Empúries (Catalan: Empúries [əmˈpuɾiəs]) was an ancient city on the Mediterranean coast of Catalonia, Spain. Empúries is also known by its Spanish name, Ampurias (Spanish: Ampurias [amˈpuɾjas]). The city Ἐμπόριον (Greek: Ἐμπόριον, Emporion, meaning "trading place", cf. emporion) was founded in 575 BC by Greek colonists from Phocaea. After the invasion of Gaul from Iberia by Hannibal the Carthaginian general in 218 BC, the city was occupied by the Romans (Latin: Emporiæ). In the Early Middle Ages, the city's exposed coastal position left it open to marauders and it was abandoned.
Empúries (in Catalan)
Ampurias (in Spanish)
Ἐμπόριον (in Greek)
Emporiæ (in Latin)
Palaeochristian basilica at Empúries
Shown within Province of Girona
|Location||Alt Empordà, Province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain|
|Builder||Colonists from Phocaea|
|Periods||Archaic Greek to Early Medieval|
Empúries was founded on a small island at the mouth of the river Fluvià, in a region inhabited by the Indigetes (at the present time, the mouth of the Fluvià is about 6 km to the north). This city came to be known as the Palaiapolis, the "old city" when, towards 550 BC, the inhabitants moved to the mainland, creating the Neapolis, the "new city".
After the conquest of Phocaea by the Persian king Cyrus II in 530 BC, the new city's population increased considerably through the influx of refugees. In the face of strong pressure from Carthage, the city managed to retain its independent Hellenic character. Political and commercial agreements were concluded with the indigenous population long settled in the nearby city of Indika. Situated as it was on the coastal commercial route between Massalia (Marseille) and Tartessos in the far south of Hispania, the city developed into a large economic and commercial centre as well as being the largest Greek colony in the Iberian Peninsula.
After the conquest of Hispania by the Romans, Empúries remained an independent city-state. However, in the civil war between Pompey and Julius Caesar, it opted for Pompey, and after his defeat it was stripped of its autonomy. A colonia of Roman veterans, named Emporiae, was established near Indika to control the region.
From that time onwards, Empúries began to decline, obscured by the power of Tarraco (Tarragona) and Barcino (Barcelona). At the end of the 3rd century it became one of the first cities in Spain to admit Christian evangelists. In that century, too, the Greek town was abandoned while the Roman town survived as a mint and the largely ceremonial seat of a coastal county, Castelló d'Empúries, until the Viking raids of the mid-9th century. Coinage began again under count Hugh II of Empúries (1078–1117).
Although the precise location of the town was known since the 15th century, it was only in the 20th century that systematic excavations were carried out. The first official excavations started in 1908 and were held by the Junta de Museus de Barcelona and directed by Emili Gandia i Ortega under the instructions of Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Pere Bosch-Gimpera. These excavations are still going on.
The island on which the Palaiopolis was situated is now part of the mainland and is the site of the mediaeval village of Sant Martí d'Empúries. The former harbour has silted up as well. Hardly any excavation has been done here.
The Neapolis consisted of a walled precinct with an irregular ground plan of 200 by 130 m. The walls were built, and repeatedly modified in the period from the 5th to the 2nd century BC. To the west the wall separated the Neapolis from the Iberian town of Indika.
In the south-west part of the city were various temples, replacing an older one to Artemis, such as a temple to Asclepius, of whom a marble statue was found. In the south-east part was a temple to Zeus-Serapis. The majority of the excavated buildings belong to the Hellenistic period. In addition to houses, some of which are decorated with mosaics and wallpaintings, a number of public buildings have come to light, such as those in the agora and the harbour mole. In the Roman period, thermae and a palaeochristian basilica were built.
To the south and east of the new city was an area that served as a necropolis.
Only about 20% of the Roman city has been excavated. The city has the typical orthogonal layout of Roman military camps, with two principal roads meeting at the forum. The Roman city is considerably larger than the Greek one. During the Republican period a temple was built dedicated to the Capitoline Triad: Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. During the reign of the emperor Augustus a basilica and curia were added.
In the eastern part of the town a number of large houses have been excavated, with an inner courtyard, numerous annexes, floor mosaics, and paintings. In the 2nd century the town was surrounded by a wall without towers. An amphitheatre and palaestra were built outside the wall.
