Emmanuel Mounier

Emmanuel Mounier (/muːnˈjeɪ/; French: [munje]; 1 April 1905 – 22 March 1950) was a French philosopher, theologian, teacher and essayist.

Emmanuel Mounier
Emmanuel mounier 1905–1950
BornApril 1, 1905
Grenoble, France
DiedMarch 22, 1950 (aged 44)
Alma materUniversity of Paris
Era20th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolContinental philosophy
Non-conformists of the 1930s
Main interests
Notable ideas


Mounier was the guiding spirit in the French personalist movement, and founder and director of Esprit, the magazine which was the organ of the movement. Mounier, who was the child of peasants, was a brilliant scholar at the Sorbonne. In 1929, when he was only twenty-four, he came under the influence of the French writer Charles Péguy, to whom he ascribed the inspiration of the personalist movement. Mounier's personalism became a main influence of the non-conformists of the 1930s.

Peter Maurin used to say wherever he went, "There is a man in France called Emmanuel Mounier. He wrote a book called The Personalist Manifesto. You should read that book."

He taught at the Lycée du Parc at Lyon and at the Lycee Français Jean Monnet at Brussels.

Although Mounier was critical of the Moscow Trials of the 1930s, he has been criticized by the historian Tony Judt, among others, for his failure to condemn the excesses of Stalinism in the postwar period.[6]

In 1939, Mounier commented in a restrained manner on the newly-elected Pope Pius XII remaining silent on the Italian invasion of Albania. Thus, Mounier has been attributed with indirectly originating the black legend about Pius XII's alleged silence on the Holocaust.[7]


  • La pensée de Charles Péguy, Plon, coll. "Roseau d'Or", 1931.
  • Révolution personnaliste et communautaire, Paris, Éd. Montaigne, 1934.
  • De la propriété capitaliste à la propriété humaine, Desclée de Brouwer, coll. "Questions disputées", 1936.
  • Manifeste au service du personnalisme, Éd. Montaigne, 1936.
  • Pacifistes ou Bellicistes, Paris, Éditions du Cerf, 1939.
  • L'affrontement chrétien, Neuchâtel, Éditions de la Baconnière, 1944.
  • Montalembert (Morceaux choisis), Fribourg, L.U.F., coll. "Le Cri de la France", 1945 .
  • Liberté sous conditions, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1946.
  • Traité du caractère, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1946.
  • Introduction aux existentialismes, Paris, Denoël, 1946.
  • Qu'est-ce que le personnalisme ?, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1947.
  • L'éveil de l'Afrique noire, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1948.
  • La Petite Peur du XXe siècle, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1948.
  • Feu la Chrétienté, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1950.
  • Les certitudes difficiles, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1951.
  • Mounier et sa génération. Lettres, carnets et inédits, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1956.

See also


  1. ^ John Hellman (2002). Communitarian Third Way: Alexandre Marc and Ordre Nouveau, 1930-2000. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-7735-2376-0.
  2. ^ a b R. William Rauch, Politics and Belief in Contemporary France: Emmanuel Mounier and Christian Democracy, 1932–1950, Springer, 2012, p. 67.
  3. ^ Deweer, Dries (2013). "The Political Theory of Personalism: Maritain and Mounier on Personhood and Citizenship". International Journal of Philosophy and Theology. 74 (2): 110. doi:10.1080/21692327.2013.809869. ISSN 2169-2335.
  4. ^ Deweer, Dries (2013). "The Political Theory of Personalism: Maritain and Mounier on Personhood and Citizenship". International Journal of Philosophy and Theology. 74 (2): 115. doi:10.1080/21692327.2013.809869. ISSN 2169-2335.
  5. ^ Sawchenko, Leslie Diane (2013). The Contributions of Gabriel Marcel and Emmanuel Mounier to the Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur (MA thesis). Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary. p. ii. doi:10.11575/PRISM/28033.
  6. ^ Judt, Tony. Past Imperfect: French Intellectuals, 1944–1956 (2011, New York University Press).
  7. ^ The Black Legend of Pius XII Was Invented by a Catholic: Mounier

External links

American School of Grenoble

American School of Grenoble is an American international school located in the Cité Scolaire Internationale in Grenoble, France. It serves ages 10-18.


Châtenay-Malabry is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 10.8 km (6.7 mi) from the center of Paris.

The French writer Chateaubriand lived in the estate Vallée-aux-Loups at Châtenay-Malabry. The Garden City in the Butte Rouge, the Cité Jardins, is one of the earliest examples of housing at moderated rents (HLM).

Châtenay is the location of École Centrale Paris, of the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Paris-Sud and of French national laboratory of doping detection. It was also for many years the home of the world-renowned horticultural nursery. The high-speed LGV Atlantique crosses the city through a tunnel covered by a park called Coulée verte (greenway).

Since 31 December 2002, it has been part of the Communauté d'agglomération des Hauts de Bièvre, which merged into the Métropole du Grand Paris in January 2016.

