Emile Dechaineux

Emile Frank Verlaine Dechaineux, DSC (3 October 1902 – 21 October 1944) was an Australian mariner who reached the rank of Captain in the Royal Australian Navy during World War II. He was killed by a Japanese aircraft in what is believed to have been the first ever kamikaze attack, in the lead-up to the Battle of Leyte Gulf.

Emile Frank Verlaine Dechaineux
Emile Dechaineux AWM 106692
Captain Emile Dechaineux, c. 1943.
Born3 October 1902
Launceston, Tasmania,
Australia
Died21 October 1944 (aged 42)
At sea, in the Leyte Gulf, Pacific Ocean
Buried
At sea, in the Leyte Gulf, Pacific Ocean
AllegianceAustralia Australia
Service/branchRoyal Australian Navy
Years of service1919–1944
RankCaptain
Commands heldHMAS Warramunga;
HMAS Australia
AwardsDistinguished Service Cross
Officer of the Legion of Merit (United States)

Biography

HMAS Australia bridge
Dechaineux (second right) on the bridge of HMAS Australia in September 1944.

Dechaineux was born in Launceston, Tasmania, to a Belgian-born father, Florent Vincent Emile Lucien Dechaineux, and an Australian mother.[1] He entered the Royal Australian Naval College, Jervis Bay at the age of 14, graduated three years later, and was promoted to Midshipman in 1920. In the first half of the 20th century, the RAN worked very closely with the British Royal Navy (RN), frequently exchanging personnel. Dechaineux spent much of the 1920s training with the RN as a torpedo officer and naval air observer.

In September 1932 Dechaineux achieved the rank of Lieutenant Commander. In 1935 he was appointed Squadron Torpedo Officer, on board HMAS Canberra. The following year he married Mary Harbottle. In 1937, Dechaineux returned to the UK to attend the Royal Naval College and in June he was promoted to Commander.

At the outbreak of World War II, Dechaineux was attached to the RN Tactical and Minesweeping divisions until April 1940. Then, as the commander of the destroyer HMS Vivacious, he made five trips to assist Operation Dynamo, the evacuation of Dunkirk.

On 26 May the ship was allocated to Dynamo. At first, deployed from Dover, on 27 May the ship patrolled the beaches off Dunkirk, providing general anti-aircraft cover and protecting against fast E-boat attacks while scores of vessels crossed the mercifully semi-calm Channel in evacuation. The pleasure steamer Mona’s Isle, for example, now fitted out as an armed boarding vessel, was amongst the many. But her machineguns were no match for the attacking aircraft and occasional ship of the enemy: she was bombed as she reached the open sea outside Britain, and 40 on board were killed. This was the new and dangerous world of Dechaineux in action for the first time.

The next day the destroyer made two trips from Dunkirk to Dover, bringing out 326 men in the first trip and 359 in the second; one can only imagine the crowding of every interior space and her weather deck by so many men. Two days later another 537 men were safely landed in the British port. On 31 May the vessel came under fire from shore batteries off Bray and sustained 15 casualties. Dechaineux received a minor wound to his forehead and a piece of shrapnel tore the back of his trousers In a letter to his wife he remarked “I am very grateful that the ship was heading away from the gunfire, rather than towards it!” On 1 June another 427 men were brought back to Dover.

On 3 June the destroyer was directed to take part in Operation OK, which sank blockships, to provide a temporary wharfage point, in Dunkirk Harbour. Vivacious safely brought the crews of these ships back across the Channel. Altogether the destroyer brought out a total of 1,649 passengers from Dunkirk during five voyages. The evacuation lasted nine days, and safely brought hundreds of thousands of men back to Britain. Four years later, many would return for the D-Day landings. Dechaineux had proved his worth during his baptism of fire, not only by commanding the ship through battle, but also through the effective leadership of his men. He was destined for greater things.

