Emery Reves

Emery Reves (Hungarian: Révész Imre) (16 February 1904 – 4 October 1981) was a writer, publisher, literary agent and advocate of world federalism.

Youth

Reves was born in Bácsföldvár, Hungary, to Jewish parents and educated in Berlin, Zurich and Paris.

Publishing career and Winston Churchill

In 1933, he founded a publishing company, the "Cooperation Publishing Service", which was known for its strong anti-Nazi stance. In 1937, he befriended Winston Churchill, becoming his literary agent. When Churchill was elected Prime Minister, Reves was sent to New York to help build up the British propaganda organisation in both North and South America. In 1940 he was naturalised as a British subject.[1] After the war, he purchased the rights to publish Churchill's war memoirs outside the United Kingdom and likewise Churchill's History of the English-Speaking Peoples.

He is also known for publishing the book I Paid Hitler (1941) in which he said Fritz Thyssen was clearly, in his mind, "one of the men most responsible for the rise of Hitler and for the seeking of power by the National Socialists in Germany".[2]

The Anatomy of Peace and an Open Letter to the American People

He was the author of The Anatomy of Peace, a 1945 book that helped popularize the cause of world federalism.[3] Reves argued that world law was the only way to prevent war and that the fledgling United Nations Security Council would be inadequate to preserve peace because it was an instrument of power, rather than an instrument of law. His book was endorsed by Albert Einstein and numerous other prominent figures.[4]

The cover of the book had an "Open Letter to the American People", signed by Owen J. Roberts, J.W. Fulbright, Claude Pepper, Elbert D. Thomas, and other dignitaries, which began:

The first atomic bomb destroyed more than the city of Hiroshima. It also exploded our inherited, outdated political ideas.
A few days before the force of Nature was tried out for the first time in history, the San Francisco Charter was ratified in Washington. The dream of a League of Nations, after 26 years, was accepted by the Senate.
How long will the United Nations Charter endure? With luck, a generation? A century? There is no one who does not hope for at least that much luck- for the Charter, for himself, for his work, and for his children’s children. But is it enough to have Peace by Luck? Peace by Law is what the peoples of the world, beginning with our selves, can have if they want it. And now is the time to get it.

He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.[5]

Later life

Graves of Emery and Wendy Reves (cropped)
Grave of Emery and Wendy Reves on the campus of the College of William and Mary

From 1964 to his death, he was married to Wendy Russell, an American former fashion model who had been his companion since 1948. The couple established a home in the early 1950s in the Villa La Pausa, which had originally been constructed for fashion designer Coco Chanel. Churchill was a regular guest at La Pausa in the late 1950s, but his friendship with Emery and Wendy cooled, apparently due to Clementine Churchill's dislike of Wendy. A pained letter from Reves to Churchil in early 1960, refusing to invite him to La Pausa again, shows how bitterly estranged the former friends had become; Reves wrote openly about Wendy's struggle with depression and seemed to imply that Clementine, if not Winston himself, had been partly responsible for it.

In 1985, Reves's widow established the Wendy and Emery Reves Collection at the Dallas Museum of Art with a donation that stipulated the recreation within the museum of the 15,000-square-foot (1,400 m2) villa, especially for the display of the collection. In 1989, Wendy Reves established the Reves Center for International Studies at the College of William & Mary to honor her late husband and his commitment to internationalism; the adjacent residence hall is also named for the couple.[6]

In 1991, the Dallas Symphony Orchestra commissioned a piece called Anatomy of Peace in Reves's memory; it was composed by Marvin Hamlisch and orchestrated by Richard Danielpour.

Works

  • A Democratic Manifesto. Jonathan Cape: London, 1943.
  • The Anatomy of Peace, Harper and Brothers, 1945.

References

  1. ^ "No. 34807". The London Gazette. 8 March 1940. p. 1388.
  2. ^ Fritz Thyssen, I Paid Hitler, Hodder and Stoughton Ltd: London, 1941, pp. 14-15. (Foreword by Emery Reves)
  3. ^ Reves, Emery (1945). The Anatomy of Peace (1 ed.). New York & London: Harper & Brothers Publishers – via Internet Archive.
  4. ^ Einstein, Albert (1994). "Atomic War or Peace". Ideas and Opinions: With An Introduction by Alan Lightman, Based on Mein Weltbild, edited by Carl Seelig, and Other Sources, New Translations and Revisions by Sonja Bargmann. New York: The Modern Library. p. 134.
  5. ^ "Nomination Database". Retrieved June 14, 2016 – via Nobelprize.org.
  6. ^ "William & Mary - Reves Hall". Wm.edu. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

External links

Barbara Leaming

Barbara Leaming is an American biographer, whose subjects have included Roman Polanski, Orson Welles, Rita Hayworth, Marilyn Monroe, John F. Kennedy, Winston Churchill, and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis.

Café Terrace at Night

Café Terrace at Night is an 1888 oil painting by the Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh. It is also known as The Cafe Terrace on the Place du Forum, and, when first exhibited in 1891, was entitled Coffeehouse, in the evening (Café, le soir).

