Emblem

An emblem is an abstract or representational pictorial image that represents a concept, like a moral truth, or an allegory, or a person, like a king or saint.[1]

The Wilton Diptych (Right)
The Wilton Diptych (c. 1395–99) features angels wearing white hart (a deer), the personal emblem of King Richard II of England.
Superman S symbol
Family emblem of the House of El

Emblems vs. symbols

Although the words emblem and symbol are often used interchangeably, an emblem is a pattern that is used to represent an idea or an individual. An emblem crystallizes in concrete, visual terms some abstraction: a deity, a tribe or nation, or a virtue or vice.

An emblem may be worn or otherwise used as an identifying badge or patch. For example, in America, police officers' badges refer to their personal metal emblem whereas their woven emblems on uniforms identify members of a particular unit. A real or metal cockle shell, the emblem of St. James the Apostle, sewn onto the hat or clothes, identified a medieval pilgrim to his shrine at Santiago de Compostela. In the Middle Ages, many saints were given emblems, which served to identify them in paintings and other images: St. Catherine had a wheel, or a sword, St. Anthony Abbot, a pig and a small bell. These are also called attributes, especially when shown carried by or close to the saint in art. Kings and other grand persons increasingly adopted personal devices or emblems that were distinct from their family heraldry. The most famous include Louis XIV of France's sun, the salamander of Francis I of France, the boar of Richard III of England and the armillary sphere of Manuel I of Portugal. In the fifteenth and sixteenth century, there was a fashion, started in Italy, for making large medals with a portrait head on the obverse and the emblem on the reverse; these would be given to friends and as diplomatic gifts. Pisanello produced many of the earliest and finest of these.

A symbol, on the other hand, substitutes one thing for another, in a more concrete fashion:[1]

Emblemata Politica-Minor esca maioris
"The big eat the small", a political emblem from an emblem book, 1617

Other terminology

A totem is specifically an animal emblem that expresses the spirit of a clan. Heraldry knows its emblems as charges. The lion passant serves as the emblem of England, the lion rampant as the emblem of Scotland.

An icon consists of an image (originally a religious image), that has become standardized by convention. A logo is an impersonal, secular icon, usually of a corporate entity.

Emblems in history

Since the 15th century the terms of emblem (emblema; from Greek: ἔμβλημα, meaning "embossed ornament") and emblematura belong to the termini technici of architecture. They mean an iconic painted, drawn, or sculptural representation of a concept affixed to houses and belong—like the inscriptions—to the architectural ornaments (ornamenta). Since the publication of De Re Aedificatoria (1452, Ten Books of Architecture),[8] by Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472), patterned after the De architectura by the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius, emblema are related to Egyptian hieroglyphics and are considered as being the lost universal language.[4] Therefore, the emblems belong to the Renaissance knowledge of antiquity which comprises not only Greek and Roman antiquity but also Egyptian antiquity as proven by the numerous obelisks built in 16th and 17th century Rome.[5]

The 1531 publication in Augsburg of the first emblem book, the Emblemata of the Italian jurist Andrea Alciato launched a fascination with emblems that lasted two centuries and touched most of the countries of western Europe.[6] "Emblem" in this sense refers to a didactic or moralizing combination of picture and text intended to draw the reader into a self-reflective examination of his or her own life. Complicated associations of emblems could transmit information to the culturally-informed viewer, a characteristic of the 16th-century artistic movement called Mannerism.

A popular collection of emblems, which ran to many editions, was presented by Francis Quarles in 1635. Each of the emblems consisted of a paraphrase from a passage of Scripture, expressed in ornate and metaphorical language, followed by passages from the Christian Fathers, and concluding with an epigram of four lines. These were accompanied by an emblem that presented the symbols displayed in the accompanying passage.

Emblems in speech

Emblems are certain gestures which have a specific meaning attached to them. These meanings usually are associated with the culture they are established in. Using emblems creates a way for humans to communicate with one another in a non-verbal way. An individual waving their hand at a friend, for example, would communicate "hello" without having to verbally say anything.[7]

Emblems vs. sign language

Although sign language uses hand gestures to communicate words in a non-verbal way, it should not be confused with emblems. Sign language contains linguistic properties, similar to those used in verbal languages, and is used to communicate entire conversations.[8] Linguistic properties are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adverbs, adjectives, etc...[9] In contrast with sign language, emblems are a non-linguistic form of communication. Emblems are single gestures which are meant to get a short non-verbal message to another individual.