On 25 September 1940 he was given command of the brand new Hunt-class escort destroyer, HMS Eglington. After working up to satisfactory operational capability in Scapa Flow – where the ship and her captain were assessed by RN experts – the last months of the year were spent on North Sea convoy escort duties, as was 1941, although on 4 October the ship carried out a brief search for a German destroyer reported minelaying off South Foreland.[2]

In 1941, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.[3]

Dechaineux returned to Australia later in 1941, as Director of Operations at the Navy Office in Melbourne. In June 1943, following the outbreak of war with Japan, he was given command of the tactical (destroyer) component of RAN-US Navy Task Force 74. From his immediate command, HMAS Warramunga, Dechaineux commanded operations in waters around Australia and New Guinea, including support for amphibious landings, such as those in the Admiralty Islands. He was promoted to Captain on 31 December 1943.[4]

On 9 March 1944, Dechaineux was given command of the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia, the flagship of both the RAN and Task Force 74, under the overall force commander Commodore John Collins. The Australia supported Allied landings at Hollandia in Dutch New Guinea and on the islands of Biak, Noemfoor and Morotai.

On 21 October 1944, HMAS Australia was supporting the landings in Leyte Gulf. Off Leyte Island, gunners from HMAS Australia and HMAS Shropshire fired at and hit a Japanese aircraft. Initially, the plane flew away from the ships, but it subsequently turned and dived into Australia. The plane struck the superstructure of the Australia above the bridge. Although the 200 kg (440 pound) bomb carried by the plane failed to explode, burning fuel and debris were spewed over a large area. Dechaineux was disembowelled by shrapnel and died a few hours later. He was buried at sea that night. Another 30 crew members died as a result of the attack; among the wounded was Commodore Collins.

The US government posthumously appointed Dechaineux an Officer of the Legion of Merit.[5]

In 1990 the Australian government announced that a new Collins class submarine would be named HMAS Dechaineux in his memory.[5] It was launched in 1998 in the presence of Dechaineux's widow, Mary Purbrick, and his son, former RAN Commodore Peter Dechaineux.

Honours and awards

Captain Emile Dechaineux was decorated with the following honours:

Distinguished Service Cross (UK) ribbon
1939-45 Star
AtlanticStarRibbon2

Distinguished Service Cross (UK) ribbon
1939-45 Star
AtlanticStarRibbon2

Pacific Star
War Medal 39-45 BAR MID
Australian Service Medal 1939-45 ribbon
Us legion of merit officer rib

Pacific Star
War Medal 39-45 BAR MID
Australian Service Medal 1939-45 ribbon
Us legion of merit officer rib
Distinguished Service Cross (UK) ribbon Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) (1941)
1939-45 Star 1939-1945 Star
AtlanticStarRibbon2 Atlantic Star
Pacific Star Pacific Star
War Medal 39-45 BAR MID War Medal 1939–1945 with Bronze Oakleaf for Mentioned in Dispatches
Australian Service Medal 1939-45 ribbon Australia Service Medal 1939-45
Us legion of merit officer rib Officer of the US Legion of Merit (1944)

References

  1. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography
  2. ^ Lewis, Tom. The Submarine Six. Adelaide: Avonmore Books, 2010.
  3. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35204, page 3745, 27 June 1941
  4. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36326, page 229, 11 January 1944
  5. ^ a b "Dechaineux, Emile Frank Verlaine (1902 - 1944)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 22 February 2010.

External links

1944 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1944 in Australia.

Admiralty Islands campaign

The Admiralty Islands campaign (Operation Brewer) was a series of battles in the New Guinea campaign of World War II in which the United States Army's 1st Cavalry Division took the Japanese-held Admiralty Islands.

Acting on reports from airmen that there were no signs of enemy activity and the islands might have been evacuated, General Douglas MacArthur accelerated his timetable for capturing the Admiralties and ordered an immediate reconnaissance in force. The campaign began on 29 February 1944 when a force landed on Los Negros, the third-largest island in the group. By using a small, isolated beach where the Japanese had not anticipated an assault, the force achieved tactical surprise, but the islands proved to be far from unoccupied. A furious battle over the islands ensued.

