Emperor Jianwen of Liang

Emperor Jianwen of Liang (梁簡文帝) (2 December 503 – 551[1]), personal name Xiao Gang (蕭綱), courtesy name Shizuan (世纘), nickname Liutong (六通), was an emperor of the Chinese Liang Dynasty. He was initially not the crown prince of his father Emperor Wu, the founder of the dynasty, but became the crown prince in 531 after his older brother Xiao Tong died. In 549, the rebellious general Hou Jing captured the capital Jiankang, and Hou subsequently held both Emperor Wu and Crown Prince Gang under his power, having Crown Prince Gang take the throne (as Emperor Jianwen) after Emperor Wu's death later that year. During Emperor Jianwen's reign, he was almost completely under Hou's control, and in 551, Hou, planning to take the throne himself, first forced Emperor Jianwen to yield the throne to his grandnephew Xiao Dong the Prince of Yuzhang, and then sent messengers to suffocate the former emperor.

Xiao Gang
Emperor of the Liang Dynasty
Reign549–551
PredecessorEmperor Wu
SuccessorXiao Dong
Born2 December 503
Died551 (aged 51–52)
Full name
Family name: Xiāo (蕭)
Given name: Gāng (綱)
Posthumous name
Jiǎnwéndì (簡文帝),
literal meaning: "The Approachable and Civil Emperor"
Míngdì (明帝),
literary meaning: "The Understanding Emperor"
Temple name
Tàizōng (太宗)
Gāozōng (高宗)[note 1]
HouseLanling Xiao
FatherXiao Yan
MotherDing Lingguang

Background

Xiao Gang was born in 503, as the third son of Emperor Wu. His mother Consort Ding Lingguang (丁令光) also gave birth to Emperor Wu's firstborn son and crown prince Xiao Tong, and therefore carried a special status within his palace even though she was never empress. In 506, at the age of three, Xiao Gang was created the Prince of Jin'an. As he grew in age, he was given a number of progressively higher offices. In 526, when Consort Ding died, he resigned those offices to observe a mourning period for her, but Emperor Wu restored him to those offices before the mourning period was over.

Consort Ding's death would bring about a disastrous effect in the relationship between Xiao Gang's father Emperor Wu and Xiao Gang's brother Xiao Tong. Xiao Tong sought out an appropriate place to bury Consort Ding, but while he was doing so, a land owner bribed the eunuch Yu Sanfu (俞三副) into convincing Emperor Wu that that piece of land would bring good fortune for the emperor, and so Emperor Wu bought the land and buried Consort Ding there. However, once Consort Ding was buried, a Taoist monk informed Xiao Tong that he believed that the land would bring ill fortune for Consort Ding's oldest son—Xiao Tong. Xiao Tong therefore allowed the monk to bury a few items intended to dissolve the ill fortune, such as wax ducks, at the position reserved for the oldest son. Later on, when one of Xiao Tong's attendants, Bao Miaozhi (鮑邈之), was squeezed out of Xiao Tong's inner circles by another attendant, Wei Ya (魏雅), he, in resentment, reported to Emperor Wu that Wei had carried out sorcery on Xiao Tong's behalf. When Emperor Wu investigated, waxed ducks were found, and Emperor Wu became surprised and angry, and wanted to investigate further. He only stopped the investigation when he was advised to do so by the prime minister Xu Mian, executing only the Taoist monk who had suggested the burial of wax ducks. Xiao Tong became humiliated in the affair, and was never able to clear himself completely in his father's eyes.

Xiao Tong died in 531. Under Confucian rules of succession, his oldest son Xiao Huan (蕭歡) the Duke of Huarong was expected to succeed him as crown prince, and Emperor Wu summoned Xiao Huan back to the capital Jiankang in order to do so. However, still resentful over the wax duck affair, he hesitated for days without carrying out the creation, and finally did not do so. Instead, against popular opinion, he created Xiao Gang, his then-surviving oldest son, crown prince. Xiao Gang's staff advisor Zhou Hongzheng (周弘正) wrote a memo to Xiao Gang advising him to decline the creation, but Xiao Gang did not do so, although he subsequently avenged Xiao Tong's disgrace by executing Bao Miaozhi.