Emblems in culture

Emblems are associated with the culture they are established in and are subjective to that said culture. For example, the OK sign used in America to communicate "OK" in a non-verbal way, used to mean "money" in the country of Japan, and in some southern European countries the OK sign used to mean something sexual.[10] Furthermore, the thumbs up sign in America means "good job ", but in some parts of the Middle East the thumbs up sign means something highly offensive.[11]

See also

References

Drysdall, Denis (2005). "Claude Mignault of Dijon: "Theoretical Writings on the Emblem: a Critical Edition, with apparatus and notes (1577)". Retrieved 2009-05-29.

Further reading

  • Moseley, Charles, A Century of Emblems: An Introduction to the Renaissance Emblem (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1989)

Notes

  1. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary (OED2). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 1989. ISBN 0-19-861186-2.
  2. ^ "The History of the Emblems". 2006-03-14. Retrieved 2009-05-29. History of the emblems of the International Red Cross: An account of this organisation's need to adopt an emblem to represent itself, and the factors which led to it eventually adopting a second (the red crescent) and third (the red crystal).
  3. ^ "Macmillan Dictionary". Macmillan Publishers. 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-29. macmillandictionary.com entry for "skull and crossbones"
  4. ^ Raybould, Robin (2005). An Introduction to the Symbolic Literature of the Renaissance. friedman Publishing. p. 170. ISBN 9781412053112. ISBN 1-4120-5311-0
  5. ^ Piperno, Roberto. Rosamie Moore (ed.). "Obelisks of Rome". Retrieved 2009-05-29. Historical information, a map, photographs, and descriptions of Egyptian obelisks in Rome.
  6. ^ Barker, William; Mark Feltham; Jean Guthrie (1995-10-26). "Alciato's Book of Emblems: The Memorial Web Edition in Latin and English". Retrieved 2009-05-29. This page states that "Andrea Alciato's [Emblemata] had enormous influence and popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries".
  7. ^ Burgoon, Guerrero, Floyd. Nonverbal Communication (1st ed.). Pearson Education, Inc. p. 432. ISBN 9780205525003. Retrieved 12 April 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Res, Brain. "Distinguishing the Processing of Gestures from Signs in Deaf Individuals: An fMRI Study". Brain Res. 1276: 140–50. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.04.034. PMC 2693477. PMID 19397900.
  9. ^ Youn, Hyejin. "On the Universal Structure of Human Lexical Semantics" (PDF). Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  10. ^ Seal, Bernard. "Academic Encounters Level 4 Student's Book Reading and Writing: Human Behavior". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  11. ^ "What Hand Gestures Mean In Different Countries". Busuu Logo. Retrieved 5 May 2017.

External links

Badge Badges for Embelem Symbolorum & emblematum] -Custom Embroidered Patches, from the website of Melon Patches
Blue Sky with a White Sun

The Blue Sky with a White Sun (Chinese: 靑天白日旗; pinyin: Qīng tīan bái rì qí) serves as the design for the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang (KMT), the canton of the flag of the Republic of China, the national emblem of the Republic of China and as the naval jack of the ROC Navy.

In the "Blue Sky with a White Sun" symbol, the twelve rays of the white Sun representing the twelve months and the twelve traditional Chinese hours (時辰; shíchen), each of which corresponds to two modern hours and symbolizes the spirit of progress.

Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, family, state, organization or corporation.

The Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, and since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, and therefore its genealogy across time.

Coat of arms of Albania

The coat of arms of Albania (Albanian: Stema e Shqipërisë) is an adaptation of the flag of Albania. It is based on the flag and seal of Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg. The emblem above the head of the two-headed eagle is the helmet of Skanderbeg, surmounted with billy goats' horns. The eagle is considered to violate the conventional rule of tincture, which forbids placing a colour (i.e. a dark tincture) upon another colour.

Eagle, Globe, and Anchor

The Eagle, Globe, and Anchor is the official emblem and insignia of the United States Marine Corps. It is commonly referred to as an EGA, although this verbiage is officially discouraged by the U.S. Marine Corps. The current emblem traces its roots in the designs and ornaments of the early Continental Marines as well as the United Kingdom's Royal Marines. The present emblem, adopted in 1955, differs from the emblem of 1868 only by a change in the eagle. Before that time many devices, ornaments, ribbons, and distinguishing marks followed one another as official badges of the corps.