In the end, air superiority and command of the sea allowed the Allies to heavily reinforce their position on Los Negros. The 1st Cavalry Division could then overrun the islands. The campaign officially ended on 18 May 1944. The Allied victory completed the isolation of the major Japanese base at Rabaul that was the ultimate objective of the Allied campaigns of 1942 and 1943. A major air and naval base was developed in the Admiralty Islands that became an important launching point for the campaigns of 1944 in the Pacific.

Australia–Philippines relations

Australia–Philippines relations cover a broad range of areas of cooperation including political, economic, development, defence, security and cultural relations between Australia and the Philippines. Australia has an embassy in Manila. The Philippines has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate general in Sydney.

Collins-class submarine

The Collins class of six Australian-built diesel-electric submarines is operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). The Collins class takes its name from Australian Vice Admiral John Augustine Collins; all six submarines are named after significant RAN personnel who distinguished themselves in action during World War II. The boats were the first submarines to be constructed in Australia, prompting widespread improvements in Australian industry and delivering a sovereign (Australian controlled) sustainment/maintenance capability.

Planning for a new design to replace the RAN's Oberon-class submarines began in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Proposals were received from seven companies; two were selected for a funded study to determine the winning design, which was announced in mid-1987. The submarines, enlarged versions of Swedish shipbuilder Kockums' Västergötland class and originally referred to as the Type 471, were constructed between 1990 and 2003 in South Australia by the Australian Submarine Corporation (ASC).

The submarines have been the subject of many incidents and technical problems since the design phase, including accusations of foul play and bias during the design selection, improper handling of design changes during construction, major capability deficiencies in the first submarines, and ongoing technical problems throughout the early life of the class. These problems have been compounded by the inability of the RAN to retain sufficient personnel to operate the submarines—by 2008, only three could be manned, and between 2009 and 2012, on average two or fewer were fully operational. The resulting negative press has led to a poor public perception of the Collins class. After 20 years of service issues, the boats have finally provided high availability to the RAN since 2016.

The Collins class was expected to be retired about 2026, however, the 2016 Defence White Paper extended this into the 2030s. The Collins class life will now be extended and will receive an unplanned capability upgrade, including but not limited to: sonar and communications.The Collins class will be replaced by the Future Submarine Program (SEA 1000) that is scheduled, according to the 2016 Defence White Paper, to begin entering service in the early 2030s with construction extending to 2050. The Future Submarine Program will be based on the Shortfin Barracuda, a nuclear attack submarine designed by French company DCNS; twelve submarines will be acquired, all built in Australia.

Dechaineux

Dechaineux can refer to:

Emile Dechaineux a captain in the Australian Navy.

HMAS Dechaineux (SSG 76) a submarine named after him.

Giblin family

The Giblin family of Tasmania was an influential family in the early days of the colony of Tasmania, or Van Diemen's Land as it was earlier named. The list below is not exhaustive, but should help in establishing relationships between family members encountered in histories and elsewhere in Wikipedia.

HMAS Australia (D84)

HMAS Australia (I84/D84/C01) was a County-class heavy cruiser of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). One of two Kent-subclass ships ordered for the RAN in 1924, Australia was laid down in Scotland in 1925, and entered service in 1928. Apart from an exchange deployment to the Mediterranean from 1934 to 1936, during which she became involved in the planned British response to the Abyssinia Crisis, Australia operated in local and South-West Pacific waters until World War II began.

The cruiser remained near Australia until mid-1940, when she was deployed for duties in the eastern Atlantic, including hunts for German ships and participation in Operation Menace. During 1941, Australia operated in home and Indian Ocean waters, but was reassigned as flagship of the ANZAC Squadron in early 1942. As part of this force (which was later redesignated Task Force 44, then Task Force 74), Australia operated in support of United States naval and amphibious operations throughout South-East Asia until the start of 1945, including involvement in the battles at the Coral Sea and Savo Island, the amphibious landings at Guadalcanal and Leyte Gulf, and numerous actions during the New Guinea campaign. She was forced to withdraw following a series of kamikaze attacks during the invasion of Lingayen Gulf. The prioritisation of shipyard work in Australia for British Pacific Fleet vessels saw the Australian cruiser sail to England for repairs, where she was at the end of the war.

