Embraer

Embraer S.A. (Portuguese pronunciation: [ẽmbɾaˈɛɾ]) is a Brazilian aerospace conglomerate that produces commercial, military, executive and agricultural aircraft[6] and provides aeronautical services. It is headquartered in São José dos Campos, São Paulo.

The company is the third largest producer of civil aircraft, after Boeing and Airbus.[7]

Embraer S.A.
Sociedade Anônima
Traded asB3EMBR3
NYSEERJ
Ibovespa Component
IndustryAerospace, defense
FoundedAugust 19, 1969
FounderOzires Silva
Headquarters,
Brazil
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Paulo Cesar Silva (President & CEO)
Mauro Kern (Vice president)
Jackson Schneider (Vice president)
José Filippo (Vice president)[1][2]
ProductsBusiness, commercial, and military aircraft. Aircraft parts. Mission systems for air and ground operation
BrandsEMB, ERJ, Legacy, Lineage,
LR, Phenom
RevenueIncrease R$19.8 billion[3](2017)
Increase R$2.74 billion[4] (2017)
Number of employees
19,116[5] (September 1, 2014)
DivisionsEmbraer Defense & Security
Embraer Commercial Aviation
Embraer Executive Jets
SubsidiariesNeiva, OGMA, Atech, Bradar, SAVIS
Websiteembraer.com

History

Seeking to develop a domestic aircraft industry, the Brazilian government made several investments in the industry during the 1940s and 1950s.[8] However, it was not until 1969 that Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica (Embraer) was created as a government-owned corporation.[9] Its first president, Ozires Silva, was a government appointee, and the company initially produced a turboprop passenger aircraft, the Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante.[10]

Early growth

The Brazilian Government contributed to Embraer's early growth by providing production contracts.[11] The company sold solely to the domestic market until 1975.

While military aircraft made up the majority of Embraer's products during the 1970s, including the Embraer AT-26 Xavante and the Embraer EMB 312 Tucano, by 1985, it had debuted a regional airliner, the Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia.[12] Aimed at the export market, this plane was the first of Embraer's highly successful small airliners.[13]

License-built Pipers

In 1974, the company started to produce Piper Aircraft light planes under license.[14] Piper first put together knock-down kits in their US factory for Embraer to assemble and market in Brazil and Latin America. By 1978, most of the parts and components were being sourced locally.[14] Between 1974 and 2000, nearly 2,500 license-built Pipers were produced by Embraer.[14]

Acquisition of Aerotec

Aerotec was a design and manufacturing company founded in Brazil in 1962 under the auspices of the Brazilian General Command for Aerospace Technology (CTA) in Sao Jose dos Campos. Beginning in the late 1960s, the firm manufactured a two-seat trainer for the Brazilian Air Force, and the Aerotec Uirapuru. A small number were also built for the civilian market, and others were exported to other Latin American countries.

By 1980, Aerotec's main business was producing components for Embraer. However, around this time, the Air Force became interested in an upgraded version of the now-venerable Uirapuru. A prototype was built (designated Uirapuru II); but, by the time it flew, the Air Force no longer required it. A small number were built for export. In 1987, the firm was sold to Embraer.

Aircraft
T-23 (A-122) Uirapuru (1965): single-engine two-seat low-wing monoplane aircraft with tricycle undercarriage
T-23B (A-132B) Uirapuru II Tangará (1980): development of Uirapuru with larger engine
T-23C (A-122C) Uirapuru (1965): civilian version of military trainer T-23
Components
EMB-712 Tupi
EMB-700 Ipanema

Privatization

Born from a Brazilian government plan, and having been state-run from the beginning,[8] Embraer began a privatization process during the government of Itamar Franco.[15] This was a period of privatization for many state-controlled companies in Brazil. Embraer was sold on December 7, 1994,[9][16] which helped it avoid a looming bankruptcy.[8] The company continued to win government contracts.