As crown prince

As crown prince, Xiao Gang was a distinguished poet, as well as patron of the poets Liu Zun and Xu Li (徐攡), as well as Xu Ling, the anthologist of New Songs from the Jade Terrace. The poem "Multitudinous Blossoms" by Liu Zun describes the luxurious but ultimately pitiful life of a professional male prostitute.[2] One of the crown prince's own poems describes a languid life of lolling on an ivory inlaid bed, surrounded by feather curtains, with a male lover.[note 2] Given his own writing, some have asserted that Xiao Gang was homosexual. Others have pointed to the numerous children claimed by him later in life as evidence of heterosexuality. There is no way to prove either assertion, and the notion of a powerful man pointedly limiting himself to one gender or the other would in fact have been alien in a culture where class hierarchy affected male sex lives far more than the genders of their partners.[3] The poet Xu's writing style became known as "palace style", and initially, Emperor Wu was displeased about this development, but once Emperor Wu met Xu, he was impressed by Xu's talents, and became a patron of Xu himself as well.

It is unclear whether Xiao Gang carried out much decision-making duties in the imperial administration, as Xiao Tong did before his death. As Emperor Wu aged, Xiao Gang's younger brothers Xiao Xu (蕭續) the Prince of Luling, Xiao Guan (蕭綸) the Prince of Shaoling, Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, and Xiao Ji the Prince of Wuling grew less obedient of his edicts, and effectively exercised imperial powers in their provincial domains. Fearing that his brothers would seize power, Xiao Gang selected elite troops to be the palace guards for the crown prince's palace. He honored Taoist philosophies, and often lectured on the Tao Te Ching and the Zhuangzi.

In 547, the Eastern Wei general Hou Jing, in a conflict with the new regent Gao Cheng, surrendered the 13 provinces (the region between the Yellow River and the Huai River) to Liang, seeking aid from Liang. However, both Xiao Gang's cousin Xiao Yuanming the Marquess of Zhenyang, and Hou himself, were defeated by the Eastern Wei general Murong Shaozong (慕容紹宗). Xiao Yuanming was captured, while Hou fled and, surprising the Liang governor of Southern Yu Province (南豫州, modern central Anhui), Wei An (韋黯), seized the key city Shouyang (壽陽, in modern Lu'an, Anhui), the capital of Southern Yu Province. Instead of punishing Hou, however, Emperor Wu allowed him to serve as the governor of Southern Yu Province. It is unclear whether Xiao Gang was involved in making these decisions, but he was clearly informed about them, as he revealed these decisions to his assistant He Jingrong (何敬容).

Soon, however, Hou, believing that Emperor Wu, who engaged in peace talks with Eastern Wei and appeared to be willing to betray him to exchange for Xiao Yuanming, rebelled in summer 548. Hou's army quickly advanced on Jiankang, assisted by Xiao Gang's cousin Xiao Zhengde the Prince of Linhe, putting Jiankang under siege. Emperor Wu put Xiao Gang in charge of the defenses, but Xiao Gang was unsuccessful in preventing the outer city from falling. The imperial troops were forced to withdraw into the palace. When Hou then claimed that it was the corrupt official Zhu Yi that he wanted to kill, Xiao Gang confirmed that Zhu was indeed corrupt, but advised against executing Zhu in that it would serve nothing in the campaign against Hou. Soon, Hou declared Xiao Zhengde emperor. While provincial troops gathered near Jiankang to try to relieve the besieged palace, those troops, commanded by Liu Zhongli (柳仲禮) and Xiao Guan, were unsuccessful, and ultimately, after Liu was nearly killed in a battle, Liu refused to engage Hou any further, leaving the palace troops to fend for themselves. (Xiao Yi and Xiao Ji, although they each had large numbers of troops in their domains, largely stood and sent only token troops.) In winter 548, Hou's general Fan Taobang (范桃棒) offered to rebel against Hou, and while Emperor Wu was initially in favor of the idea, Xiao Gang spoke against it, and it was not carried out. Soon, Fan was killed by Hou, and an opportunity was lost.