The necropolis of Empúries remained in use for a very long period, from the 7th century BC up to the Middle Ages, but many tombs were looted. Martín Almagro Basch wrote two books collecting all data on the majority of cemeteries in the area. There are four types: early Greek and Iberian, late Republican, early Roman Empire and late Roman Empire.
Burials were located in the southern and western sides of Neapolis. The western sector was occupied by the so-called necropolis of the wall northeast. Inhumation (Greeks) predominated while a third of burials were cremations (Iberians).
The ancient necropolis remained in use with inhumations and cremations, possibly Greek and indigenous from the Neapolis. Cremations predominated in another group, possibly of Roman origin, whose cemetery is located on the north side of the neighboring hill of Les Corts, located southwest of the city. This necropolis was in use particularly during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. Archaeologists found small mounds built with square blocks of stone with the remains of cremation in the middle.
No burials have been found clearly from the second quarter of the 1st century BC until the reign of Augustus (about 35 years). Cremation burials then predominated until the reign of Emperor Flavian (at the end of the 1st century AD) around a hillside where the Roman city is located.
Burial rituals changed in the 2nd century AD, with only inhumations found.
Precise chronologies are hampered by the lack of grave goods in tombs. The whole area of the ancient Greek city was filled with inhumation burials, perhaps related to the worship of the early Christian basilica or Cella Memoria, situated there. Burials are also in many of the ancient necropolis of earlier times (as Bonjoan, in use for a thousand years) and in new ones. It is possible they were related to the Roman villae located near them. There is a monument of El Castellet and nearby tombs.
The branch of the Archaeology Museum of Catalonia in Empúries (MAC-Empúries) strives to offer visitors a thrilling, enriching experience in direct contact with the archaeological remains there. A visit to the Greek city – the only one still conserved in the Iberian Peninsula – and the Roman city are complemented by a tour through the museum, which showcases representative objectives from the history of the site that have been uncovered in the more than 100 years of excavations in Empúries. The museum has good car parking facilities and the site may be reached by a traffic-free coastal walk from L'Escala.
Berengar, called the Wise (Catalan: Berenguer el Savi, Latin: Berengarius Sapiens), was the count (or duke) of Toulouse (814–835) and duke (or margrave) of Septimania (832–835). He held the County of Barcelona concomitantly with Septimania.
Berengar was a member of the family of the Unrochids. He was the son of Unruoch II of Friuli and Ingeltrude and brother of Eberhard. His nephew was the Holy Roman Emperor Berengar.
In 814, Louis the Pious installed Berengar as Count of Toulouse in succession to Raymond Raphinel who had been appointed by Charlemagne. He was also a councillor of Pepin I of Aquitaine in 816. In 819, he and Guerin, Count of Auvergne, fought against the usurping Duke of Gascony, Lupo III Centule. Berengar appears as a missus dominicus of Louis in May 825 and then in 827 in the six counties of Rheims, Soissons, Senlis, Beauvais, Laon, and Catolonis and the four bishoprics of Amiens, Cambrai, Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise, and Noviomacensem.
In November 831, Pepin revolted against his father, with Berengar advising him not to rebel, but with Bernard of Septimania inciting him. In the beginning of 832, Louis the Pious began campaigning against his rebellious son. Berengar, loyal to the Emperor, attacked the domains of Bernard, taking Roussillon (with Vallespir), Razès, and Conflent. On 2 February, Berengar had already reached Elna. Finally, in the autumn of the same year, successive victories by the imperial forces compelled Pepin and Bernard to appear before the Emperor (October) to plead for peace. Pepin was dispossessed of his kingdom and sent, as a prisoner, to Trier. His territories were given to Charles the Bald, youngest son of the Emperor. Bernard was accused of infidelity and dispossessed of all his lands in Septimania and Gothia; they were given to Berengar. Gaucelm, Bernard's brother, was also dispossessed of the majority of his lands, but for a time kept the Empúries although this too was lost to Berengar later.