The Brazilian government retains interest through possession of golden shares, which allow it veto power.[13]

Initial public offerings

In 2000, Embraer made simultaneous initial public offerings on the NYSE and BM&F Bovespa stock exchanges. In 2008 its NYSE-traded shares were American depositary receipts representing 4 BM&F Bovespa shares and ownership was : Bozano Group 11.10%, Previ 16.40%, Sistel 7.40%, Dassault Aviation 2.1%, EADS 2.1%, Thales 2.1%, Safran 1.1%, Government of Brazil 0.3%, the remainder being publicly traded.[13]

As of December 31, 2014 the shareholders with more than 5% of the Company´s Capital were :[17]

Product line expansion: military, regional and executive

In the mid-1990s, the company pursued a product line more focused on small commercial planes over the military aircraft that had previously made up the majority of its manufacturing.[8] It soon expanded to the production of larger regional airliners, with 70–110 seats, and smaller business jets.[13] Today, the company manufactures for both defense and commerce.[13]

Executive jets

At the 2000 Farnborough Airshow, Embraer launched the Legacy 600, a business jet variant of the ERJ. In 2002, a dedicated business unit was organised as Embraer Executive Jets as the Legacy was introduced. In 2005, the Phenom 100 was then conceptualised as an air taxi like the Eclipse 500, competing with Cessna and Hawker Beechcraft. It was introduced in 2008 and is the basis of the larger Phenom 300. The midsize Legacy 450 and Legacy 500 were jointly developed as clean sheet designs, while the Lineage 1000 is a VIP version of the E190. In 2016, Embraer delivered its 1,000th executive jet and has a market share of 17% by volume, acknowledging it lacks an ultra-long-range large cabin jet.[18] In October 2018 Embraer announced two new business jets - the Praetor 500 in the midsize cabin category - and the Praetor 600 in the super midsize category.[19]

Military transport

On April 19, 2007, Embraer announced it was considering the production of a twin-jet military transport, the Embraer KC-390. Work began in May 2009 with funding from the Brazilian Air Force.[20] Correios, the Brazilian postal service, has shown interest in buying this aircraft.[21][22] Using much of the technology developed for the Embraer 190, the C-390 would carry up to 23 tons of cargo[23] and aims to replace Cold War-era cargo aircraft.[24]

While firm orders for this yet-to-be-produced hauler had not yet been made in the fall of 2010,[20] Argentina had asked for six examples and several other South American nations also expressed interest.[25][26]

Government subsidy controversy

Brazil and Canada engaged in an international, adjudicated trade dispute over government subsidies to domestic plane-makers in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The World Trade Organization determined that both countries had provided illegal subsidies to what were supposed to be privately owned industries. Brazil ran an illegal subsidy program, Proex, benefiting its national aviation industry from at least 1999–2000, and Canada illegally subsidized its indigenous regional airliner industry, comprising Bombardier Aerospace.

Boeing-Embraer joint venture

On July 5, 2018, a joint venture with Boeing was announced for its airliners.[27] This is seen as a reaction after Airbus acquired a majority of the competing Bombardier CSeries on October 16, 2017.[28]

Production bases and facilities

The company's headquarters and a production base are in São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil. It also has production bases in the State of São Paulo at Botucatu, Eugênio de Melo (a district of São José dos Campos) and Gavião Peixoto. The company has offices in Beijing, Fort Lauderdale, Florida (U.S.), Amsterdam, Singapore, and Washington, D.C. (U.S.).[29]

Non-Brazilian main facilities

Subsidiaries

  • EAMS – Embraer Aircraft Maintenance Services Inc. (Nashville, TN, U.S.) – maintenance services site.
  • OGMA – Indústria Aeronáutica de Portugal (Alverca do Ribatejo, Portugal) – aircraft component maintenance, repair and manufacturing, plus aircraft maintenance services.
  • Embraer Aircraft Holding, Inc. – Its U.S. headquarters are in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in a facility founded in 1979. Its external relations office is in Washington, D.C..[31]
  • Embraer Aero Seating Technologies – Inaugurated in September 2016 in the city of Titusville, Florida, Embraer Aero Seating Technologies produces aircraft seats.[32]
  • Mesa Unit (Located in Mesa, Arizona, U.S.) – Implemented in 2008, performs maintenance, repair and overhaul services on the Phenom and Legacy executive aircraft line.[33]
  • Windsor Locks Unit (Located in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, U.S.) – Implemented in 2008, as well as the Mesa Unit, also performs maintenance, repair and revision services in Embraer's executive line.
  • Melbourne Unit (Located in Melbourne, Florida, U.S.) – Implemented in 2011, it is the first unit in the United States to carry out the final assembly of aircraft. It produces the line of executives Phenom 100 and Phenom 300. In November 2012 work began on an Engineering and Technology Center at the Melbourne facility.
  • ECC Leasing – Embraer's in-house leasing division, based in Dublin, Ireland, managing and re-marketing the Embraer aircraft portfolio owned directly by the manufacturer.[34]