In spring 549, Xiao Gang tried to negotiate peace with Hou, whose troops had by then tired. Hou initially agreed—with the terms being that he would be given the provinces west of the Yangtze River. However, Hou soon reneged on the peace agreement and resumed the siege of the palace. Soon, the palace fell, and Emperor Wu and Xiao Gang were effectively taken as hostages, although Hou continued to formally honor them as emperor and crown prince, despite his earlier agreement with Xiao Zhengde to have them killed. (Hou soon deposed Xiao Zhengde and killed him.) Xiao Gang's attendants all fled, except for Xu Li and Yin Buhai (殷不害). The provincial troops which had come to Jiankang's aid were disbanded, and Hou was now in control of the capital region.

Meanwhile, Emperor Wu, while he was under Hou's control, was unwilling to yield, and he refused to carry out some of the acts that Hou wanted him to. Xiao Gang tried to urge Emperor Wu to follow Hou's requests, but Emperor Wu refused. Hou put Emperor Wu under closer guard, and Emperor Wu, in anger, soon grew ill and died. (Some historians believe that Hou starved Emperor Wu to death.) Xiao Gang did not dare to weep for Emperor Wu's death, and Hou made him emperor to succeed Emperor Wu (as Emperor Jianwen).

As emperor

Emperor Jianwen was formally recognized by the governors of the provinces not under Hou's control, but they saw his edicts as coerced and not binding on them, and they continued to resist Hou, and yet at the same time fought each other for territorial control and were largely ineffective when Hou attacked them, allowing Hou to seize additional territory. Eastern Wei (and its successor state Northern Qi, established in 550 as Gao Cheng's brother Gao Yang seized the throne from Emperor Xiaojing) largely seized the Liang provinces north of the Yangtze. Emperor Jianwen himself tried to foster a relationship with Hou, to ensure his own safety, and in 550, he married his daughter the Princess Liyang to Hou as Hou's wife. Hou favored the princess greatly, and for the time being, the emperor appeared safe. He created his oldest son Xiao Daqi crown prince. However, Hou still kept the emperor under heavy guard, and only several officials, including his cousin Xiao Zi (蕭諮) the Marquess of Wulin, Wang Ke (王克), and Yin Buhai were allowed to see him. Meanwhile, most of the provincial governors eventually accepted the command of Emperor Jianwen's brother Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, the governor of Jing Province (荊州, modern western Hubei).

In summer 550, Hou sent his general Ren Yue (任約) to try to conquer the central empire. Ren first defeated and captured Emperor Jianwen's son Xiao Daxin (蕭大心) the Prince of Xunyang and governor of Jiang Province (江州, modern central and northern Jiangxi), and then continued on to try to attack Xiao Yi's territory. When Ren was unable to prevail against Xiao Yi's general Xu Wensheng (徐文盛), and Hou himself commanded a force to aid Ren. In winter 550, while Hou was away from Jiankang, Emperor Jianwen's nephew Xiao Huili (蕭會理) plotted with his brother Xiao Aili (蕭乂理), the general Liu Jingli (柳敬禮), and Emperor Jianwen's cousins Xiao Quan (蕭勸) the Marquess of Xixiang and Xiao Mian (蕭勔) the Marquess of Dongxiang, to start a rebellion at Jiankang and overthrow Hou Jing's lieutenant Wang Wei. The plot was discovered, however, and Xiao Huili and his coconspirators were executed by Wang. While Wang could not show that Emperor Jianwen was involved, Hou and Wang became even more suspicious of Emperor Jianwen thereafter. In fear, Wang Ke and Yin stopped seeing the emperor, but Xiao Zi continued. In response, Hou had Xiao Zi assassinated. Emperor Jianwen believed that eventually he would be killed as well, and he commented as such to Yin.