In 833, Aznar I Galíndez, Count of Urgell and Cerdanya, usurped the counties of Pallars and Ribagorza from under Berengar's rule. In 834, when another rebellious son of the emperor, Lothair, was defeated, Bernard, having fought on the side of Louis with Pepin, reclaimed his old domains as the price of his support. The lands were passed to Bernard and Berengar was weakened. As a result Berengar's Pyrenean lands were confiscated unlawfully and redistributed by the imperial crown to others. His Catalan grants were taken away and given to his old enemy. He was left with nothing but the County of Toulouse after fighting loyally for the old emperor and the successful Pepin.
In June 835, Bernard and Berengar were summoned to an Assembly at Crémieu, near Lyon, where a decision would be made about the distribution of lands in Septimania and Gothia, but on the way Berengar died unexpectedly. Thus the decision was simplified, and the Emperor gave the region's counties to Bernard and Toulouse to Guerin.Castelló d'Empúries
Castelló d'Empúries is a town and municipality in the Alt Empordà in Girona, Catalonia, Spain. It lies 9 km east of Figueres.
In 1079, Castelló d'Empúries became the capital of the Empúries county due to the previous capital, Sant Martí d'Empúries, being too easily sacked by pirates. 1325-1341 saw a period of large expansion of this capital town, which ultimately ceased being the capital once the county joined the Crown of Aragon in 1385.
In 1809 the 113th Regiment de Ligne of Napoleon's Army fought here.The old town is somewhat dwarfed by the neighboring urbanisation of Empuriabrava, on the coastline of the Costa Brava.Count of Barcelona
The Count of Barcelona (Catalan: Comte de Barcelona, Spanish: Conde de Barcelona, Latin: Comites Barcinonenses) was the ruler of Catalonia for much of Catalan history, from the 9th century until the 15th century.County of Empúries
The County of Empúries (Catalan: Comtat d'Empúries, IPA: [kumˈtad dəmˈpuɾiəs]), also known as the County of Ampurias (Spanish: Condado de Ampurias), was a medieval county centred on the town of Empúries and enclosing the Catalan region of Peralada. It corresponds to the historic comarca of Empordà.
After the Franks conquered the regions in 785, Empúries and Peralada came under the authority of the County of Girona. Around 813, Empúries, with Peralada, became a separate county under Ermenguer. He and the other early counts were probably of Visigothic origin. In 817, Empúries was merged with the County of Roussillon, a union which lasted until 989. One of the ninth-century counts of Empúries assembled a fleet powerful enough to conquer the Balearic Islands, but only for a brief time. From 835 to 844, Sunyer I ruled Empúries and Peralada while Alaric I ruled Roussillon and Vallespir.
At the death of Gausfred I in 989, Roussillon and Empúries were separated. Gausfred's elder son Hugh I received Empúries while Giselbert I received Roussillon. Hugh's comital dynasty lasted until 1322, when Empúries passed to a collateral branch of his family. The last count, Hugh VI, sold the county to Peter IV of Ribagorza in 1325 in exchange for the barony of Pego and the towns of Xaló and Laguar, all located within the Kingdom of Valencia. Peter later traded it with Ramon Berenguer d'Aragona for the county of Prades in 1341. From that point on, Empúries was an apanage of the Crown of Aragon.
In a letter of December 1002, Pope Sylvester II confirmed the county of Empúries and the "county of Pedralbes" as a part of the diocese of Girona. The latter is probably to be identified with the Peralada region in the north of Empúries. A portion of the "taxes of the port", consisting of dues and anchorage, were passed on to the diocese.County of Roussillon
The County of Roussillon (Catalan: Comtat de Rosselló, IPA: [kumˈtad də rusəˈʎo], Latin: Comitatus Ruscinonensis) was one of the Catalan counties in the Marca Hispanica during the Middle Ages. The rulers of the county were the Counts of Roussillon, whose interests lay both north and south of the Pyrenees.Dela
Dela (Catalan: Delà) (d. c. 894), count of Empúries (862–894), was the son of Sunyer I of Empúries, whom he succeeded along with his brother, Sunyer II of Empúries, in 862.
The brothers tried to conquer the county of Girona, but their relative, Wilfred the Hairy, halted their advances.