Joint ventures

Aircraft products

Gallery

Alenia-Aermacchi-Embraer AMX, Italy - Air Force JP7721735

AMX

Commercial

By December 2018, Embraer claimed to lead the sub 150 seat jetliner market with 100 operators of the ERJ and E-Jet families.[36]

Current

  • Embraer ERJ family
    • Embraer ERJ 135 (37 passengers)
    • Embraer ERJ 140 (44 passengers)
    • Embraer ERJ 145 (50 passengers)
  • Embraer E-Jet family
    • Embraer 170 (66–78 passengers)
    • Embraer 175 (76–88 passengers)
    • Embraer 190 (96–114 passengers)
    • Embraer 195 (100–124 passengers)
  • Embraer E-Jet E2 family
    • Embraer 175-E2 (80–90 passengers)
    • Embraer 190-E2 (97–114 passengers)
    • Embraer 195-E2 (120–146 passengers)[37]

Former

Military

Current

Former

Business Jets

Utility

Current

Former

Piper Localizations

Current

Former

Commercial aircraft deliveries

Year 1996 1997 1998 1999
Deliveries 4 32 60 96
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Deliveries 160 161 131 101 148 141 130 169 204 244
Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Deliveries 246[38] 204[39] 205[40] 209 208[41] 221[42] 225[43]

The numbers include military versions of commercial aircraft.

Total delivered-backlog-options as of June 30, 2007: 862-53-131 145 Family, 256-399-719 170/190 Family