Removal and death

In summer 551, Hou was again aiding Ren, taking Xiao Daqi with him as hostage. Initially, with Hou backing him, Ren took the important city of Jiangxia (江夏, in modern Wuhan, Hubei), and Hou next approached Xiao Yi's headquarters at Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei). However, Hou's forces then became bogged down while trying to siege Baling (巴陵, in modern Yueyang, Hunan), with Xiao Yi's general Wang Sengbian successfully defending Baling. Soon, Hou's food supplies ran out, and his forces collapsed. Ren was captured, and two other key generals, Song Zixian (宋子仙) and Ding He (丁和) were killed. Hou fled back to Jiankang.

Hou, believing that his days of power might be numbered, wanted to become emperor. Meanwhile, Wang had disputes with Emperor Jianwen's daughter Princess Liyang, and believing that she would eventually harm him, persuaded Hou that he should remove the emperor to show off his power. In fall 551, Hou deposed Emperor Jianwen and demoted him back to the title of Prince of Jin'an, and made Xiao Huan's son Xiao Dong the Prince of Yuzhang emperor. Hou had all of Emperor Jianwen's sons who were under his control, including Xiao Daqi the Crown Prince, executed. (He soon regretted these actions, and considered restoring Emperor Jianwen to the throne and making Xiao Dong crown prince, but Wang persuaded him not to do so.) He put Emperor Jianwen under house arrest.

During the house arrest period, Emperor Jianwen, filled with sadness and fear, wrote several hundred poems—and because he was not given paper to write on, wrote the poems on the walls and screens of his residence. Less than two months after Emperor Jianwen's removal, Wang persuaded Hou that Emperor Jianwen must be removed, and Hou sent Wang, Peng Jun (彭雋), and Wang Xiuzuan (王修纂) to visit Emperor Jianwen one night. Emperor Jianwen, knowing what their intentions were, feasted and drank with them, becoming very intoxicated. Once he fell asleep, they suffocated him, and then placed him in a makeshift casket, storing the casket in a brewery. In 552, after Wang Sengbian captured Jiankang, he had Emperor Jianwen's casket placed in the palace and then buried with imperial honors.

Era name

  • Dabao (大寶 dà bǎo) 550-551

Family

  • Parents:
    • Xiao Yan (武皇帝 蕭衍; 464 – 549)
    • Lady Ding (穆皇太后 丁氏; 484 – 526), personal name Lingguang (令光)
  • Consorts and Issue:
  1. Lady Wang of Langxie (簡文簡皇后 琅邪王氏; 505 – 549), personal name Lingbin (靈賓)
    1. Xiao Daqi (哀皇太子 蕭大器; 524 – 551)
    2. Xiao Dalian (南王 蕭大連; 527 – 551)
    3. Princess Changshan (長山公主), personal name Miaohong (妙纮)
  2. Lady Zuo (夫人 左氏; d. 537)
    1. Xiao Dalin (南海王 蕭大臨; 527 – 551)
    2. Xiao Dachun (安陸王 蕭大春; 530 – 551)
  3. Lady Xie (夫人 謝氏)
    1. Xiao Daya (瀏陽公 蕭大雅; 533 – 549)
  4. Lady Zhang (夫人 張氏)
    1. Xiao Dazhuang (新興王 蕭大莊; 534 – 551)
  5. Lady Fan (夫人 范氏)
    1. Xiao Dawei (武寧王 蕭大威; 539 – 551)
  6. Lady Chen (夫人 陳氏; d. 544)
    1. Xiao Daxin (義安王 蕭大昕; 541 – 551)
  7. Lady Zhu (夫人 朱氏)
    1. Xiao Dazhi (綏建王 蕭大摯; 542 – 551)
  8. Lady Fan (淑妃 范氏)
    1. Princess Liyang (溧陽公主; b. 536), m. Hou Jing
  9. Lady Chen (淑容 陳氏)
    1. Xiao Daxin (潯陽王 蕭大心; 523 – 551)
  10. Lady Bao (昭華 包氏)
    1. Xiao Dajun (西陽王 蕭大鈞; 539 – 551)
  11. Lady Chu (修華 褚氏)
    1. Xiao Daqiu (建平王 蕭大球; 541 – 551)
  12. Lady Pan (美人 潘氏)
    1. Xiao Daxun (蕭大訓; 540 – 549)
  13. Unknown
    1. Xiao Dakuan (臨川王 蕭大款)
    2. Unnamed son
    3. Xiao Dacheng (桂陽王 蕭大成; b. 531)
    4. Xiao Dafeng (汝南王 蕭大封; b. 531)
    5. Unnamed son
    6. Unnamed son
    7. Xiao Dahuan (晉熙王 蕭大圜; 542 – 581)
    8. Princess Nansha (南沙公主)
    9. Princess Yuyao (餘姚公主)
    10. Unnamed daughter
    11. Unnamed daughter
    12. Unnamed daughter
    13. Unnamed daughter
    14. Princess Haiyan (海鹽公主)
    15. Unnamed daughter
    16. Princess Anyang (安陽公主)

