Etymologically emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة imārah, plural: إمارات imārāt) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir (prince, commander, governor etc.). In English, the term is pronounced /ˈɛmərət, -ɪər-, -ɪt, -eɪt/ or /ɛˈmɪərət, -ɪt, -eɪt, iˈ-/ in British English and /ˈɛmərət/ or /ɪˈmɪərət/ in American English.
The United Arab Emirates is a federal state that comprises seven federal emirates, each administered by a hereditary emir, these seven forming the electoral college for the federation's President and Prime Minister. As most emirates have either disappeared, been integrated in a larger modern state or changed their rulers' styles, e.g. to malik (Arabic for king) or sultan, such true emirate-states have become rare.
Furthermore, in Arabic the term can be generalized to mean any province of a country that is administered by a member of the ruling class, especially of a member (usually styled emir) of the royal family, as in Saudi Arabian governorates.
A list of present independent emirates.
A list of emirates that have either ceased to exist, are not recognized and hold no real power, or were integrated into another country and preserved as "traditional states" arranged by location and in order of the date of the first leader styled "emir."
The Aghlabids (Arabic: الأغالبة) were an Arab dynasty of emirs from the Najdi tribe of Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.Caucasus Emirate
The Caucasus Emirate (Chechen: Имарат Кавказ Imarat Kavkaz (IK); Russian: Кавказский Эмират Kavkazskiy Emirat), also known as the Caucasian Emirate, was a militant Jihadist organisation active in the southwestern region of the Russian Federation. Its intention was to expel the Russian presence from the North Caucasus and to establish an independent Islamic emirate in the region. Caucasus Emirate also refers to the state that the group seeks to establish. Partially a successor to the secessionist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, it was officially announced on 7 October 2007, by former President of Ichkeria Dokka Umarov, who became its first emir.By late 2015 the group no longer had a visible presence in the North Caucasus region, as most of its members defected to the local ISIL affiliate, Vilayat Kavkaz.Dubai
Dubai ( doo-BY; Arabic: دبي Dubay, Gulf Arabic: Arabic pronunciation: [dʊˈbɑj]) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). On the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf, it is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, one of the seven emirates that make up the country.Dubai is a global city and business hub of the Middle East. It is also a major global transport hub for passengers and cargo. Oil revenue helped accelerate the development of the city, which was already a major mercantile hub, but Dubai's oil reserves are limited and production levels are low: today, less than 5% of the emirate's revenue comes from oil. A growing centre for regional and international trade since the early 20th century, Dubai's economy today relies on revenues from trade, tourism, aviation, real estate, and financial services.Dubai has attracted world attention through large construction projects and sports events, in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa. As of 2012, Dubai was the most expensive city in the Middle East. In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world.Emirate of Abu Dhabi
The Emirate of Abu Dhabi (, , or ; Arabic: إِمَـارَة أَبُـوظَـبِي Imārat Abū Ẓaby, pronounced [ʔabuː ˈðˤɑbi]) is one of seven emirates that constitute the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is the largest emirate by area (67,340 km2 (26,000 sq mi)), accounting for approximately 87 percent of the total land area of the federation. Abu Dhabi also has the largest population of the seven emirates. In June 2011, it was estimated to be 2,120,700 people, of which, 439,100 people (less than 21%) were Emirati citizens, which has risen to 2.3 million in 2012. The city of Abu Dhabi, after which the emirate is named, is both the capital of the emirate and federation.
In the early 1970s, two important developments helped the emirate achieve leaps on the path of development. The first was the establishment of the United Arab Emirates in December 1971 with Abu Dhabi as its political and administrative capital. The second was the sharp increase in oil prices following the October 1973 War, which accompanied a change in the relationship between the oil countries and foreign oil companies, leading to a dramatic rise in oil revenues. Abu Dhabi's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) estimates, in 2014, amounted to (EUR 0.24 tril.) AED 960 billion at current prices. Mining and quarrying (includes crude oil and natural gas) accounts for the largest contribution to GDP (58.5 per cent in 2011). Construction related industries are the next largest contributor (10.1 per cent in 2011). GDP grew to AED 911.6 billion in 2012, or over 100,000 USD per capita. In recent times, the Emirate of Abu Dhabi has continuously contributed around 60 per cent of the GDP of the United Arab Emirates, while its population constitutes only 34 per cent of the total UAE population according to the 2005 census.Emirate of Bukhara
The Emirate of Bukhara (Persian: امارت بخارا; Uzbek: Buxoro amirligi) was an Uzbek state that existed from 1785 to 1920 in what is now modern-day Uzbekistan. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River, and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana.Emirate of Córdoba
The Emirate of Córdoba (Arabic: إمارة قرطبة, Imārat Qurṭuba; Spanish: Emirato de Córdoba) was an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula ruled by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital.Emirate of Diriyah
The Emirate of Diriyah was the first Saudi state. It was established in the year 1744 (1157 AH) when Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Prince Muhammad bin Saud formed an alliance to found a socio-religious reform movement to unify the many states of the Arabian Peninsula and free it from Ottoman rule. In 1744, both Muhammed bin Abd Al Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud took an oath to achieve their goal. Marriage between Muhammad bin Saud's son, Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad, and the daughter of the Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab helped to seal the pact between their families which has lasted through the centuries to the present day.Emirate of Dubai
The Emirate of Dubai (Arabic: إمارة دبيّ; pr. Imārat Dubayy) is one of the seven emirates of the United Arab Emirates.