Combat (newspaper)

Combat was a French newspaper created during the Second World War. It was founded in 1941 as a clandestine newspaper of the Resistance. Following the liberation, the main participants in the publication included Albert Ollivier, Jean-Paul de Dadelsen, Jean Bloch-Michel (1912–1987), and Georges Altschuler (fr). Among leading contributors were Jean-Paul Sartre, André Malraux, Emmanuel Mounier, Raymond Aron and Pierre Herbart (fr). From 1943 to 1947, its editor-in-chief was Albert Camus. Its production was directed by André Bollier until Milice repression led to his death.

In August 1944, Combat took the headquarters of L'Intransigeant, 100 Rue Réaumur (fr) in Paris, while Albert Camus became its editor in chief. The newspaper's production run decreased from 185,000 copies in January 1945 to 150,000 in August of the same year: it wasn't able to rival with others established newspapers (the Communist daily L'Humanité was publishing at the time 500,000 copies). During 1946, Combat was opposed to the "game of the parties" claiming to rebuild France, and thus became closer to Charles de Gaulle without, however, becoming the official voice of his movement.

Loyal to its origins, Combat tried to become the place of expression for those who believed in creating a popular non-Communist Left movement in France. In July 1948 (more than a year after the May 1947 crisis and the expulsion of the Communist Party (ministers) from the government), Victor Fay (de), a Marxist activist, took over Combat 's direction, but he failed to stop the newspaper's evolution towards more popular subjects and less political information.

In 1950, it hosted a debate about the Notre-Dame Affair stimulated by a vehement letter by André Breton in response to the editor Louis Pauwels.Philippe Tesson (fr) became editor in chief from 1960 to 1974. Henri Smadja (fr) had thought Tesson could be a perfect puppet-editor but Smadja's situation, in part because of the Tunisian regime, got worse. In March 1974, Philippe Tesson created Le Quotidien de Paris (1974–1996), which he had conceived as the successor of Combat.

During the May 1968 crisis, Combat supported the student movement although from a Stalinist point of view, through the signatures of the likes of Jacques-Arnaud Penent (fr). On 3 June, it published a falsified version of the Address to All Workers by the Council for Maintaining the Occupations, removing the references to the Situationist International and the attacks against the Stalinists. Henri Smadja committed suicide on 14 July 1974, and Combat definitively ceased to be published the following month.

Commonweal (magazine)

Commonweal is a liberal American Catholic journal of opinion, edited and managed by lay Catholics, headquartered in The Interchurch Center in New York City. It is the oldest independent Roman Catholic journal of opinion in the United States.

Esprit (magazine)

Esprit is a French literary magazine. The magazine also deals with current events.

Geneviève Fraisse

Geneviève Fraisse (born October 1948 in Paris) is a French philosopher and an historian of feminist thought.

She was born within Murs blancs (‹See Tfd›(in French) "White walls"), a community founded by Emmanuel Mounier at Châtenay-Malabry. Her parents, Paul Fraisse (an author of books of experimental psychology) and Simone Fraisse (an author of books on Charles Péguy, Ernest Renan, and Simone Weil), were both professors at the Sorbonne. After May 1968, she helped Jacques Rancière create the journal Les Révoltes logiques (‹See Tfd›(in French) "Logical revolts"). Author of numerous books, her work focuses on the history of the controversy of the sexes from an epistemological and political viewpoint.

Her research led her to postulate concepts on the "domestic", "exclusive democracy," "women of reason", the "two governments", the "mixing of the sexes" and, more recently, "consent". The complexity of the debate on gender led her to work closely with the historians, particularly on the synthesis of the history of women in the West. Seen as a leader of contemporary thought, her idea of gender equality lies between theory and practice, elaborating concepts from contemporary history.

Geneviève Fraisse has been an interministerial delegate on women's rights from 1997 to 1998 and a Member of European Parliament from 1999 to 2004, as an independent member of the European United Left / Nordic Green Left. She took the initiative of two parliamentary agendas, one on the performing arts, the other on women and sport. Since 2004, Geneviève Fraisse has also been a producer at France Culture (Europe ideas).

Geneviève Fraisse joined the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in 1983. She helped create the International College of Philosophy (1984). She was Visiting Scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1990. A doctor, she has been director of research at CNRS since 1997 and visiting professor at Rutgers University (USA, 2000–2002). She was also president of the Scientific Committee of the Institut Emilie du Châtelet from 2006 to 2010. From 2011 to 2013, she gave a Master Class at Science-Po Paris, "Pensée des sexes et démocratie", with the program PRESAGE (Programme de Recherche et de Savoir sur le Genre).

Jean-Marie Domenach

Jean-Marie Domenach (French: [dɔmənak]; February 13, 1922 – July 5, 1997) was a French writer and intellectual. He was noted as a left-wing and Catholic thinker.