Van Gogh painted Café Terrace at Night in Arles, France, in mid-September 1888. The painting is not signed, but described and mentioned by the artist in three letters.Visitors to the site can stand at the northeastern corner of the Place du Forum, where the artist set up his easel. The site was refurbished in 1990 and 1991 to replicate van Gogh's painting. He looked south towards the artificially lit terrace of the popular coffee house, as well as into the enforced darkness of the rue du Palais which led up to a building structure (to the left, not pictured) and, beyond this structure, the tower of a former church which is now Musée Lapidaire.

Towards the right, Van Gogh indicated a lighted shop as well, and some branches of the trees surrounding the place—but he omitted the remainders of the Roman monuments just beside this little shop.

The painting is currently at the Kröller-Müller Museum in Otterlo, Netherlands.

Coco Chanel

Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel (19 August 1883 – 10 January 1971) was a French fashion designer and business woman. The founder and namesake of the Chanel brand, she was credited in the post-World War I era with liberating women from the constraints of the "corseted silhouette" and popularizing a sporty, casual chic as the feminine standard of style. A prolific fashion creator, Chanel extended her influence beyond couture clothing, realizing her design aesthetic in jewellery, handbags, and fragrance. Her signature scent, Chanel No. 5, has become an iconic product. She is the only fashion designer listed on Time magazine's list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Chanel herself designed her famed interlocked-CC monogram, meaning Coco Chanel, using it since the 1920s.Chanel's social connections encouraged a conservative personal outlook. Rumors arose about Chanel's activities during the German occupation of France during World War II, and she was criticized for being too close to the German occupiers: One of Chanel's liaisons was with a German diplomat, Baron (Freiherr) Hans Günther von Dincklage. After the war, Chanel was interrogated about her relationship with von Dincklage, but she was not charged as a collaborator. After several post-war years in Switzerland, she returned to Paris and revived her fashion house. In 2011, Hal Vaughan published a book about Chanel based on newly declassified documents, revealing that she had collaborated with German intelligence activities. One plan in late-1943 was for her to carry an SS peace overture to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to end the war.

Copernican federalism

Copernican federalism is an analogy for federalism. It is named for Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.

Dallas Museum of Art

The Dallas Museum of Art (DMA) is an art museum located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas, along Woodall Rodgers Freeway between St. Paul and Harwood. In 1984, the museum moved from its previous location in Fair Park to the Arts District. The new building was designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes, the 2007 winner of the American Institute of Architects Gold Medal.The museum collection is made up of more than 24,000 objects, dating from the third millennium BC to the present day. It is also defined by its dynamic exhibition policy and award-winning educational programs. The Mildred R. and Frederick M. Mayer Library (the museum’s non-circulating research library) contains over 50,000 volumes available to curators and the general public. With 159,000 square feet (14,800 m2) of exhibition spaces, it is one of the largest art museums in the United States.

Democratic World Federalists

Democratic World Federalists, a civil society organization based in San Francisco with supporters worldwide, advocates a democratic federal system of world government in order to end war and crimes against humanity and to promote “a just world community and the preservation of a livable and healthful global environment” through the development of enforceable world law. It is affiliated with the Coalition for Democratic World Government, the Community of World Citizens, and the World Federalist Movement.

Fritz Thyssen

Friedrich "Fritz" Thyssen (9 November 1873 – 8 February 1951) was a German businessman, born into one of Germany's leading industrial families.

Gazeta Polska (1929–39)

Gazeta Polska was an important newspaper in the interwar Poland, published from 1929 to 1939 in Warsaw. It had a strong pro-Sanation bias and was seen as a semi-official news outlet of the Sanation-dominated Polish government of the second half of the 1930s. Within Sanation politics, Gazeta Polska supported "the colonels" and later, Edward Rydz-Śmigły. It often voiced calls for more authoritarian government and for harsher treatment of the opposition.The newspaper's circulation grew from 15,000 in the early 1930s to 30,000 in the latter part of the decade. The paper was closed in the aftermath of the German invasion of Poland, along with most other Polish newspapers. The newspaper was reactivated in 1941 in Palestine by Kański and was the most popular Polish newspaper in the Middle East until 1947.

La Pausa

La Pausa is a large detached villa in Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, in the Alpes-Maritimes department of France. It was designed and built by the French fashion designer Coco Chanel in the early 1930s, and owned by Chanel until 1953. La Pausa was sold by Chanel to the Hungarian publisher Emery Reves. The former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill spent roughly a third of each year at La Pausa from 1956 to 1958 with Reves and his wife, Wendy, and wrote and edited part of his History of the English Speaking Peoples there. La Pausa was occupied by Wendy Reves until 2007. The principal rooms of La Pausa and its significant art collection were recreated at the Dallas Museum of Art during her lifetime and under her direction. The Reves wing was opened in 1985.Situated above the village of Roquebrune, the house enjoys views toward Menton and the French border with Italy on one side, and Monaco on the other. Its name refers to the legend that Mary Magdalene "paused" near here on her journey from Jerusalem following the crucifixion of Jesus.