The capital of the emirate is the eponymous city, Dubai. It is located in the Arabian Desert on the coast of the Persian Gulf. It is bordered to the south by the emirate of Abu Dhabi, to the northeast by the emirate of Sharjah, to the southeast by the country of Oman, to the west by the emirate of Ajman, and to the north by the emirate of Ras Al Khaimah. In December 1971, the emirates united to form the United Arab Emirates, thus ending their status as British Protectorates.
The ruler of the emirate is Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, and the emirate is governed by the Government of Dubai.
The emirate is made up of various other municipalities and villages. The inland exclave of Hatta is located about 134 km east of Dubai City. It is bordered by Oman to the east and south, the villages of Sayh Mudayrah and Masfout in Ajman to the west, and Ras Al Khaimah to the north.Emirate of Granada
The Emirate of Granada (Arabic: إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imārat Ġarnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Spanish: Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar. After Prince Idris left Iberia to take the Almohad Caliphate leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids. The Nasrid emirs were responsible for building the Alhambra palace complex as it is known today. By 1250, the Emirate was the last part of the Iberian peninsula held by the Muslims. It roughly corresponded to the modern Spanish provinces of Granada, Almería, and Málaga. Andalusian Arabic was the mother tongue of the majority of the population. For two more centuries, the region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity.
It was gradually conquered by the Crown of Castile and dissolved with the 1491 Treaty of Granada, ending the Granada War. In January 1492 Muhammad XII of Granada, the last Nasrid ruler of Granada, formally relinquished his sovereignty and surrendered his territories to Castile, eventually moving to Morocco in exile.Emirate of Nejd
The Emirate of Nejd was the second Saudi state, existing between 1824 and 1891 in Nejd, the regions of Riyadh and Ha'il of what is now Saudi Arabia. Saudi rule was restored to central and eastern Arabia after the Emirate of Diriyah, the First Saudi State, having previously been brought down by the Ottoman Empire's Egypt Eyalet in the Ottoman–Wahhabi War (1811–1818).
The second Saudi period was marked by less territorial expansion and less religious zeal, although the Saudi leaders continued to be called Imam and still employed Wahhabist religious scholars. Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad's reconquest of Riyadh from Egyptian forces in 1824 is generally regarded as the beginning of the Second Saudi State. Severe internal conflicts within the House of Saud eventually led to the dynasty's downfall at the Battle of Mulayda in 1891, between the forces loyal to the last Saudi imam, Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki, and the Rashidi dynasty of Ha'il.Emirate of Sharjah
The Emirate of Sharjah (; Arabic: إِمَارَة ٱلشَّارِقَة Imārat Aš-Šāriqah) is one of the emirates of the United Arab Emirates, which covers 2,590 square kilometres (1,000 sq mi) and has a population of over 1,400,000 (2015). It comprises the capital city of Sharjah, after which it is named, and other minor towns and exclaves such as Kalba', Al Dhaid, Dibba Al-Hisn and Khor Fakkan.
The emirate is a constitutional monarchy. It has been ruled by Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi since 1972.Emirate of Sicily
The Emirate of Sicily (Arabic: إِمَارَة صِقِلِّيَة, romanized: ʾImārat Ṣiqilliya) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091. Its capital was Palermo.
Muslim Moors, who first invaded in 652, seized control of the entire island from the Byzantine Empire in a prolonged series of conflicts from 827 to 902, although Rometta in the far northeast of the island held out until 965. An Arab-Byzantine culture developed, producing a multiconfessional and multilingual state. The Emirate was conquered by Christian Norman mercenaries under Roger I of Sicily, who founded the County of Sicily in 1071. The last Muslim city in the island, Noto, was conquered in 1091.
Sicilian Muslims remained citizens of the multi-ethnic County and subsequent Kingdom of Sicily, until those who had not already converted were expelled in the 1240s. Until the late 12th century, and probably as late as the 1220s, Muslims formed a majority of the island's population, except in the northeast region of Val Demone which remained predominantly Byzantine Greek and Christian even during Islamic rule. The Islamic and Arabic influence remains in some elements of the Sicilian language, as well as in architecture and place names.Emirate of Transjordan
The Emirate of Transjordan (Arabic: إمارة شرق الأردن Imārat Sharq al-Urdun lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), officially known as the Amirate of Trans-Jordan, was a British protectorate established on April 1921.After the Ottoman defeat in World War I, the Transjordan region became part of OETA East; after British withdrawal this became the Hashemite-ruled Arab Kingdom of Syria. It became a no man's land following the July 1920 Battle of Maysalun, and the British in neighbouring Mandatory Palestine chose to avoid "any definite connection between it and Palestine" until a March 1921 conference at which it was agreed that Abdullah bin Hussein would administer the territory under the auspices of the British Mandate for Palestine with a fully autonomous governing system.