References

  1. ^ "Corporate governance". Embraer. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  2. ^ "Botelho resigns as chairman of Embraer". Flightglobal. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  3. ^ "2015 Results". Embraer. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
  4. ^ "Embraer - Investor Relations - Net Income". Embraer. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  5. ^ Highlights, Embraer.
  6. ^ "Aircraft". BR: Embraer. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  7. ^ "Embraer vê clientes mais dispostos à compra de aviões". Exame Magazine. 2010-10-10. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d Territorial Reviews, Madrid, ES: OECD, 2007, pp. 156–157, 264, ISBN 978-92-64-03848-6
  9. ^ a b "Timeline", Historical Center (official site), BR: Embraer.
  10. ^ "Ozires Silva" (in Portuguese). Época Negócios. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
  11. ^ "History", Historical Center (official site), BR: Embraer.
  12. ^ The Embraer EMB120 Brasilia, Air liners.
  13. ^ a b c d e Monks, Robert AG; Minow, Nell (2008), Corporate Governance, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 356–359
  14. ^ a b c "EMB 710 Carioca", Aircraft History, BR: Embraer History Center.
  15. ^ Eckhouse, John (January 12, 1991), "Brazil on Road Peddling State-Owned Enterprises", The San Francisco Chronicle (final ed.), San Francisco, CA, US, p. B.1.
  16. ^ Anuatti-Neto, Francisco; Barossi-Filho, Milton; Carvalho, Antonio Gledson de; MacEdo, Roberto (2005), "Os efeitos da privatização sobre o desempenho econômico e financeiro das empresas privatizadas" [The effects of privatisation on the economical & financial performance of the privatised companies], Scielo (in Portuguese), BR, 59 (2), pp. 151–175, doi:10.1590/S0034-71402005000200001.
  17. ^ "CAPITAL OWNERSHIP". Embraer Investor Relations.
  18. ^ "EBACE: Embraer caps 16-year run with 1,000th delivery". Flightglobal. 17 May 2016.
  19. ^ "Embraer Praetor 500/600 Make Public Debut at NBAA 2018". 2018-10-17.
  20. ^ a b "Portugal interested in Brazilian military cargo plane", Monitoring European, BBC, February 1, 2010.
  21. ^ "Costa confirma projeto dos Correios com cargueiro C-390", Monitor Mercantil, August 28, 2007, retrieved October 15, 2007.
  22. ^ "Brazilian postal service may order Embraer C-390 freighters", Flight global, September 4, 2007, retrieved October 15, 2007.
  23. ^ "Defense Systems". Embraer. Archived from the original on 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
  24. ^ Embraer has military transport aircraft under study (PDF), Embraer, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-20, retrieved 2009-03-20.
  25. ^ Argentina to buy 6 military transport jets from Brazil's Embraer, Madrid: EFE News Service, October 30, 2010.
  26. ^ "Defense Watch", Defense Daily, Potomac, 247 (47), September 7, 2010.
  27. ^ Boeing, Embraer (July 5, 2018). "Boeing and Embraer to Establish Strategic Aerospace Partnership to Accelerate Global Aerospace Growth" (Press release).
  28. ^ "Boeing Is in Talks for Combination With Regional-Jet Maker Embraer". Bloomberg. 21 December 2017.
  29. ^ "Global presence". Embraer. 2012. Retrieved 24 Dec 2013.
  30. ^ Trautvetter, Chad. "Approval Imminent for Embraer Legacy 450/500 U.S. Plant", AINonline, 26 August 2014. Accessed 4 September 2014.
  31. ^ Facilities, Embraer, September 11, 2012, archived from the original on 2010-12-15, Embraer Aircraft Holding, Inc. 276 SW 34th Street Fort Lauderdale, FL 33315 USA […] Embraer Aircraft Holding, Inc. 1700 Pennsylvania Ave. NW Suite 200 USA Washington, DC 20008
  32. ^ Mercado e Eventos, Embraer inaugura Centro de Produção de Assentos com 4.600m² na Flórida, retrieved 10 December 2017
  33. ^ Embraer 2012. "Presença global". Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  34. ^ "Embraer ECC Leasing Company Lessor Profile – CAPA". Retrieved 2017-09-07.
  35. ^ "Embraer in China". Aviation Week & Space Technology: 60. 14 October 2013.
  36. ^ "Embraer Delivers its 1,500th E-Jet to Horizon Air" (Press release). Embraer. Dec 18, 2018.
  37. ^ E-JETS E2 Embraer Commercial Aviation
  38. ^ "Embraer Closes Out 2010 With 246 Jets Delivered". PR Newswire. Traders Huddle. Jan 18, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-02-04. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
  39. ^ Embraer delivers 105 commercial & 99 executive jets in 2011 (PDF) (press release), BR: Embraer.
  40. ^ Embraer Delivers 106 Commercial and 99 Executive Jets In 2012 (PDF) (press release), BR: Embraer, archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-21, retrieved 2018-12-02.
  41. ^ "Embraer Deliveries for 2014".
  42. ^ EMBRAER RELEASES FOURTH QUARTER AND FISCAL YEAR 2015 RESULTS AND 2016 OUTLOOK.
  43. ^ Embraer reaches targets with delivery of 108 commercial jets and 117 executive jets in 2016.

Further reading

External links

AMX International AMX

The AMX International AMX is a ground-attack aircraft jointly developed by Brazil and Italy. The AMX is designated A-11 Ghibli by the Italian Air Force and A-1 by the Brazilian Air Force. The Italian name, "Ghibli", is taken from the hot dry wind of the Libyan desert.

During the early 1970s, Italian manufacturer Aermacchi conducted a design study on a prospective light ground attack aircraft, which was given the designation of MB-340. During early 1977, the Italian Air Force issued a requirement for 187 new-build strike fighters, which were to replace its existing Aeritalia G.91 in the close air support. During 1980, the Brazilian government announced that they intended to participate in the program in order to provide a replacement for the Aermacchi MB-326. As a result of a memorandum between Italy and Brazil for the type's joint development in 1981, AMX International, an Italian-Brazilian joint venture, was formed to develop, manufacture, and market the aircraft.

