Emmanouil Tsouderos

Emmanouil Tsouderos (Greek: Εμμανουήλ Τσουδερός, also transliterated as Emmanuel Tsuderos; 19 July 1882 – 10 February 1956) was a political and financial figure of Greece. During World War II he served as Prime Minister of Greece from 1941 to 1944, for all but one week of that tenure as head of the Greek government in exile.

Emmanouil Tsouderos
Emmanouil Tsouderos

Early life and studies

Emmanuel Tsouderos was born in 1882 in Rethymno, Crete (then part of the Ottoman Empire). He studied law at Athens University, and economics in Paris and London.[1]

Career in politics

He returned to Crete aged 24, and was elected Member of Parliament of the Cretan Legislature (1906–1912), when Crete had autonomous status under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire and was under the protection of Russia, Britain, France and Italy.

After the union of Crete with Greece in December 1913, he was elected to the Hellenic Parliament, and served as Minister of Transportation under Eleftherios Venizelos, and Minister of Finances under Themistoklis Sophoulis.

In 1928, when the Central Bank of Greece was established, Tsouderos was appointed its first vice-Governor, and in 1931 its Governor.[2]

See Marguarita Dritsas, Hellenic Open University, for her definitive biography of Tsourderos, based on his personal papers in the Bank of Greece Archives. [Dritsas, Margarita. (2012). Emmanuel Tsouderos, 1882-1956, Central Banker and Politician. Bank of Greece Publications.][1]

Prime minister

In 1941 during World War II the Greek Prime Minister Alexandros Koryzis committed suicide as the Nazi army advanced towards Athens, and Tsouderos succeeded him as Prime Minister of Greece (21–29 April 1941). After assuming power, Tsouderos fled with King George II to Crete, where he organised Greek forces to face the coming German invasion.

Tsouderos fled again during the Battle of Crete. He went to the Middle East and later Egypt. Tsouderos headed the Greek government in exile from 29 April 1941 until 13 April 1944. Although he was the internationally recognised Prime Minister of Greece (in opposition to the numerous prime ministers who were the figureheads of the collaborationist Hellenic State), in practice he had little influence inside Greece's borders. This government was initially located in London, but subsequently moved to Cairo. He served in the subsequent government in exile under Sofoklis Venizelos.

After the end of World War II Tsouderos served in different capacities, until his death at the age of 73 in Nervi, Genoa, Italy on February 10, 1956.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b "M.Tsouderos War-Time Premier Of Greece Obituary". The Times. London. February 11, 1956. pp. 9, Issue 53452, col C. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  2. ^ Bank of Greece Archived October 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
Political offices
Preceded by
Alexandros Koryzis
Prime Minister of Greece
21–29 April 1941
Succeeded by
Georgios Tsolakoglou (occupation government)
Preceded by
himself as head of Athens government
Prime Minister of Greece (government-in-exile)
29 April 1941 – 13 April 1944
Succeeded by
Sofoklis Venizelos
1938 Greek coup d'état attempt

The Coup d'état attempt of 1938 or coup d'état of Chania was a short-lived coup attempt in Chania, Greece, aimed at overthrowing the dictatorship of Ioannis Metaxas in 1938. Due to poor organization, the coup collapsed within a few hours and never seriously threatened the dictatorial regime.

1943 in Greece

This is a list of events that happened in 1943 in Greece.

Alexandros Koryzis

Alexandros Koryzis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Κορυζής, 1885 – April 18, 1941) was the Prime Minister of Greece briefly in 1941.

He assumed this role on January 29, 1941, when his predecessor, the dictator Ioannis Metaxas died, during the Greco-Italian War. Prior to this, he was governor of the Bank of Greece. Although largely powerless, as the government was effectively controlled by King George II, he still bore the burden of the German invasion which commenced on April 6 of the same year. Less than two weeks later, on April 18, as German troops marched towards Athens and the city was placed under martial law, he committed suicide by shooting himself. The cause of his death was initially reported to be a heart attack, probably to avoid causing mass panic in Athens.

He was originally from the small island of Poros in Greece, where a museum dedicated to his life and contribution exists today.