The Hashemite dynasty ruled the protectorate, as well as the neighbouring Mandatory Iraq. On 25 May 1946, the emirate became the "Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan", achieving full independence on 17 June 1946 when in accordance with the Treaty of London ratifications were exchanged in Amman. In 1949, it was constitutionally renamed the "Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan", commonly referred to as Jordan.Fujairah
Fujairah (Arabic: ٱلْفُجَيْرَة Al-Fuǧaira IPA: [al fud͡ʒajra]) is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates, and the only one of the seven that has a coastline solely on the Gulf of Oman and none on the Persian Gulf. The capital is Fujairah City.Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي امارات, Da Afghanistan Islami Amarat) was a totalitarian Islamic state established in September 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul. At its peak, the Taliban established control over approximately 90% of the country, whereas remaining parts of the country in the northeast were held by the Northern Alliance, who maintained broad international recognition as a continuation of the Islamic State of Afghanistan. After 9/11, international opposition to the regime drastically increased, with diplomatic recognition from the United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan being rescinded. The Islamic Emirate ceased to exist on December 17, 2001, after being overthrown by the Northern Alliance, which had been bolstered by a US-led invasion of the country.Karamanids
The Karamanids or Karamanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Karamanoğulları, Karamanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karaman and Beylik of Karaman (Karaman Beyliği), was one of the Islamic Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province. From the 13th century until its fall in 1487, the Karamanid dynasty was one of the most powerful Turkish beyliks in Anatolia.Ras Al Khaimah
Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) (Arabic: رَأْس ٱلْخَيْمَة; IPA: [raʔs alˈxajma]), to an extent identified with the historical area of Julfar, is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The city of Ras Al Khaimah, sometimes simply abbreviated to RAK City, is the capital of the Emirate, and home to most of the Emirate's residents.
Its name in English means "top of the tent". The emirate borders Oman's exclave of Musandam, and occupies part of the same peninsula. It covers an area of 2,486 km2 (960 sq mi) and has 64 km (40 mi) of beach coastline.
As of 2015, the emirate had a population of about 345,000, of which about 31% were Emirati citizens.RAK city has two main areas - the Old Town and Nakheel - on either side of a creek that is home to mangroves and is framed by the North-Western Hajar Mountains. The emirate also consists of several villages and new gated residential developments, such as Al Hamra Village and Mina Al Arab. The emirate is served by Ras Al Khaimah International Airport. Its geography consists of a northern part (where Ras Al Khaimah City and most towns are situated) and a large southerly inland exclave (near the Dubai exclave of Hatta), and a few small islands in the Persian Gulf. Ras Al Khaimah has the most fertile soil in the country, due to a larger share of rainfall and underground water streams from the Hajar.Umm Al Quwain
Umm Al Quwain (UAQ; Arabic: أم القيوين; pronounced [ʔumː alˈqajwajn]) is the least populous of the seven constituent emirates in the United Arab Emirates, located in the north of the country. The closest body of water near it is the Persian Gulf . The emirate is ruled by Saud bin Rashid Al Mualla. It had 72,000 inhabitants in 2007 and has an area of 770 km2 (300 sq mi).The emirate consists in the main of the coastal city of Umm Al Quwain and the inland oasis town of Falaj Al Mualla, some 30 km (19 mi) from the coast.Unlike some of its neighbours, Umm Al Quwain has not made any significant find of oil or gas in its territory and depends on revenue from hotels, parks and tourism, fisheries and general trading activities as well as the Umm Al Quwain Free Trade Zone (UAQFTZ) based at Port Ahmed Bin Rashid.
A number of government initiatives and strategies have been put in place to incentivise growth in trade and industrial activity in the emirate, including a 2018 move to reduce government fees to business and waive fines and violations levied against businesses which had not renewed their trade licenses.Waziristan
Waziristan (Pashto and Urdu: وزیرستان, "land of the Wazir") is a mountainous region covering the former FATA agencies of North Waziristan and South Waziristan which are now districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Waziristan covers some 11,585 square kilometres (4,500 sq mi). The area is populated by ethnic Pashtuns. It is named after the Wazir tribe. The language spoken in the valley is Pashto, predominantly the Waziristani dialect. The region forms the southern part of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which is now part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.The 16th-century Pashtun revolutionary leader and warrior-poet Bayazid Pir Roshan, who wrote the oldest known book in Pashto, was based in Kaniguram, Waziristan.
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