Notes

  1. ^ Hou Jing separately gave him the posthumous name of Emperor Ming (明帝, literally "the bright/understanding emperor") with the temple name Gaozong (高宗), but neither was recognized by other Liang potentates or later historians.
  2. ^ The poem 《孌童》 itself, lacking any personal pronouns, is ambiguous as to whether it was the male prostitute himself enjoying the items, or another unnamed person enjoying the items and the prostitute.

References

Citations

  1. ^ Knechtges, David; Chang, Taiping (2014). Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature (vol.3 & 4), p. 1483. BRILL, Leiden-Boston. ISBN 9789004267886 E-ISBN 9789004271852.
  2. ^ Hinsch, Bret. (1990). Passions of the Cut Sleeve. University of California Press. pp. 72–73.
  3. ^ Hinsch, Bret. (1990). Passions of the Cut Sleeve. University of California Press. p. 10

Sources

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Wu of Liang
Emperor of Liang Dynasty
549–551
Succeeded by
Xiao Dong (Prince of Yuzhang)
503

Year 503 (DIII) was a [[common

ndar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Volusianus and Dixicrates (or, less frequently, year 1256 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 503 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Dabao

Dabao may refer to:

Da Bao, a large Chinese steamed bun

Daqiu

Daqiu may refer to:

Daqiu Village (大丘村), Anping, Lianyuan, Loudi, Hunan

Daqiu Village (大坵村), Jiuru, Pingtung, Taiwan

Daqiu Village (大丘里), Liujia District, Tainan, Taiwan

Daqiu Islet (大坵嶼) or Greater Qiu Islet, Wuqiu, Kinmen, FujianPeople and fictional characters with the given name Daqiu include:

Li Daqiu (born 1953), Chinese politician

Xiao Daqiu (蕭大球; 541–551), a descendant of Emperor Jianwen of Liang

Zhou Daqiu, character in the 2005 Singaporean television drama Portrait of Home

December 2

December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 29 days remaining until the end of the year.

Early medieval literature

See also: Ancient literature, 10th century in literature, list of years in literature.

This article presents a list of the historical events and publications of literature during the 6th through 9th Centuries.

The list is chronological, and does not include epigraphy or poetry.

For poetry, see: 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th century in poetry. For early epigraphy, see List of languages by first written accounts.

During this period, a number of classical languages inherited from earlier epochs remain in active use (Chinese, Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, Persian, Hebrew).

The same period also sees the rise of newly written vernaculars, partly replacing earlier literary languages (e.g. Old Hindi, Old French, Arabic, Germanic, Celtic, Turkic, etc.).

Literary Chinese in Tang China

Classical Sanskrit in the Middle kingdoms of India

Latin in Christian Europe

Greek in the Byzantine Empire

Middle Persian literature of the late Sassanid period

Tiberian Hebrew as written by the Masoretes

Classical Arabic in the Islamic Caliphate

Classical Armenian literature of Medieval Armenia

Old Georgian literature

Old Turkic manuscript tradition, from the 8th century

early Japanese literature, from the 8th century (Nara period)

early Ge'ez literature

early Dravidian (Kannada, Tamil, etc.) literature in South India

early Celtic manuscript traditions (Old Irish, Old Welsh)

early Germanic (Old High German, Old English, Old Saxon, Old Norse) literature, from the 8th century

Old Church Slavonic, from the 9th century

Emperor Fei of Chen

Emperor Fei of Chen (陳廢帝) (554? – 570), personal name Chen Bozong (陳伯宗), courtesy name Fengye (奉業), nickname Yaowang (藥王), also known by his post-removal title of Prince of Linhai (臨海王), was an emperor of the Chinese Chen Dynasty. He was the son and heir of Emperor Wen, but after he came to the throne in 566, the imperial administration fell into infighting almost immediately. The victor, Emperor Fei's uncle Chen Xu, deposed Emperor Fei in winter 568 and took the throne himself.