During the late 1940s, Australia served with the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan, and participated in several port visits to other nations, before being retasked as a training ship in 1950. The cruiser was decommissioned in 1954, and sold for scrapping in 1955.

HMAS Dechaineux (SSG 76)

HMAS Dechaineux (SSG 76) is the fourth of six Collins class submarines operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN).

Named for Captain Emile Dechaineux, the boat was laid down in 1993 and launched in 1998. Dechaineux and sister boat Sheean were modified during construction as part of the "fast track" program—an attempt to fix the problems affecting the Collins class, and put at least two fully operational submarines in service before the last Oberon-class submarine was decommissioned.

In 2003, a seawater pipe burst while Dechaineux was submerged deep, nearly resulting in the loss of the submarine.

History of the Royal Australian Navy

The history of the Royal Australian Navy traces the development of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) from the colonisation of Australia by the British in 1788. Until 1859, vessels of the Royal Navy made frequent trips to the new colonies. In 1859, the Australia Squadron was formed as a separate squadron and remained in Australia until 1913. Until Federation, five of the six Australian colonies operated their own colonial naval force, which formed on 1 March 1901 the Australian Navy's (AN) Commonwealth Naval Force which received Royal patronage in July 1911 and was from that time referred to as Royal Australian Navy (RAN). On 4 October 1913 the new replacement fleet for the foundation fleet of 1901 steamed through Sydney Heads for the first time.

The Royal Australian Navy has seen action in every ocean of the world. It first saw action in World War I, in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans. Between the wars the RAN's fortunes shifted with the financial situation of Australia: it experienced great growth during the 1920s, but was forced to reduce its fleet and operations during the 1930s. Consequently, when it entered World War II, the RAN was smaller than it had been at the start of World War I. During the course of World War II, the RAN operated more than 350 fighting and support ships; a further 600 small civilian vessels were put into service as auxiliary patrol boats. (Contrary to some claims, however, the RAN was not the fifth-largest navy in the world at any point during World War II.)

Following World War II, the RAN saw action in Korea, Vietnam, and other smaller conflicts. Today, the RAN consists of a small but modern force, widely regarded as one of the most powerful forces in the Asia Pacific Region.

Index of World War II articles (E)

E. Frederic Morrow

E. Howard Hunt

E. Ion Pool

E. Lloyd Du Brul

E. R. Stephenson

E. S. Gosney

E. V. Loustalot

Earl E. Anderson

Earl G. Harrison

Earl Johnson (baseball)

Earl Kenneth Olsen

Earl N. Franklin

Earle Birney

Earle E. Partridge

Earle Wheeler

Earls Colne Airfield

Early timeline of Nazism

East African Campaign (World War II)

East Hebei Autonomous Council

East Hopei Army

East Indies Station

East Sea Fleet

East Wall (defensive line)

Easter Posey

Easter Sunday Raid

Eastern Approaches

Eastern District Army (Japan)

Eastern Fleet

Eastern Front (computer game)

Eastern Front (World War II)

Eastern Front Medal

Eastern Sierra Regional Airport

Easterwood Airport

Easy Company (comics)

Ebensee

Eberhard Jäckel

Eberhard Rees

Eberhard Taubert

Eberhard von Mackensen

Ecole Supérieure de Journalisme de Paris

Economic Cooperation Administration

Economy of Manchukuo

Economy of Nazi Germany

Economy of Paris

Ed Albosta

Ed and Lorraine Warren

Ed Bearss

Ed Derwinski

Ed Friendly

Ed Frutig

Ed Goddard

Ed Grothus

Ed Guthman

Ed Jucker

Ed Koch

Ed Levy

Ed McMahon

Ed Molinski

Ed Sabol

Edda Mussolini

Eddie Albert

Eddie Carnett

Eddie Chapman

Eddie Eagan

Eddie Jankowski

Eddie Layton

Eddie Rickenbacker

Eddie Slovik

Eddy Capron

Eddy Hamel

Eddy Wynschenk

Edelweiss Pirates

Edgar Aabye

Edgar André

Edgar Borges

Edgar Christensen

Edgar Faure

Edgar H. Lloyd

Edgar Herschler

Edgar Huff

Edgar Julius Jung

Edgar McCloughry

Edgar Meyer

Edgar Quinet (Paris Métro)