He married Sixilona, daughter of Sunifred I, Count of Barcelona, and they had the following children:
Ramló (d. 960), abbot of Saint John of Ripoll
Virgilia (d. 957)Empordà
Ampurdan (from Spanish: Ampurdán) or Emporda (from Catalan: Empordà, Catalan pronunciation: [əmpuɾˈða]) is a natural and historical region of Catalonia, Spain, divided since 1936 into two comarques, Alt Empordà and Baix Empordà.
The city of Figueres, an important urban and economic center of the Empordà, was designated the capital of Alt Empordà, while La Bisbal d'Empordà, following a more geographic and historical criteria, became the capital of Baix Empordà.
Empordà has been the cradle for many pictoric schools, with surrealism standing out, including artists such as Salvador Dalí, Angel Planells, Joan Massanet and Evarist Vallès.Foixà
Foixà is a village and municipality in the comarca (county) of the Baix Empordà.Hugh I, Count of Empúries
Hugh I (Spanish Hugo, Catalan Hug) (c. 965 – 1040), Count of Empúries (Ampurias) from 991, was the son of Gausfred I and his first wife, Ava, daughter of Raymond II of Rouergue.
By the testament of his father, dated 969, Hugh was to receive the county of Ampurias while his brother Giselbert received that of Roussillon. The division took place on the death of Gausfred, but on the death of Giselbert in 1014, Hugh tried to reunify the counties and invaded the county of his nephew, Gausfred II. Gausfred obtained the help of Bernard I of Besalú and the Abbot Oliva and the two relations arrived a peace in 1020.
Hugh made a career of harassing his neighbours. Ermesinde of Carcassonne, the widow of Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona, reclaimed the allod of Ullastrell, which had been sold by Borrell and subsequently invaded by Hugh. In 1019, a judicial synod in Girona, presided over by Oliva and Bernard, devolved the allod to Ermesinda. At about this time, Hugh made enemies of the church by seizing the monastery of San Salvador de Verdera.Hugh II, Count of Empúries
Hugh II (Catalan: Hug II) (c. 1035 – 1116) was the Count of Empúries from 1078 until his death. He was the eldest son of Ponç I and Adelaida de Besalú, and succeeded his father in Empúries while his brother, Berenguer, was given the Viscounty of Peralada.
In politics he was on good terms with the other Catalan princes. In 1085, he made an alliance of mutual self-defence with his neighbour, Giselbert II of Roussillon. In 1113–15, he and Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, took part in an expedition against the Balearics. He was described by the anonymous author of the Liber maiolichinus as Catalanicus heros (a Catalan hero).
Hugh was involved in several disputes with the diocese of Girona, first with its canons and then with its bishop, Berenguer Guifré, over the tithes collected by the parish church of Santa Maria de Castelló. He made donations to the monastery of Sant Pere de Rodes and made pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela and the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem.
Hugh was married to Sancha, daughter of Ermengol IV of Urgell, which whom he had one child, the heir Ponç II.Humfrid
Humfrid was the Count of Barcelona, Girona, Empúries, Roussillon, and Narbonne from 858 to 864. He also bore the title Margrave of Gothia (Gothiæ marchio), as he held several frontier counties.He was a Hunfriding by birth, with no connection to Gothia. He was probably Hunfrid III, the second son of Hunfrid II, dux super Redicam (duke over Rhaetia). He rebelled against Louis the German, the King of East Francia, and was forced to flee to Charles the Bald, the King of West Francia, to whom he was one of the few to remain loyal during the vicissitudes of the 850s. He was appointed count and margrave of several counties in the Marca Hispanica by Charles, possibly as early as 854 and no later than 858.
In 858, Humfrid negotiated a treaty of peace with Abd al-Rahman, the Moorish governor of Zaragoza, and marched into Gaul to the assistance of Charles. He arrived at Beaune in February and he did homage to the king on 21 March. He then joined Charles in making war on the Norsemen. Louis took this as an opportunity to invade the country and Humfrid assisted Charles in fending him off. In September, Humfrid regrouped with his forces at Beaune before joining in the defeat of Louis at Saint-Quentin on 15 January 859.
During the campaigning of 858, Humfrid had been enfeoffed with the County of Autun and been created Margrave of Burgundy.