Emperor Jianwen

Emperor Jianwen may refer to:

Emperor Jianwen of Jin (320–372, reigned 371–372), Jin dynasty emperor

Emperor Jianwen of Liang (503–551, reigned 549–551), Liang dynasty emperor

Jianwen Emperor (1377–1402, reigned 1398–1402), Ming dynasty emperor

Emperor Wu of Liang

Emperor Wu of Liang (梁武帝) (464–549), personal name Xiao Yan (蕭衍), courtesy name Shuda (叔達), nickname Lian'er (練兒), was the founding emperor of the Liang Dynasty of Chinese history. His reign, until the end, was one of the most stable and prosperous during the Southern Dynasties. He came from the same family that ruled Southern Qi, but from a different branch.

Emperor Wu created universities and extending the Confucian civil service exams, demanding that sons of nobles study. He was well read himself and wrote poetry and patronized the arts. Although for governmental affairs he was Confucian in values, he embraced Buddhism as well. He himself was attracted to many Indian traditions. He banned the sacrifice of animals and was against execution. It was said that he received the Buddhist precepts during his reign, earning him the nickname The Bodhisattva Emperor. The Emperor is the namesake of the Emperor Liang Jeweled Repentance (梁皇寳懺), a widely read and major Buddhist text in China and Korea.

At the end of his reign, his overly lenient attitude on his clan's and officials' corruption and lack of dedication to the state came at a heavy price; when the general Hou Jing rebelled, few came to his aid, and Hou captured the capital Jiankang, holding Emperor Wu and his successor Emperor Jianwen under close control and plunging the entire Liang state into anarchy. Emperor Liang himself died while under house arrest, with some historians believing that Hou starved him to death.

Fu (poetry)

Fu (Chinese: 賦), often translated as "rhapsody" or "poetic exposition", is a form of Chinese rhymed prose that was the dominant literary form during the Han dynasty (206 BC – AD 220). Fu are intermediary pieces between poetry and prose in which a place, object, feeling, or other subject is described and rhapsodized in exhaustive detail and from as many angles as possible. Classical fu composers attempted to use as wide a vocabulary as they could, and often included great numbers of rare and archaic words in their compositions. Fu poems employ alternating rhyme and prose, varying line length, close alliteration, onomatopoeia, loose parallelism, and extensive cataloging of their topics.Unlike the songs of the Classic of Poetry (Shijing 詩經) or the Verses of Chu (Chu ci 楚辭), fu were meant to be recited aloud or chanted but not sung. The fu genre came into being around the 3rd to 2nd centuries BC and continued to be regularly used into the Song dynasty (960–1279). Fu were used as grand praises for the imperial courts, palaces, and cities, but were also used to write "fu on things", in which any place, object, or feeling was rhapsodized in exhaustive detail. The largest collections of historical fu are the Selections of Refined Literature (Wen xuan 文選), the Book of Han (Han shu 漢書), the New Songs from the Jade Terrace (Yutai xinyong 玉臺新詠), and official dynastic histories.

There is no counterpart or similar form to the fu genre in Western literature. During a large part of the 20th century, fu poetry was harshly criticized by Chinese scholars as excessively ornate, lacking in real emotion, and ambiguous in its moral messages. Because of these historical associations, scholarship on fu poetry in China almost ceased entirely between 1949 and the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976. Since then, study of fu has gradually returned to its previous level.