Edgar Quinet

Edgar Rădulescu

Edgar Ray Killen

Edgar Seligman

Edgar Sengier

Edgar Whitcomb

Edgard de Larminat

Edgard Potier

Edgardo Sogno

Edgardo Vaghi

Edge of Darkness (1943 film)

Edges of the Lord

Edith Bülbring

Edith Frank-Holländer

Edith Nourse Rogers

Edith Stein

Edler von Daniels

Edme-Armand-Gaston d'Audiffret-Pasquier

Edmond Decottignies

Edmond Delfour

Edmond Kramer

Edmond Malinvaud

Edmond Marin la Meslée

Edmond Rostand

Edmond Schreiber

Edmund Ernest García

Edmund Glaise-Horstenau

Edmund Graves Brown

Edmund H. Marriott (Captain)

Edmund Heines

Edmund Herring

Edmund Hoffmeister

Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside

Edmund Jankowski

Edmund Kiss

Edmund Knoll-Kownacki

Edmund Leopold de Rothschild

Edmund Lindmark

Edmund Minahan

Edmund Muskie

Edmund Osmańczyk

Edmund Roßmann

Edmund Sebree

Edmund Veesenmayer

Edouard Branly

Édouard Candeveau

Edouard Drumont

Edouard Le Roy

Edric Bastyan

Edsall-class destroyer escort

Edson Raff

Eduard Benedek Brunschweiler

Eduard Bona Bunić

Eduard Brücklmeier

Eduard Deisenhofer

Eduard Dietl

Eduard Ellman-Eelma

Eduard Meijer

Eduard Neumann

Eduard Pană

Eduard Pütsep

Eduard Ritter von Schleich

Eduard Schulte

Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli

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Eduard von Knorr

Eduard von Steiger

Eduard Wirths

Eduardo Camet

Eduardo Propper de Callejón

Education for Death

Education in Poland during World War II

Educational reform in occupied Japan

Edvard Beneš

Edvard Hultgren

Edvard Kardelj

Edvard Kocbek

Edvin Wide

Edward A. Bennett

Edward A. Carter, Jr.

Edward A. Silk

Edward Addison

Edward Almond

Edward Amerasakera

Edward Ashmore

Edward Bernard Raczyński

Edward Brooke

Edward Bushnell

Edward C. Dahlgren

Edward C. Daly

Edward Chester Plow

Edward Colquhoun Charlton

Edward Condon

Edward D. Wood, Jr.

Edward Dunlop

Edward Ellsberg

Edward E. Gyatt

Edward F. Hennessey

Edward F. Rector

Edward Fielden (RAF officer)

Edward Ford (courtier)

Edward G. Breen

Edward G. Wilkin

Edward Gardner (MP)

Edward Gonzalez Carroll

Edward Gordon Jones

Edward Gourdin

Edward Graff

Edward H. Ahrens

Edward H. Brooks

Edward H. Howell

Edward S. Hamilton

Edward Hart (soccer)

Edward Heath

Edward Heffron

Edward Henry Allen

Edward J. Bonin

Edward J. Gurney

Edward J. Moskala

Edward J. O’Neill

Edward J. Ruppelt

Edward Jennings (rowing)

Edward Kenna

Edward Kennedy (journalist)

Edward Kirby

Edward Kobyliński

Edward L. Beach, Jr.

Edward L. Cochrane

Edward L. Jackson

Edward L. Sittler, Jr.