Alexandros Sakellariou

Alexandros Pilatos Sakellariou (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Πιλάτος Σακελλαρίου; Mandra, 1 January 1887 – Athens, 7 July 1982

) was a Greek admiral and politician, who led the Royal Hellenic Navy in World War II.

Angelico Carta

Angelico (Angelo) Carta (born 1886 in Riola Sardo) was an Italian military officer, best known for his actions during the Axis occupation of Crete in World War II.

Bank of Greece

The Bank of Greece (Greek: Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος Trapeza tis Ellados, abbreviated ΤτΕ) is the central bank of Greece. Its headquarters is located in Athens on Panepistimiou Street, but it also has several branches across the country. It was founded in 1927 and its operations started officially in 1928. The building that currently houses its headquarters was completed ten years later in 1938.The Bank of Greece is listed on the Athens Exchange.

Battle of Trahili

The Battle of Trahili (Greek: Μάχη στο Τραχήλι) was fought on 15 August 1943 between Cretan partisans and German occupying forces during World War II. It took place near the village of Vorizia in south-central Crete, when German forces attempted to surround a small group of partisans led by the local chieftain Petrakogiorgis. Most of the partisans managed to escape, despite being heavily outnumbered.

Deputy Prime Minister of Greece

The Deputy Prime Minister of Greece (Greek: Αντιπρόεδρος της Κυβερνήσεως, "Vice-President of the Government"; older form: Αντιπρόεδρος του Υπουργικού Συμβουλίου, "Vice-President of the Ministerial Council") is the second senior-most member of the Greek Cabinet. Despite the English translation of the title, he does not actually deputize for the Prime Minister, rather it is a mostly honorific post for senior ministers, and is usually combined with another senior government portfolio (traditionally either Foreign Affairs, Finance or Defence) or a coordinating role over several ministries. The post is not permanent, rather it is created on an ad hoc basis, usually for the leaders of junior parties in coalition cabinets, and may be held by more than one person at once.

The current Deputy Prime Minister is Panagiotis Pikrammenos, in the Cabinet of Kyriakos Mitsotakis.

Georgios Tsolakoglou

Georgios Tsolakoglou (Greek: Γεώργιος Τσολάκογλου; April 1886 – 22 May 1948) was a Greek military officer who became the first Prime Minister of the Greek collaborationist government during the Axis occupation in 1941–1942.

Greek government-in-exile

The Greek government-in-exile was the government in exile of Greece formed in the aftermath of the Battle of Greece, and the subsequent occupation of Greece by Nazi Germany and the Fascist Italy, also by the Kingdom of Bulgaria. The government-in-exile was based in Cairo, Egypt. Hence it is also commonly referred to as the "Cairo Government" (Greek: Κυβέρνηση του Καΐρου). It was the internationally recognised Greek government, during the years of the Axis occupation of Greece.

It was headed by King George II, which evacuated from Athens in April 1941, after the German invasion of the country, first to the island of Crete and then to Cairo in Egypt. He remained there until the German occupying forces withdrew from the country on 17 October 1944.

The exiled Greek government was closely controlled by the British. Until 1944 it was also recognized as the legal Greek government by all Greek Resistance forces. In the occupied Greece, alongside the Axis-controlled collaborationist governments, a vigorous Resistance movement developed. Its major force was the communist-controlled EAM/ELAS. During 1944, EAM/ELAS established a de facto separate administration, formalised in March 1944 after elections in both occupied and liberated territories, as the Political Committee of National Liberation (PEEA).

Greek–Yugoslav confederation

The Greek-Yugoslav confederation or federation, or Balkan Union, was a political concept during World War II, sponsored by the United Kingdom and involving the Yugoslav government-in-exile and the Greek government-in-exile. The two governments signed an agreement pushing the proposal ahead, but it never got beyond the planning stage because of opposition from within the Yugoslav and the Greek governments, real world events, and the opposition of the Soviet Union. The proposal envisioned the creation of a confederation of Greece and Yugoslavia.

National Organization of Crete

The National Organization of Crete (Greek: Εθνική Οργάνωση Κρήτης, Ethnikí Orgánosi Krítis (EOK)) was a resistance organization established in the island of Crete with the cooperation and encouragement of British Intelligence during the Axis occupation of Greece in World War II.