Aermacchi MB-326

The Aermacchi or Macchi MB-326 is a light military jet trainer designed in Italy. Originally conceived as a two-seat trainer, there have also been single and two-seat light attack versions produced. It is one of the most commercially successful aircraft of its type, being bought by more than 10 countries and produced under licence in Australia, Brazil and South Africa. It set many category records, including an altitude record of 56,807 ft (17,315 m) on 18 March 1966. More than 800 MB-326s were constructed between 1961–1975.The MB-326 had been developed and ordered during a period in which the "all-through" jet trainer was considered to be a fashionable concept within many air forces. It was intended to provide a single type of aircraft that could be used to perform both elementary and advanced training right through to a near combat-ready standard. In practice, it was soon discovered that the simplicity and economy of scale of operating just one type for all training purposes was outweighed by the purchase and operating costs of a large all-jet training fleet. As such, many operators soon switched to operating the MB-326 in conjunction with a cheaper piston-engined type for basic training purposes. Over time, the MB-326 found its primary role as a lead-in trainer to prepare pilots for transition to very high performance fighter aircraft.

Embraer E-Jet E2 family

The Embraer E-Jet E2 family are medium-range jet airliners developed by Embraer, succeeding the original E-Jet. The program was launched at the Paris Air Show in 2013. The first variant, the E190-E2, took its first flight on 23 May 2016 and was certified on February 28, 2018 before entering service with Widerøe on 24 April.

The three twinjet variants share the same four-abreast narrow-body fuselage with different lengths and three different new wings, Pratt & Whitney PW1000G turbofans in two sizes, fly-by-wire controls with new avionics, and an updated cabin.

Embraer E-Jet family

The Embraer E-Jet family is a series of narrow-body short- to medium-range twin-engine jet airliners, carrying 66 to 124 passengers commercially, manufactured by Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer. The aircraft family was first introduced at the Paris Air Show in 1999 and entered production in 2002. The series has been a commercial success primarily due to its ability to efficiently serve lower-demand routes while offering many of the same amenities and features of larger jets. The aircraft is used by mainline and regional airlines around the world but has proven particularly popular with regional airlines in the United States.

Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante

The Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante is a Brazilian general purpose 15–21 passenger twin-turboprop light transport aircraft designed by Embraer for military and civil use.

Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia

The Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia is a twin-turboprop commuter airliner, produced by Embraer of Brazil.

Embraer EMB 312 Tucano

The Embraer EMB 312 Tucano (pronunciation) is a low-wing, tandem-seat, single-turboprop, basic trainer with counter-insurgency capability developed in Brazil. The Brazilian Air Force sponsored the EMB-312 project at the end of 1978. Design and development work began in 1979 on a low-cost, relatively simple new basic trainer with innovative features which eventually became the international standard for basic training aircraft. The prototype first flew in 1980, and initial production units were delivered in 1983.Production was initially supported by a local order for 118 aircraft, with options for an additional 50 units in October 1980. It was later matched by an Egyptian licence-produced purchase in 1993 and subsequently by an improved variant known as the Short Tucano, which was licence-produced in the United Kingdom. The Tucano made inroads into the military trainer arena and became one of Embraer's first international marketing successes. A total of 664 units was produced (504 by Embraer and 160 by Short Brothers), flying in 16 air forces over five continents.

Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano

The Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano (pronunciation), also named ALX or A-29, is a Brazilian turboprop light attack aircraft designed and built by Embraer as a development of the Embraer EMB 312 Tucano. The A-29 Super Tucano carries a wide variety of weapons, including precision-guided munitions, and was designed to be a low-cost system operated in low-threat environments.In addition to its manufacture in Brazil, Embraer has set up a production line in the United States in conjunction with Sierra Nevada Corporation for the A-29's many export customers.

Embraer ERJ family

The Embraer ERJ family is a series of twin-engine regional jets produced by Embraer, a Brazilian aerospace company. Aircraft in the series include the ERJ135 (37 passengers), ERJ140 (44 passengers), and ERJ145 (50 passengers), as well as the Legacy business jet and the R-99 family of military aircraft. Each jet in the series is powered by two turbofan engines. The family's primary competition comes from the Bombardier CRJ regional jets.

Embraer Legacy 600

The Embraer Legacy 600 is a business jet derivative of the Embraer ERJ 145 family of commercial jet aircraft.

Embraer Phenom 100

The Embraer EMB-500 Phenom 100 is a very light jet developed by Brazilian aircraft manufacturer Embraer, type certificate is EMB-500. As of April 2017, 350 were in service in 37 countries.

Embraer Phenom 300

The Embraer EMB-505 Phenom 300 is a light jet aircraft developed by the Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer. It can carry up to 11 occupants.