Later life of Winston Churchill

After the end of the World War II, Winston Churchill's Conservative Party lost the 1945 election, forcing him to step down as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. For six years he served as the Leader of the Opposition. During these years Churchill continued to influence world affairs,in 1946 he gave his Iron Curtain speech which spoke of the expansionist policies of the USSR and the creation of the Eastern Bloc; Churchill also argued strongly for British independence from the European Coal and Steel Community; he saw this as a Franco-German project and Britain still had an empire. In the General Election of 1951 Labour was defeated and Churchill became Prime Minister for a second time. Churchill continued to lead Britain but was to suffer increasingly from health problems.Aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally he resigned from the Cabinet in 1955. However he continued to sit as an MP for Woodford until he retired from politics in 1964. Churchill died on 24 January 1965 and was granted the honour of a state funeral. He was buried in his family plot in St Martin's Church, Bladon near to where he was born at Blenheim Palace.

Le Moment

Le Moment was a French language daily newspaper published from Bucharest. The newspaper was founded in 1935 by Alfred Hefter, and according to Emery Reves it was in serious difficulties and about to go under in May 1939. The paper ceased publication in 1940.

Martin Gilbert

Sir Martin John Gilbert (25 October 1936 – 3 February 2015) was a British historian and honorary Fellow of Merton College, University of Oxford. He was the author of eighty-eight books, including works on Winston Churchill, the 20th century, and Jewish history including the Holocaust.

He was a member of the Chilcot Inquiry into the UK's role in the Iraq War.

Marvin Hamlisch

Marvin Frederick Hamlisch (June 2, 1944 – August 6, 2012) was an American composer and conductor. Hamlisch was one of only fifteen people to win Emmy, Grammy, Oscar and Tony awards. This collection of all four is referred to as an "EGOT". He is one of only two people (along with composer Richard Rodgers) to have won those four prizes and a Pulitzer Prize ("PEGOT").

Sara Khan (activist)

Sara Khan (born January 1980) is a British Muslim human rights activist and the CEO of Inspire, an independent non-governmental organisation working to counter extremism and gender inequality. Khan is a contributor to The Guardian and The Independent newspapers, as well as The Huffington Post and has made appearances on British television and radio. She has been interviewed for the BBC's HARDtalk and Desert Island Discs.

The Anatomy of Peace

The Anatomy of Peace (OCLC 47288) was a book by Emery Reves, first published in 1945. It expressed the world federalist sentiments shared by Albert Einstein and many others in the late 1940s, in the period immediately following World War II.The Anatomy of Peace - Resolving the Heart of Conflict, by Arbinger Institute is a different book from the one above.

The Anatomy of Peace, published by Berrett-Koehler Publishers, reminds us that war and conflicts in life at home, at work, and in the world, are often our own making. In this business fable, we read a moving story of struggling parents and children facing and coping with problems that consume their lives. Amidst this turmoil, they become friends with their once-bitter enemies.

This business fable tells us that conflicts are in our minds. This fable tells us the moving story of an Arab and a Jew, each of whom had lost their fathers in the hands of the other’s ethnic cousins. They come together to foster friendship and cooperation not only between their own families, but also among warring parents and children. The Anatomy of Peace is a business fable with directions to lead a harmonious life in the face of adversity and conflicts.

Wendy Russell Reves

Wendy Russell Reves (May 2, 1916 – March 13, 2007) was an American philanthropist, socialite, and former fashion model.

Winston Churchill as writer

Winston Churchill, in addition to his careers of soldier and politician, was a prolific writer under the pen name "Winston S. Churchill". After being commissioned into the 4th Queen's Own Hussars in 1895, Churchill gained permission to observe the Cuban War of Independence, and sent war reports to The Daily Graphic. He continued his war journalism in British India, at the Siege of Malakand, then in the Sudan during the Mahdist War and in southern Africa during the Second Boer War.

Churchill's fictional output included one novel and a short story, but his main output comprised non-fiction. After he was elected as an MP, over 130 of his speeches or parliamentary answers were also published in pamphlets or booklets; many were subsequently published in collected editions. Churchill received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values".

World Federalist Movement

The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement that advocates the establishment of a global federal system of strengthened and democratic global institutions subjected to the principles of subsidiarity, solidarity and democracy. Famous advocates of world federalism include Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosika Schwimmer, Albert Camus, Winston Churchill, Garry Davis, Emery Reves, Wendell Willkie, Jawaharlal Nehru, E. B. White and Lola Maverick Lloyd. The organization was created in 1947 by those concerned that the structure of the new United Nations was too similar to the League of Nations which had failed to prevent World War II, both being loosely structured associations of sovereign nation-states, with few autonomous powers.

The World Federalist Movement has member and associate organizations around the world. The movement currently counts 30,000 to 50,000 supporters. Notably active world federalist organizations, as of 2018, exist in Australia, Argentina, Canada, France, Germany, India, Italy, Israel, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The World Federalist Council, in which active members from around the world meet once a year, is tasked with supporting the creation of new organizations where these do not yet exist.

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