Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy

Emmanuel Philibert (in Italian: Emanuele Filiberto or Testa di ferro, Piedmontese: Testa 'd fer, "Ironhead", because of his military career; 8 July 1528 – 30 August 1580) was Duke of Savoy from 1553 to 1580, KG. He is remembered for the Italianization of the House of Savoy, as he recovered the savoyard state (invaded and occupied by France when he was a child) following the Battle of St. Quentin (1557) and subsequently moved the capital to Turin and made Italian the official language in Piedmont.

Born in Chambéry, Emmanuel Philibert was the only child of Charles III, Duke of Savoy, and Beatrice of Portugal to reach adulthood. His mother was sister-in-law to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the future duke served in Charles's army during the war against Francis I of France, distinguishing himself by capturing Hesdin in July 1553. A month later, he became Duke of Savoy on the death of his father, but this was a nearly empty honour, as the vast majority of his hereditary lands had been occupied and administered by the French since 1536. Instead, he continued to serve the Habsburgs in hopes of recovering his lands, and served his cousin Philip II of Spain as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555 to 1559.[1]

In this capacity he personally led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a brilliant victory at Saint-Quentin on 10 August 1557.[2] He was also a suitor to Lady Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII of England. With the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis between France and Spain signed in 1559, the duchy was restored to Emmanuel Philibert and he married his first cousin once removed, Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry, the sister of King Henry II of France.[3] Their only child was Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy.

Following the death of his uncle, Henry I of Portugal, on 31 January 1580, Emmanuel Philibert fought to impose his rights as a claimant to the Portuguese throne. However, he soon realised that he had quite a fragile position due to the claims of Philip II, who gained control of the country, thus uniting Spain and Portugal.

Emmanuel Philibert spent his rule regaining what had been lost in the costly wars with France. A skilled political strategist, he took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to slowly regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin. He also purchased two territories. Internally, he moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin and replaced Latin as the duchy's official language with Italian. He was attempting to acquire the marquisate of Saluzzo when he died in Turin.[4] Later, he was buried in the Chapel of the Holy Shroud of the Turin Cathedral, to which he had moved the Sindone in 1578.

Caval ëd Brons001

The Caval ëd Brons ("Bronze horse"), monument to Emmanuel Philibert in Turin

Torino e suoi dintorni 15

Representation of the tomb monument

Emmanuel Philibert
Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy (1580)
Duke of Savoy
Reign17 August 1553 – 30 August 1580
PredecessorCharles III
SuccessorCharles Emmanuel I
Born8 July 1528
Chambéry
Died30 August 1580 (aged 52)
Turin, Italy
Burial
SpouseMargaret of France
IssueCharles Emmanuel I of Savoy
HouseHouse of Savoy
FatherCharles III of Savoy
MotherBeatrice of Portugal
ReligionRoman Catholic

References

  1. ^ Kamen 1997, p. 64.
  2. ^ Kamen 1997, p. 67.
  3. ^ Kamen 1997, p. 73-74.
  4. ^ Leathes, Prothero & Ward 1964, p. 399-400.

Sources

  • Kamen, Henry (1997). Philip of Spain. Yale University Press.
  • Leathes, Stanley; Prothero, G. W.; Ward, Sir Adolphus William, eds. (1964). Cambridge Modern History. 1. Cambridge University Press.

See also

Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy
Born: 8 July 1528 Died: 30 August 1580
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles III
Duke of Savoy
1553–1580
Succeeded by
Charles Emmanuel I
Political offices
Preceded by
Mary of Austria
Governor of the Netherlands
1555–1559
Succeeded by
Margaret of Parma
André Provana de Leyni

André or Andrea II Provana de Leyni (1511, Leinì, Piedmont - 29 May 1592, Nice) was a statesman and military commander in the Duchy of Savoy. He was captain-general of the duke of Savoy's galleys and councillor and diplomat in the service of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy and his son Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. He was one of the most important figures in the restoration of the States of Savoy in the 16th century after its occupation by Francis I of France.

He bore the titles of lord of Leyni, count of Frossasco, Alpignano, Castellata and Balangero, knight of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation and grand-admiral of the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus.

Barthélemy Prieur

Barthélemy Prieur (c. 1536-1611) was a French sculptor.

Prieur was born to a Huguenot family in Berzieux, Champagne (now in the department of the Marne). He traveled to Italy, where he worked from 1564 to 1568 for Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy in Turin. Upon his return to France, he worked principally on funerary monuments and busts, but also on small bronzes.

In 1571 he began employment under Jean Bullant at the Palais du Louvre, where he was a contemporary of Germain Pilon. In 1585 he created the monument to Christophe de Thou, now preserved in the Louvre Museum, and was named sculptor to king Henry IV in 1591. He restored the Roman marble now called the Diana of Versailles in 1602.