In 856, the Moors captured the castle of Terrassa near Barcelona. In 861, they besieged Barcelona itself, but Humfrid bought them off and renewed the treaty with the consent of Charles. It was to last for three decades.
In 862, Charles named his son Charles the Child as King of Aquitaine. This was opposed by the nobles, who, with the exception of Humfrid, did not support the young Charles in his subsequent rebellion. The elder Charles accused Humfrid of disloyalty. On 19 August, Humfrid was deposed. He was not to give up, though. He took Toulouse and killed Count Raymond I in the fighting. Charles responded by confiscating Humfrid's Burgundian lands. Even the pretender Pepin II of Aquitaine led a band of Norsemen in an attack on Toulouse, but was repulsed. Humfrid then fled to Italy, and from there to Swabia, where, in 872, he was a count in Zürich. He was alive as late as 876.Indigetes
The Indigetes (Latin: indigetes or indigetae or Indiketes) were an ancient Iberian (Pre-Roman) people of the eastern side of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania). They are believed to have spoken the Iberian language.
They occupied the far north east area of the Iberian Peninsula known as Hispania Tarraconensis, in the gulf of Empúries and Rhoda, stretching up into the Pyrenees though the regions of Empordà, Selva and perhaps as far as Gironès, where the Ausetani could be found who were related ethnically.
They were divided into four tribes, and the main towns they centered on were: Indika (only mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium, still unidentified, but he was possibly referring to Empúries or Ullastret), Empodrae (Empúries, where there was an extremely important Greek, Phocaean and Massaliotan colony, which had their corresponding commercial “emporio”), Rhoda (Roses), Juncaria (La Jonquera), Cinniana (Cervià) and Deciana (close to La Jonquera). This land was watered by the Clodianus (Fluvià), the Sambrocas (Muga) and the Tichis (Ter). This district in the Gulf of Empúrias was known as Juncaris Campus.
The Indigetes minted their own coins which bore the inscription undikesken in northeastern Iberian script that is interpreted in Iberian language as a self-reference to the ethnic name of that people: from the Indigetes or from those of undika.
In 218 BC they were conquered by Rome during the Roman conquest of Hispania. In 195 BC they rebelled; the consul Marcus Porcius Cato quashed the rebellion.The main archaeological sites for the Indigetes are in Ullastret (Baix Empordà), Castell de la Fosca (Palamós, Baix Empordà) and Puig Castellet (Lloret de Mar, Selva).L'Escala
L'Escala (Spanish: La Escala) is a municipality in the comarca of the Alt Empordà in Girona, Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the Costa Brava, located between the southern end of the Gulf of Roses and Cala (bay) Montgó. It is an important fishing port and tourist centre, and has a festival dedicated to its famous anchovies. The GE-513 road runs inland from the town.
The Alfolí de la Sal, also known as the Pòsit Vell, is a seventeenth-century warehouse formerly used to store the salt necessary to preserve fish landed at the port: it is now a protected historic-artistic monument. The ruins of Empúries are located on the territory of the municipality, with Phoenician and
Roman remains dating from 580 BC.
L'Escala is the village of Víctor Català (pseudonym of Caterina Albert, 1869-1966) a famous novel writer.Ponç Hug IV, Count of Empúries
Pons V or Pons Hugh IV (Spanish: Ponce V or Ponce Hugo IV, Occitan: Pons Uc, Catalan: Ponç V or Ponç Hug IV) (c.1264 – 1313) was the Count of Empúries (Ampurias) from 1277 until his death and viscount of Bas from 1285 to 1291. He was the son and successor of Hug V and Sibila de Palau.
His mother, widowed, purchased the viscounty of Bas from Peter III of Aragon in 1280. In 1282 Ponç Hug participated in the Aragonese Crusade against the crusaders, on the side of Peter III. In 1285 the viscounty of Bas devolved to Ponç in reward for his services in 1282 and Peter also compensated him with the rights over Fernando and Castellfollit de Riubregós.