Edward Lansdale

Edward Leonard Ellington

Edward Marsh (rower)

Edward Marshall Boehm

Edward Mechling

Edward Micka

Edward N. Peterson

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Edward O'Hare

Edward O'Herron, Jr.

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Edward Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany

Edward Quinan

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Edward Roschmann

Edward Russell, 26th Baron de Clifford

Edward Rydz-Śmigły

Edward S. Michael

Edward Smith (VC)

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Edward Stettinius, Jr.

Edward Teller

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Edward Toms

Edward Turkington

Edward Tylor Miller

Edward W. Gosselin

Edward Witten

Edward Y. Hartshorne

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Edwin Barclay

Edwin Bramall, Baron Bramall

Edwin D. Patrick

Edwin Duing Eshleman

Edwin H. May, Jr.

Edwin H. Whitehead

Edwin Hedley

Edwin J. Hill

Edwin Linkomies

Edwin McMillan

Edwin Murati

Edwin Swales

Edwin T. Layton

Edwin Walker

Edwin William Hurst

Edwina Sandys

Eero Berg

Eero Lehtonen

Eero Mäntyranta

Effect of the Siege of Leningrad on the city

Effects of World War II

Efraim Zuroff

Egbert Hayessen

Egon Bretscher

Egon Mayer

Egutu Oliseh

Egypt-Libya Campaign

Ehrenfeld Group

Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus

Ehrenpokal der Luftwaffe

Ehrentempel

Eichmann Interrogated

Eiffel Tower in popular culture

Eiffel Tower

Eight-eight fleet

Eighteenth Air Force

Eighteenth Army (Japan)

Eighth Air Force

Eighth Army (United Kingdom)

Eighth Route Army

Eighth United States Army

Eiji Sawamura

Eileen Nearne

Einar Axel Malmstrom

Einar Gerhardsen

Einar Liberg

Eine Symphonie des Kampfwillens

Eino Leino (wrestler)

Eino Luukkanen

Einsatzgruppe Egypt

Einsatzgruppen Trial

Einsatzgruppen

Einsatzkommando

Einstein–Szilárd letter

Einstossflammenwerfer 46

Eisenwerke Oberdonau

Škorpion vz. 61

EL-DE Haus

Elżbieta Zawacka

Elaine Hendrix

Elbe Day

Elbert L. Kinser

Elbert Tuttle

Elbing-class torpedo boat

Elchonon Wasserman

Elco Naval Division

Elden H. Johnson

Eldon Edwards

Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited

Eldred World War II Museum

Elefant

Elektroboot

Elemér Somfay

Elena Văcărescu

Eleonore Poelsleitner

Eleuthère Irénée du Pont

Eleventh Air Force

Eleventh Army (Japan)

Elford Albin Cederberg

Elfriede Mohnecke

Elfriede Rinkel

Eli L. Whiteley

Eli Thomas Reich

Eli Wallach

Eliad Moreh

Eliane Karp

Eliane Plewman

Elias Degiannis

Elias Katz

Elie Aron Cohen

Elie Carafoli

Elie Frédéric Forey

Elie Wiesel National Institute for Studying the Holocaust in Romania

Elie Wiesel

Elio Vittorini

Elisabeth Becker

Elisabeth Blochmann

Elisabeth de Bourbon-Vendôme

Elisabeth de Rothschild

Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche

Elisabeth Heyward

Elisabeth Leseur

Elisabeth Lupka

Elisabeth Marschall

Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann

Elisabeth of Bavaria (1876-1965)

Elisabeth Schumacher

Elisabeth Volkenrath

Elisabeth von Schleicher

Elisabeth von Thadden

Eliyahu Bet-Zuri

Eliyahu Hakim

Elizabeth Becker-Pinkston

Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon

Elizabeth Devereux-Rochester

Elizabeth Dilling

Elizebeth Friedman

Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom

Elizabeth Lawrie Smellie

Elizabeth P. Hoisington

Elizabeth Wiskemann

Ella Maillart

Ellen King

Ellen Osiier

Elliot Meyerowitz

Elliot Richardson

Elliot Welles

Elliott Roosevelt

Ellis R. Weicht

Elme Marie Caro

Elmer Bernstein

Elmer Charles Bigelow

Elmer E. Fryar

Elmer Gedeon

Elmer Heindl

Elmer J. Burr

Elmer J. Holland

Elmer Knutson

Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr.