Several of his bronzes are preserved in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, including Gladiator, Lion Devouring a Doe, Seated Woman Pulling a Thorn from Her Heel, and Small Horse. His bronze busts of King Henry IV and his wife Marie de' Medici (circa 1600) are now in the Ashmolean Museum. His Monument du coeur du connétable Anne de Montmorency is on display in the Louvre.

Battle of St. Quentin (1557)

The Battle of Saint-Quentin of 1557 was fought at Saint-Quentin, Picardy, in northern France, during the Italian War of 1551–1559. The battle was won by Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy and forces loyal to Phillip II of Spain, who controlled the Spanish Netherlands.

Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy

Charles Emmanuel I (Italian: Carlo Emanuele di Savoia; 12 January 1562 – 26 July 1630), known as the Great, was the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. He was nicknamed Testa d'feu ("the Hot-Headed") for his rashness and military aggression.

Charles III, Duke of Savoy

Charles III of Savoy (10 October 1486 – 17 August 1553), often called Charles the Good, was Duke of Savoy from 1504 to 1553, although most of his lands were ruled by the French between 1536 and his death.

Equestrian monument of Emmanuel Philibert, Turin

The Equestrian monument of Emmanuel Philibert rises in the center of the Piazza San Carlo in central Turin, region of Piedmont, Italy.

Eugene Maurice, Count of Soissons

Eugene Maurice of Savoy (French: Eugène Maurice de Savoie; 2 March 1635 – 6 June 1673) was an Italian-French general and nobleman. A count of Soissons, he was the father of imperial field-marshal Prince Eugene of Savoy.

Francesco Vimercato

Francesco Vimercato (1512–1571) was an Italian Aristotelian scholar. He was a Royal Reader in Philosophy in Paris. He is known for his commentaries on Aristotle’s ethical and zoological works.

In 1561 he left France to work for Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. He was employed as a professor, and then a diplomat.

Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy

Francis Hyacinth (Italian: Francesco Giacinto; 14 September 1632 – 4 October 1638) was the Duke of Savoy from 1637 to 1638 under regency of his mother Christine Marie.

Isabella of Savoy

Isabella of Savoy (11 March 1591 – 28 August 1626) was a daughter of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy and Catherine Michelle of Spain. Her maternal grandparents were Philip II of Spain and Elisabeth of Valois, her paternal grandparents were Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy and Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry. She was the Hereditary Princess of Modena, dying before her husband succeeded to the Duchy of Modena in 1628.

Margaret of France

Marguerite of France may refer to:

Margaret of France, Queen of England and Hungary (1158 – 1197), queen consort of England and Hungary

Margaret of Provence (1221–1295), queen of France as the wife of Louis IX of France

Margaret of France (1254–1271), daughter of Louis IX of France, wife of John I, Duke of Brabant

Margaret of France, Queen of England (1279 – 1318), queen consort of England, wife of Edward I of England

Margaret of France (1288–1294), daughter of Philip IV of France

Margaret I, Countess of Artois (1310–82), countess of Flanders, Artois and Burgundy, wife of Louis I of Flanders and mother of Louis II of Flanders

Margaret of France (1347–1352), daughter of John II of France and Bonne of Bohemia

Marguerite bâtarde de France (1407–58), illegitimate daughter of Charles VI of France, married Jean de Belleville et de Montaigu

Marguerite de Navarre (1492–1549 also called Margaret of Angoulême), elder sister of Francis I of France, married Henry II of Navarre

Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry (Valois) (1523–74), daughter of Francis I of France and Claude of France, wife of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy

Margaret of Valois (1553–1615), daughter of Henry II of France, wife of Henry IV of France

Margaret of Savoy

Margaret of Savoy may refer to:

Margaret of Savoy (d. 1254), daughter of Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy, and Anne of Burgundy; wife firstly of Boniface II, Marquess of Montferrat; and secondly of Aymar III, Count of Valentinois

The Blessed Margaret of Savoy (1390–1464), Marchioness of Montferrat, and a Dominican Sister

Margaret of Savoy, Duchess of Anjou, wife of Louis III, titular king of Naples; Louis IV, Elector Palatine; and Ulrich V, Count of Württemberg; mother of Philip, Elector Palatine

Margaret of Savoy, Countess of Saint-Pol (1439–1483), daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, and wife firstly of John IV, Marquess of Montferrat, and secondly of Peter II, Count of Saint-Pol

Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy (1480–1530), daughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Mary of Burgundy; wife firstly of John of Castile and secondly of Philibert of Savoy

Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry (1523–1574), daughter of Francis I, King of France, and Claude, Duchess of Brittany; wife of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy

Margaret of Savoy, Vicereine of Portugal (1589–1655), Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat and last Vicereine of Portugal

Margherita of Savoy (1851–1926), queen consort of Italy, wife of Umberto I

Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus

The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italian: Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro) is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood bestowed by the House of Savoy, founded in 1572 by Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, through amalgamation approved by Pope Gregory XIII of the Order of Saint Maurice, founded in 1434, with the medieval Order of Saint Lazarus, founded circa 1119, considered its sole legitimate successor. The Grand Master is Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, since 1983.