Ponç served as admiral of the fleet to James I of Sicily and was in Sicily in 1291, when he exchanged Bas with his brother Huguet, also in Sicily that year, on the condition that it would devolve to Ponç's descendants if Huguet had none. Ponç received Castellfollit, Montros, and Montagut in the exchange. He returned with James later that year after he inherited Aragon and Catalonia, but Huguet stayed behind in Siciy.When James signed the Treaty of Anagni with the French and the Papacy, thus putting an end to the War of the Vespers, in 1295, the people of Sicily under James' younger brother Frederick III opposed him. When Frederick heard that James was preparing to go to war with him, he sent a messenger, Mountainer Pérez de Sosa, to Catalonia in an effort to stir up the barons and cities against James in 1298. Mountainer carried with him an Occitan poem, Ges per guerra no.m chal aver consir, intended as a communication with his supporters in Catalonia. This communiqué seems to have had in mind Ponç Hug as a recipient, for the count penned a response (under the title con d'Emppuria), A l'onrat rei Frederic terz vai dir, in which he praised Frederick's tact and diplomacy, but told him bluntly that he would not abandon his sovereign. This poetic transaction is usually dated to January–March, Spring, or August 1296, but Gerónimo Zurita in the seventeenth century specifically dated the embassy of Mountainer to 1298.
In the subsequent war, Ponç and his vassals fought with James' galleys at the Battle of Cape Orlando, while Huguet his brother fought among the ships of Frederick. Many subsequent scholars have assumed that Ponç had gone over to the side of his brother, but this is unlikely.Ponç later turned against James and rose in revolt, driving his functionaries out of Empúries. But the king proved to powerful for his most powerful baron and Ponç was ruined and forced to submit in 1306.Sant Martí d'Empúries
Sant Martí d'Empúries is an entity of the town of L'Escala. It is located next to the ruins of Empúries or Empòrion. Ancient Greeks established the settlement in the 6th century BC. It was the county seat until 1079 Empúries moved to Castelló d'Empúries place less exposed to attack.Sant Pere Pescador
Sant Pere Pescador is a municipality in the comarca of Alt Empordà, Girona, Catalonia, Spain, is a small town in the Bay of Roses on the river Fluvià, on the coastline of the Costa Brava.
The town has the benefit of a sandy 7 km long beach. The first reference to the town dates from 974 when it was owned by the monastery of Sant Pere de Rodes part of the County of Empúries. The castle of Sant Pere dates from the 14th Century.
The surrounding marshes were drained in the 17th and 18th Centuries making the area an important agricultural centre. There are several orchards in the area. Tourism has become more important. Nearby is the Natural Park Aiguamolls de l’EmpordàSegorbe
Segorbe is a municipality in the mountainous coastal province of Castelló, autonomous community of Valencia, Spain. The former Palace of the Dukes of Medinaceli now houses the city's mayor. Segorbe's bull-running week (semana de Toros) in September attracts 200,000 visitors each year. The name in Valencian is Sogorb, but the local language is Spanish, not Valencian.Sunyer I, Count of Empúries
Sunyer I was count of Empúries and Roussillon (with the pagus of Perelada) from 834 to 841.
He was the son of Count Belló I of Carcassonne.
Sunyer I was deposed in 841 due to a new policy of the Frankish Emperor, he died in 848. His eldest son, Sunyer II, was later a count of Empúries and Roussillon (with Perelada) and another son, Delà, was an associate count of his brother.Sunyer II, Count of Empúries
Sunyer II (c. 840–915) was the count of Empúries from 862 and Roussillon from 896 until his death. He was the son of Sunyer I of Empúries
He and his brother Dela obtained the county of Empúries in 862 after Humfrid, margrave of Gothia, rebelled. They governed it together until Dela's death. In 878, the council of Troyes deposed Bernat of Gothia, who had held Roussillon since 865. It was given to Miro the Elder and, in 896, when Miro died, it passed by heredity to Sunifred. Together with Dela, he tried to occupy Girona, but their cousin, Wilfred the Hairy, stopped them. In 888, he travelled to Orléans to do homage to King Odo of France. In 891, he prepared a naval expedition to attack Moorish Almería. The campaign, however, ended in a truce.
He married a woman named Ermengarda, with whom he had the following issue:
Bencion (d. 916), successor
Gausbert (d. 931), successor of his brother
Elmerat (d. 920), bishop of Elna
Guadal (d. 947), bishop of Elna