Elmo Smith

Elmyr de Hory

Eloi Metullus

Elpida Karamandi

Elsa Gindler

Else Feldmann

Else Hirsch

Else Krüger

Else Ury

Elspeth Rostow

Elton Younger

Elverum Authorization

Elvira Popescu

Elvis Jacob Stahr, Jr.

Elwood Richard Quesada

Ely Jacques Kahn, Jr.

Elyesa Bazna

Emanoil Ionescu

Emanuel Lasker

Emanuel Moravec

Emanuel Querido

Emanuel Schäfer

Emanuele Beraudo di Pralormo

Embassy of Australia in Paris

Embassy of Canada in Paris

Embassy of Serbia in Paris

Embassy of the United States in Paris

Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II

Emergency circulating notes

Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists

Emergency Fighter Program

Emergency Relief and Construction Act

Emergency Shipbuilding program

Emerse Faé

Emerson Dickman

Emerson Norton

Emigration of Germans from Poland in the 20th century

Emil August Fieldorf

Emil Beier

Emil Bitsch

Emil Bodnăraş

Emil Calmanovici

Emil Clade

Emil Fackenheim

Emil Haţieganu

Emil Haussmann

Emil Hácha

Emil Jannings

Emil Kellenberger

Emil Kolben

Emil Konopinski

Emil Lang (fighter ace)

Emil Maurice

Emil Puhl

Emil Racoviţă

Emil Sembach

Emil Sitko

Emil Uzelac

Emil Zinner

Emile-Justin Menier

Émile Albrecht

Emile Boutroux

Emile Dechaineux

Emile Deleau, Jr.

Emile Druart

Emile Lachapelle

Emilie Schindler

Emilio Aguinaldo

Emilio Banfi

Emilio Esteban Infantes

Emilio G. Segrè

Emilio Lussu

Emma Watson

Emma Zimmer

Emmanouil Tsouderos

Emmanuel d'Astier de la Vigerie

Emmanuel de Grouchy, Marquis de Grouchy

Emmanuel Dorado

Emmanuel Foulon

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès

Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie

Emmerich Danzer

Emmett H. Walker, Jr.

Emmett O'Donnell, Jr.

Emmy Andriesse

Emory S. Land

EMP 44

Empire Comfort

Empire of Japan

Empire of the Rising Sun

Empire of the Sun (film)

Empire of the Sun

Empire of Vietnam

Empire Peacemaker

Empire Rest

Empire Shelter

Employee and Worker Faithful Service Medal

Empress of Britain (1930)

Enabling Act of 1933

Encirclement Campaign against Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Soviet

Encirclement Campaign against Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet

Encirclement Campaign against Northeastern Jiangxi Soviet

Encirclement Campaigns

Encyclopedia of the Holocaust

Encyclopedia of the Third Reich

End of World War II in Europe

End of World War II in the Pacific

Endel Puusepp

Endsieg

Enemy at the Door

Enemy at the Gates

Enemy Coast Ahead

Enemy Objectives Unit

Enfield revolver

Engelbert Endrass

Engineer combat group

Engineering School Leonard de Vinci

England First Party

Englandspiel

Enigma (2001 film)

Enigma (novel)

Enigma machine

Enigma: Rising Tide

Enoch Powell

Enola Gay

Enomoto Takeaki

Enrico Berlinguer

Enrico Bombieri

Enrico Fermi

Enrico Mattei

Enrique de Lucas

Ensemble InterContemporain

Ensign Pulver

Entertainments National Service Association

Entwicklung series

Environmental Measurements Laboratory

Enzian

Enzo Biagi

Enzo Sereni

Enzo Traverso

Enzo Trossero

Ephraim Oshry

Ephraim P. Holmes

Ephraim Urbach

Ephrata Municipal Airport

EPK (Pyrkal) Machine gun

Equipment losses in World War II

Erbkrank

Erbo Graf von Kageneck

ERCO Ercoupe

Ercole Olgeni

Eremia Grigorescu

Ergänzungsjagdgeschwader

Erhard Heiden

Erhard Keller

Erhard Milch

Erhard Raus

Eric "Winkle" Brown

Eric Alfred Winkler

Eric Anderson (VC)