The order was formerly awarded by the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) with the heads of the House of Savoy as the Kings of Italy. Originally a chivalric order of noble nature, it was restricted to subjects of noble families with proofs of at least eight noble great-grandparents. The order's military and noble nature was and is still combined with a Roman Catholic character.

After the abolition of the monarchy and the foundation of the Italian Republic in 1946, the legacy of the order is maintained by the pretenders of the House of Savoy and the Italian throne in exile.

The order is estimated to include about 2,000 members around the world.

Piazza San Carlo

Piazza San Carlo is one of the main city squares in Turin, Italy.

It was laid out in the 16th and 17th century and is an example of Baroque style. Its current name is an hommage to Charles Borromeo while the square was previously known as Piazza Reale, Piazza d'Armi, and Place Napoleon.

The Caval 'd brons (piedmontese for bronze horse), equestrian statue of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, by Carlo Marochetti (1838), is located at the center of the square, that is surrounded by porticos designed by Carlo di Castellamonte around 1638. The twin churches of Santa Cristina and San Carlo Borromeo close the southern edge of the square.

Pierino Belli

Pierino Belli (20 March 1502, Alba - 31 December 1575, Turin) was an Italian soldier and jurist.

Belli served the Holy Roman Empire as the commander of Imperial forces in Piedmont. In 1560, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, named him a councillor of state. He is most notable for his book, De re militari et de bello (1563) which was one of the most comprehensive treatments of military law and the rules of war that had been written up to that time.

Prince Maurice of Savoy

Maurice of Savoy (10 January 1593 – 4 October 1657, Turin) was a Prince of Savoy and a 17th-century cardinal.

The Martyrdom of Saint Maurice

The Martyrdom of Saint Maurice is a 1580-1582 painting by El Greco, now in the Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial. It was produced early in his Toledan period. It had originally been commissioned from Juan Fernández Navarrete by Philip II of Spain for as a side altarpiece for the basilica of the Escorial dedicated to the saint and for use by the Legión Tebana, but after Navarrete's death in 1579 Philip transferred the commission to El Greco.

Maurice is shown in a blue breastplate and red tunic in the right foreground, surrounded by the officers of his legion while they decide whether to sacrifice to the pagan gods or accept martyrdom. To Maurice's left Saint Exuperius holds a red banner. Next to him is a bearded man in a tunic, identified as James the Less, who had converted the whole of Maurice's legion to Christianity. Between Maurice and the banner-bearer are two figures modelled on Spanish soldiers of the time - the elder one is Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, commander of the Spanish troops at the Battle of St. Quentin in 1557 and Grand Master of the Military Order of Saint Maurice. To Emmanuel's right (closer to Maurice) is Alessandro Farnese, then fighting against the Dutch Republic.

The martyrdom occurs in the left background, including a figure modelled on Charles V's illegitimate son Don John of Austria, victor of the battle of Lepanto. In the left upper background angels wait to welcome the martyrs into heaven.

Victor Amadeus I, Prince of Carignano

Victor Amadeus of Savoy (1 March 1690 – 4 April 1741) was an Italian nobleman who was Prince of Carignano from 1709 to 1741. He was the son of Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, Prince of Carignano and his wife, the Maria Angela Caterina d'Este.

Ancestors of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy
16. Antipope Felix V
8. Louis, Duke of Savoy
17. Mary of Burgundy
4. Philip II, Duke of Savoy
18. Janus of Cyprus
9. Anne of Cyprus
19. Charlotte of Bourbon
2. Charles III, Duke of Savoy
20. Jean I de Brosse
10. Jean II de Brosse
21. Jeanne de Naillac
5. Claudine de Brosse
22. Charles de Châtillon
11. Nicole de Châtillon
23. Isabeau de Vivonne
1. Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy
24. Edward I of Portugal
12. Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu
25. Eleanor of Aragon
6. Manuel I of Portugal
26. John, Constable of Portugal
13. Beatrice of Portugal
27. Isabella of Barcelos
3. Beatrice of Portugal
28. John II of Aragon
14. Ferdinand II of Aragon
29. Juana Enríquez
7. Maria of Aragon
30. John II of Castile
15. Isabella I of Castile
31. Isabella of Portugal
1st Generation
2nd Generation
3rd Generation
4th Generation
5th Generation
6th Generation
7th Generation
8th Generation
9th Generation
10th Generation
11th Generation
12th Generation
13th Generation
14th Generation
15th Generation
16th Generation
17th Generation
18th Generation
19th generation

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