Domenach was born in Lyon, where he studied at the Lycée du Parc.

In 1957, he took over the editorship of Esprit, the literary and political journal of personalism founded in 1945 by Emmanuel Mounier and followed (from 1950 to 1957) by Albert Béguin. Domenach voluntarily retired from Esprit at age 54 and began writing and teaching at the university level. Opposed to torture during the Algerian War, he also held a meeting denouncing the 1961 Paris massacre. He died in Paris, aged 75.

List of Catholic philosophers and theologians

This is a list of Catholic philosophers and theologians whose Catholicism is important to their works. The names are ordered by date of birth in order to give a rough sense of influence between thinkers.

Lycée Albert Camus (Bois-Colombes)

Lycée Albert Camus is a French senior high school in Bois-Colombes, Hauts-de-Seine, France, in the Paris metropolitan area.

The school has German, Spanish, Italian, and English international sections.

Lycée Charles Petiet

Lycée polyvalent Charles Petiet is a senior high school/sixth-form college in Villeneuve-la-Garenne, Hauts-de-Seine, France, in the Paris metropolitan area.

Lycée Emmanuel Mounier

Lycée Emmanuel Mounier may refer to the following French schools:

Lycée Emmanuel Mounier - Angers

Lycée Emmanuel-Mounier - Châtenay-Malabry

Lycée Emmanuel-Mounier - Grenoble

Lycée Emmanuel Mounier (Angers)

Lycée Emmanuel Mounier is a senior high school in Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France.

As of 2016 it had 450 students.

Lycée Paul Lapie

Lycée Paul Lapie is a French senior high school/sixth-form college in Courbevoie, Hauts-de-Seine, France, in the Paris metropolitan area.

The school building, designed by Florent Nanquette, opened in the fall of 1933. The school's design plans had been made in 1930.

Lycée du Parc

The Lycée du Parc is a public secondary school located in the sixth arrondissement of Lyon, France. Its name comes from the Parc de la Tête d'Or, one of Europe's largest urban parks, which is situated nearby.

It provides a lycée-level education and also offers classes préparatoires, or prépas, preparing students for entrance to the elite Grandes Écoles such as Ecole Polytechnique, Centrale Paris, ESSEC Business school or HEC Paris.

The school was built on the cite of the former Lunette des Charpennes, part of the Ceintures de Lyon system of fortifications built in the 19th century.


Mounier is a surname, and may refer to:

Anthony Mounier (born 1987), French footballer

Emmanuel Mounier (1905-1950), French philosopher

Flo Mounier, drummer

Jean-Jacques Mounier (born 1949), French judoka

Jean Joseph Mounier (1758-1806), French politician

Paul-Louis Landsberg

Paul-Louis Landsberg (3 December 1901 – 2 April 1944) was a twentieth century Existentialist philosopher who is known for his arguments in support of euthanasia as an acceptable method of suicide. His arguments are used today by Christian proponents of euthanasia. His best known works are The Experience of Death and The Moral Problem of Suicide.Landsberg lectured at the Universities of Bonn, Madrid and Paris, among others. He was a pupil of Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl and Max Scheler, continuing their work in Phenomenology to tackle several vital subjects, including personal identity, death and suicide. He was a close friend of the Christian Existentialist Emmanuel Mounier and a key contributor to the philosophical journal Esprit (1913-2013).Landsberg was hounded by the Gestapo for most of his life, both because of his Jewish family background and due to his expression of Anti-Nazi sentiments. He was captured by the Gestapo and deported to Oranienburg Concentration Camp towards the end of the war and died there of physical and mental exhaustion in April 1944.

Person Dignity Theory

The Person Dignity Theory (Vietnamese: Thuyết Nhân vị) was a Vietnamese political doctrine and ideology coined by Ngô Đình Nhu in 1954, based on Emmanuel Mounier's works. It was also the official ideology of the Can Lao Party, a former political party.


Personalism is an intellectual stance that emphasizes the importance of human persons. Various conceptualizations have been explored, so personalism exists in many different versions, and this makes it somewhat difficult to define as a philosophical and theological movement. The term "personalism" has been used in print first by F. D. E. Schleiermacher in the last year of the 18th. century. The idea can be traced back to earlier thinkers in various parts of the world

Popular Republican Movement

The Popular Republican Movement (French: Mouvement Républicain Populaire, MRP) was a Christian-democratic political party in France during the Fourth Republic. Its base was the Catholic vote and its leaders included Georges Bidault, Robert Schuman, Paul Coste-Floret, Pierre-Henri Teitgen and Pierre Pflimlin. It played a major role in forming governing coalitions, in emphasizing compromise and the middle ground, and in protecting against a return to extremism and political violence. It played an even more central role in foreign policy, having charge of the Foreign Office for ten years and launching plans for the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. which grew into the European Union. Its voter base gradually dwindled in the 1950s and it had little power by 1954.

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