Gao Cheng

Gao Cheng (Chinese: 高澄; 521–549), courtesy name Zihui (子惠), formally Prince Wenxiang of Bohai (勃海文襄王), later further posthumously honored by Northern Qi as Emperor Wenxiang (文襄皇帝) with the temple name Shizong (世宗), was the paramount official of the Chinese/Xianbei state Eastern Wei, a branch successor state of Northern Wei. He was Gao Huan's oldest son, and because his father wielded actual power during Emperor Xiaojing's reign, Gao Cheng also received increasingly great authority, and after his father's death in 547 took over the reign of the state. He was considered capable but frivolous and arrogant, as well as lacking in sexual discretion. In 549, he was assassinated by his servant Lan Jing (蘭京), and his younger brother Gao Yang took over the control over the Eastern Wei regime.

Hou Jing

Hou Jing (Chinese: 侯景; pinyin: Hóu Jǐng; died 552), courtesy name Wanjing (萬景), was a general of the Chinese dynasties Northern Wei, Eastern Wei, and Liang, and briefly, after controlling the Liang imperial regime for several years, usurped the Liang throne, establishing a state of Han. He was soon defeated by the Liang prince Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, and he was killed by his own associates while in flight. He was one of the reviled figures in Chinese history, known for his exceeding cruelty to enemies and civilians.

Liang dynasty

The Liang dynasty (Chinese: 梁朝; pinyin: Liáng cháo) (502–557), also known as the Southern Liang dynasty (南梁), was the third of the Southern Dynasties during China's Southern and Northern Dynasties period. It was located in East China and South China, and replaced by the Chen dynasty in 557. The small rump state Western Liang (555–587), located in Central China, continued until its annexation in 587.

List of Chinese-language poets

Poets who wrote or write much of their poetry in the languages of China.

New Songs from the Jade Terrace

New Songs from the Jade Terrace (Chinese: 玉臺新詠; pinyin: Yùtái xīnyǒng) is an anthology of early medieval Chinese poetry in the romantic or semi-erotic "palace style" (gongti 宮體) that dates to the late Southern dynasties period (420–589). Most editions of New Songs contain 670 poems by many different authors, mainly comprising pentasyllabic poetry but also some yuefu lyrical verse and other types of poems. New Songs was probably compiled around the early to mid-530s by Xu Ling, an official and scholar who served at the court of Xiao Gang, a crown prince of the Liang dynasty (502–587) who later ascended the throne as Emperor Jianwen of Liang.The term "Jade Terrace" is a reference to the luxurious palace apartments in to which upper-class women were often relegated, and a number of scholars have concluded that the New Songs was probably compiled to provide reading material for palace ladies. The American sinologist Burton Watson notes that this expression may also refer to "a mirror stand of jade such as women use in their toilet; and since the Chinese are fond of elegant euphemisms for parts of the body, it may even have some more esoteric connotation." New Songs from a Jade Terrace is an important collection of Chinese poetry, in part because of the individual poems which it contains, but also because the overall theme of the collection involves the discussion of sex and gender roles and ideals of love and beauty.

Six Dynasties poetry

Six Dynasties poetry refers to those types or styles of poetry particularly associated with the Six Dynasties era of China (220 CE – 589 CE). This poetry reflects one of the poetry world's more important flowerings, as well as being a unique period in Classical Chinese poetry, which, over this time period, developed a poetry with special emphasis on romantic love, gender roles, and human relationships. The Six Dynasties era is sometimes known as the "Age of Fragmentation", because China as a whole through this period lacked unification as a state, at least for any extended period of time; and, instead, many states rose and fell, often overlapping in existence with other states. Which of the various states and dynasties constituted the "6" dynasties of the Six Dynasties period varies somewhat according to which of the traditional selection criteria is chosen. The Six Dynasties era covers several somewhat overlapping main periods including all of the following: the Three Kingdoms (220–280), Jin dynasty (265–420, in 2 approximate parts, Western Jin 265–316 and Eastern Jin 317–420), the Sixteen Kingdoms (also known as the "Sixteen States", 304 to 439), and the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589). Sometimes, chronological discrepancies occur in regard to the turbulent political events of the time, from which these traditional historical-era designations derive, together with the somewhat different chronology of poetic (versus political) developments. Thus, neither the lives of the poets nor the trends in their poetry fit gently and neatly together with these period dates. Furthermore, conversions to the Common Era dating system can create further complications. However, regardless of the chronological difficulties, major developments of poetry during the Six Dynasties include formalizing the distinction between the Jian'an era regular yuefu and the shi style poetry, further development of the fu, theoretical work on technique, and the preservation of both Six Dynasties and earlier poetry by collecting and publishing many of the pieces which survive today into various anthologies consisting all or in part of poetry.