Flybe

Flybe (pronounced ) styled as flybe, is a British airline based in Exeter, England. It is the largest independent regional airline in Europe. Flybe carries 8 million passengers a year between 81 airports across the UK and the rest of Europe, with over 210 routes across 15 countries. Its two hubs are Manchester and Birmingham airports but it also has a number of codeshares allowing connections to long-haul flights from airports such as London Heathrow, Paris CDG, Dublin and Amsterdam. The airline is a member of the European Regions Airline Association. Flybe's parent company Flybe Group PLC (formerly known as Walker Aviation Limited) is listed on the London Stock Exchange.The airline launched in 1979 as Jersey European Airways following the merger of Intra Airways and Express Air Services. In 1983 the airline was sold to Walker Steel Group, which also owned Spacegrand Aviation, and the two airlines were merged under the Jersey European name in 1985. Jersey European was renamed British European in 2000 (shortened to "BE"), and received its current name in 2002.

In February 2019, the airline was sold to the Connect Airways consortium, backed by Virgin Atlantic and Stobart Aviation. Connect Airways intends Flybe to subsequently operate under the Virgin Atlantic brand.

Flybmi

Flybmi, styled as flybmi, legally British Midland Regional Limited and formerly branded as BMI Regional, was a British regional airline that operated scheduled passenger services across the UK and Europe. The head office of the airline was at East Midlands Airport in North West Leicestershire, and it had operating bases at Aberdeen, Brussels, Bristol, East Midlands, Newcastle and Munich.

Flybmi was a former subsidiary of British Midland International (BMI), which was purchased from Lufthansa by International Airlines Group (IAG) on 20 April 2012. Regional was sold to Sector Aviation Holdings in May 2012 and operated as an independent airline from October 2012. In August 2015, the airline became part of a new regional airline group, Airline Investments Limited (AIL), along with Loganair.Flybmi ceased operations and filed for administration on 16 February 2019.

Piper PA-28 Cherokee

The Piper PA-28 Cherokee is a family of two- or four-seat light aircraft built by Piper Aircraft and designed for flight training, air taxi and personal use. The PA-28 family of aircraft comprises all-metal, unpressurized, single-engined, piston-powered airplanes with low-mounted wings and tricycle landing gear. They have a single door on the copilot side, which is entered by stepping on the wing.The first PA-28 received its type certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration in 1960 and the series remains in production to this day. Current models are the Warrior, Arrow and the Archer TX and LX. The Archer was discontinued in 2009, but with investment from new company ownership, the model was put back into production in 2010.The PA-28 series competes with the high-winged Cessna 172 and the similarly low-winged Grumman American AA-5 series and Beechcraft Musketeer designs.Piper has created variations within the Cherokee family by installing engines ranging from 140 to 300 hp (105–220 kW), offering turbocharging, retractable landing gear, constant-speed propeller and stretching the fuselage to accommodate six people. The Piper PA-32 (initially known as "Cherokee Six") is a larger, six-seat variant of the PA-28. The PA-32R Saratoga variant was in production until 2009.

Piper PA-31 Navajo

The Piper PA-31 Navajo is a family of cabin-class, twin-engined aircraft designed and built by Piper Aircraft for the general aviation market, most using Lycoming engines. It was also license-built in a number of Latin American countries. Targeted at small-scale cargo and feeder liner operations and the corporate market, the aircraft was a success. It continues to prove a popular choice, but due to greatly decreased demand across the general aviation sector in the 1980s, production of the PA-31 ceased in 1984.

Piper PA-32

The Piper PA-32 Cherokee Six is a series of single-engine, fixed landing gear, light aircraft manufactured in the United States by Piper Aircraft between 1965 and 2007.The PA-32 is used around the world for private transportation, air taxi services, bush support, and medevac flights.

Piper PA-34 Seneca

The Piper PA-34 Seneca is an American twin-engined light aircraft, produced by Piper Aircraft since 1971 and that remains in production. The Seneca is primarily used for personal and business flying.

Republic Airline

Republic Airline Inc., operating as Republic Airline, is a regional airline subsidiary of Republic Airways Holdings that operates service as American Eagle, Delta Connection, and United Express using a fleet of Embraer 170 and Embraer 175 regional jets. It is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana. Its call sign "Brickyard" is derived from the nickname of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

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