Eric Bols

Eric Burchmore

Eric Calcagno

Eric Carlberg

Eric Charles Twelves Wilson

Eric Djemba-Djemba

Eric Dorman-Smith

Eric Erickson (spy)

Eric Feldt

Eric Fombonne

Eric G. Gibson

Eric Gandar Dower

Eric Gascoigne Robinson

Eric Grant Miles

Eric Halstead

Eric James Brindley Nicolson

Eric Kandel

Eric Koenig

Eric Lawrence Moxey

Eric Lemming

Eric Lock

Eric Lomax

Eric Malmberg (sport wrestler)

Eric Marcus Municipal Airport

Eric Maschwitz

Eric Muhsfeldt

Eric Newby

Eric Pleasants

Eric Rabesandratana

Eric Ravilious

Eric Schwarzkopf

Eric Sykes

Eric W. Harris

Eric William Wright

Eric Williams (writer)

Erich Abraham

Erich Albrecht

Erich Bey

Erich Brandenberger

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Kamikaze

Kamikaze (神風, [kamiꜜkaze]; "divine wind" or "spirit wind"), officially Tokubetsu Kōgekitai (特別攻撃隊, "Special Attack Unit"), were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks. About 3,800 kamikaze pilots died during the war, and more than 7,000 naval personnel were killed by kamikaze attacks.Kamikaze aircraft were essentially pilot-guided explosive missiles, purpose-built or converted from conventional aircraft. Pilots would attempt to crash their aircraft into enemy ships in what was called a "body attack" (tai-atari) in planes laden with some combination of explosives, bombs, and torpedoes. Accuracy was much higher than that of conventional attacks, and the payload and explosion larger; about 19% of kamikaze attacks were successful. A kamikaze could sustain damage that would disable a conventional attacker and still achieve its objective. The goal of crippling or destroying large numbers of Allied ships, particularly aircraft carriers, was considered by the Empire of Japan to be a just reason for sacrificing pilots and aircraft.

These attacks, which began in October 1944, followed several critical military defeats for the Japanese. They had long since lost aerial dominance as a result of having outdated aircraft and enduring the loss of experienced pilots. Japan suffered from a diminishing capacity for war and a rapidly declining industrial capacity relative to that of the Allies. Japan was also losing pilots faster than it could train their replacements. These combined factors, along with Japan's unwillingness to surrender, led to the use of kamikaze tactics as Allied forces advanced towards the Japanese home islands.

While the term kamikaze usually refers to the aerial strikes, it has also been applied to various other suicide attacks. The Japanese military also used or made plans for non-aerial Japanese Special Attack Units, including those involving submarines, human torpedoes, speedboats and divers.

The tradition of death instead of defeat, capture and shame was deeply entrenched in Japanese military culture. One of the primary traditions in the samurai life and the Bushido code was loyalty and honor until death.

Richard Peek (admiral)

Vice Admiral Sir Richard Innes Peek (30 July 1914 – 28 August 2010) was a senior officer in the Royal Australian Navy, who served as First Naval Member of the Australian Commonwealth Naval Board from 1970 to 1973.

Tom Lewis (author)

Dr Thomas Anthony "Tom" Lewis, OAM (born 1958) is an Australian author, military historian, editor, teacher, and former naval officer. An author since 1989, Lewis worked as a high school teacher, and served as naval officer for 20 years, seeing active service in Baghdad during the Iraq war, and working in East Timor.

In June 2003, Lewis was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for meritorious service to the Royal Australian Navy, particularly in the promotion of Australian naval history.

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