Temple name

Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon dynasties), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Trần, Lý, and Lê) monarchs. They should not be confused with era names and posthumous names.

Compared to posthumous names, the use of temple names is more exclusive. Both titles were given after death to a ruler, but unlike the often elaborate posthumous name, a temple name almost always consists of only two characters:

an adjective: chosen to reflect the circumstances of the emperor's reign (such as "Martial" or "Lamentable"). The vocabulary overlaps with that of posthumous titles' adjectives, but for one emperor, the temple name's adjective character usually does not repeat as one of the many adjective characters in his posthumous name. The usual exception is "Filial" (孝). The founders are almost always either "High" (高) or "Grand" (太).

"emperor": either zǔ (祖) or zōng (宗).

Zu ("forefather") implies a progenitor, either a founder of a dynasty or a new line within an existing one. Zu is also given to monarchs with great accomplishment. The equivalent in Korean is jo (조), and tổ in Vietnamese.

Zong ("ancestor") is used in all other rulers. It is rendered as jong (종) in Korean, and tông in Vietnamese.The "temple" in "temple name" refers to the "grand temple" (太廟), also called "great temple" (大廟) or "ancestral temple" (祖廟), where crown princes and other royalty gathered to worship their ancestors. The ancestral tablets in the grand temple recorded the temple names of the rulers.

In earlier times, only rulers had temple names, such as Taihao (太昊). Temple names were assigned sporadically from the Shang dynasty and regularly from the Tang dynasty. Some Han emperors had their temple names permanently removed by their descendants in 190 AD. Temple names are the usual way to refer to emperors from the Tang dynasty up to the Ming dynasty. For the Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty (from 1368 AD), era names are often used instead.

In Korea, temple names are used to refer to kings of the early Goryeo (until 1274 AD), and kings and emperors of Joseon. For the Korean Empire, era names should be used, but the temple names are often used instead. In Vietnam, most rulers are known by their temple names, with the exception of Tây Sơn and Nguyễn monarchs, who are better known by their era names.

Numerous individuals who did not serve as monarch during their lifetime were posthumously promoted to "emperor" or "king" by their descendants and given temple names.

Timeline of the Northern and Southern dynasties

This is a timeline of the Northern and Southern dynasties in China.

Xiao Dong

Xiao Dong (Chinese: 蕭棟; died 552), courtesy name Yuanji (元吉), sometimes known by his pre-ascension title of Prince of Yuzhang (豫章王), was briefly an emperor of the Chinese Liang Dynasty. In 551, with the general Hou Jing in control of the imperial government at the capital Jiankang, Hou, wanting to show off his strength, deposed Xiao Dong's granduncle Emperor Jianwen and replaced him with Xiao Dong, the grandson of Emperor Jianwen's older brother Xiao Tong, who was originally the founder Emperor Wu's crown prince.

During his brief reign, Xiao Dong was entirely under Hou's control. Just two and a half months after Xiao Dong became emperor, Hou forced him to yield the throne to himself, who took the throne as the Emperor of Han. In 552, troops under Wang Sengbian, a general loyal to Xiao Dong's granduncle Xiao Yi retook Jiankang, and the general Zhu Maichen (朱買臣), under Xiao Yi's instructions, threw Xiao Dong and his two brothers into the Yangtze River to drown.

Xiao Yu

Xiao Yu (574–647), courtesy name Shiwen, posthumously known as Duke Zhenbian of Song, was an imperial prince of the Western Liang dynasty who later became an official under the Sui and Tang dynasties. He served as a chancellor during the reigns of the emperors Gaozu and Taizong in the early Tang dynasty.

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