New York at War

"New York at War" was a military parade and civilian home front procession held supporting the World War II mobilization effort on June 13, 1942. It was considered at the time the largest parade ever held in New York City, with up to 500,000 marching up Fifth Avenue (from Washington Square Park to 79th Street) and 2,500,000 spectators in attendance.The parade coincided with a global "United Nations Day" launched by President Franklin Roosevelt tied to US Flag Day on June 14, six months after the Declaration by United Nations.Hugo Gellert led a committee of artists that designed the approximately 300 floats in the parade.The march was organized by Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia as honorary chairman, his deputy Grover Whalen as chairman, and General Hugh Aloysius Drum as grand marshal. Other dignitaries on the reviewing stand included Governor Herbert H. Lehman, Vice President Henry A. Wallace, the exiled King George II of Greece and Prime Minister Emmanouil Tsouderos, President of the Philippines Manuel L. Quezon, Duchess of Windsor Wallis Simpson, and Princess Märtha of Sweden.Despite a celebration of groups including German Americans and Italian Americans, Japanese Americans were excluded from the march, leading to objections from the American Civil Liberties Union.

Pyrgoi massacre

On April 24, 1944, at Pyrgoi (Katranitsa) took place the biggest slaughter of Greeks civilians (after this Kalavryta) by German Nazis and their local accomplices. The events of April 1944 were later the subject of dozens of documentaries, and generated wide interest. Among the atrocities that were committed by the Nazis, 368 men women and children were killed and burned alive. Colonel Karl Schümers, commander of the 7th constitution armored Grenadier police of the SS, was responsible for the holocausts Pyrgoi, Kleisoura Kastoria, Distomo Boeotia which killed 862 men, women and children. The survivors were forced to walk to Ptolemaida and town completely destroyed. Each year to Pyrgoi being present in established memorial for the victims of the Holocaust, the Greek President.

-->

Razing of Vorizia

The Razing of Vorizia (Greek: Καταστροφή των Βοριζίων) refers to the destruction of the village of Vorizia (Βορίζια) in Crete (Greece) by aerial bombardment and the murder of five of its inhabitants on 27 August 1943 by German occupying forces during World War II.

Sebastiano Visconti Prasca

Sebastiano Visconti Prasca (23 January 1883, Rome – 25 February 1961) was an Italian general. He led the initial offensive of the Greco-Italian War, but was relieved of his command after two weeks for incompetence and substituted with General Ubaldo Soddu.

Sofoklis Venizelos

Sofoklis Venizelos (Greek: Σοφοκλής Βενιζέλος, also transliterated as Sophocles Venizelos) (3 November 1894 – 7 February 1964) was a Greek politician, who three times served as Prime Minister of Greece – in 1944 (in exile), 1950 and 1950–1951.

Ubaldo Soddu

Ubaldo Soddu (23 July 1883 – 20 July 1949) was an Italian military officer, who commanded the Italian Forces in the Greco-Italian War for a month.

Soddu was born in Salerno. From 1939–1940, Soddu was under-secretary at the Ministry of War. In November 1940 he was sent to Albania to take over command of the Italian Forces from General Sebastiano Visconti Prasca and then sacked and replaced by the Chief of the General staff Ugo Cavallero four weeks later.

First Hellenic Republic
(1822–1832)
Kingdom of Greece (Wittelsbach)
(1833–1862)
Kingdom of Greece (Glücksburg)
(1863–1924)
Second Hellenic Republic
(1924–1935)
Kingdom of Greece (Glücksburg)
(1935–1973)
Military Junta
(1967–1974)
Third Hellenic Republic
(since 1974)
First Hellenic Republic
(1822–1832)
Kingdom of Greece (Wittelsbach)
(1833–1862)
Kingdom of Greece (Glücksburg)
(1863–1924)
Second Hellenic Republic
(1924–1935)
Kingdom of Greece (Glücksburg)
(1935–1973)
Military Junta
(1967–1974)
Third Hellenic Republic
(since 1974)

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.