, Nara, it is also called the Yoshino court (吉野朝廷, Yoshino chōtei).

Tenju

Tenju (天授) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Southern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Bunchū and before Kōwa. This period spanned the years from May 1375 to February 1381. The Southern Court emperor in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Chōkei (長慶天皇, Chōkei-tennō). The Northern court emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Go-En'yū (後円融天皇, Go-En'yū-tennō).

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