Emblem of Saudi Arabia

The Saudi Arabian national emblem (Arabic: شعار السعودية‎) was adopted in 1950. According to the Saudi Basic Law, it consists of two crossed swords with a palm tree in the space above and between the blades.

The two swords represent the Kingdom of Hejaz and the Sultanate of Najd and its dependencies, which were united under Ibn Saud in 1926. The palm tree represents the Kingdom's assets which are defined as its people, heritage, history, and resources natural and non-natural. Thus, the palm is shown to be guarded by the two swords, which represent the forces to be used in defence of the nation.

Euro sign

The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the European Union (EU) and some non-EU countries (Kosovo and Montenegro). The design was presented to the public by the European Commission on 12 December 1996. It consists of a stylized letter E (or epsilon), crossed by two lines instead of one. The character is encoded in Unicode at U+20AC € EURO SIGN (HTML € · €). In English, the sign precedes the value (for instance, €10, not 10 €, unlike most other European languages). In some style guides, the euro sign is not spaced (10€).

Fire Emblem

Fire Emblem is a fantasy tactical role-playing game franchise developed by Intelligent Systems and published by Nintendo. First produced and published for the Family Computer (Famicom), the series consists of fifteen main games and three spin-offs. Described by its creators as a "role-playing game simulation", the gameplay revolves around tactical movement of characters across grid-based environments, while incorporating a story and characters similar to traditional role-playing video games.

A noted aspect of gameplay is the permanent death of characters in battle, removing them from the rest of the game should they be defeated. In the newer titles, from Fire Emblem: New Mystery of the Emblem onwards, players get the choice between Classic mode, where characters permanently die, or Casual mode, where fallen characters revive for the next battle. The series title refers to the "Fire Emblem", usually portrayed as a royal weapon or shield that represents the power of war and dragons, a recurring element in the series. Development of the first game began as a dōjin project by Shouzou Kaga and three other developers. Its success prompted the development of further titles in the series. Shouzou Kaga headed development of each entry until the release of Thracia 776, when he left Intelligent Systems and founded his own game studio to develop Tear Ring Saga.

No games in the series were released outside of Japan until two characters, Marth and Roy, were included as playable characters in the 2001 fighting game Super Smash Bros. Melee. Their popularity eventually convinced Nintendo to release the next game, The Blazing Blade, in Western regions under the title Fire Emblem in 2003. Many games in the series have sold well, despite a decline during the 2000s which resulted in the series' near-cancellation. Individual entries have generally been praised, and the series as a whole has been lauded for its gameplay, and it is cited as a seminal series in the tactical role-playing genre. Characters from multiple games have also been included in crossovers with other franchises.

Fire Emblem (video game)

Fire Emblem is a tactical role-playing game developed by Intelligent Systems and published by Nintendo for the Game Boy Advance handheld video game console. It is the seventh entry in the Fire Emblem series, the second to be released for the platform after Fire Emblem: The Binding Blade, and the first to be localized for Western audiences. It was released in Japan and North America in 2003, and in Europe and Australia in 2004.

The game is a prequel to The Binding Blade, set on the continent of Elibe. It tells the story of Lyn, Eliwood, and Hector, three young lords of the Lycian lineage who journey to find Eliwood's father and later thwart a larger conspiracy threatening the stability of Elibe. The gameplay, which draws from earlier Fire Emblem entries, features tactical combat between armies on a grid-based map. Characters are assigned different character classes that affect abilities and are subjected to permanent death if defeated in battle.

Development began in 2002 as a companion title to The Binding Blade, but development was prolonged from its initial seven-month window as new features were added. While the Fire Emblem series had remained exclusive to Japan due to concerns about its difficulty, the success of Advance Wars and popular demand following the inclusion of Fire Emblem characters in Super Smash Bros. Melee prompted the game's localization. The game was released to positive sales and international critical acclaim, establishing the Fire Emblem series in the West. Its overseas success fueled the development of Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance for the GameCube home console.

Fire Emblem Awakening

Fire Emblem Awakening is a tactical role-playing video game, developed by Intelligent Systems and Nintendo SPD and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo 3DS handheld video game console in April 2012 in Japan, and 2013 outside Japan. It is the thirteenth entry in the Fire Emblem series, and the first to be developed for the Nintendo 3DS. The gameplay, like previous Fire Emblem games, focuses on tactical movement of characters across a battlefield fighting enemy units. Other features include the ability to build relationships between the characters to improve their abilities, adjustable difficulty levels, a mode that disables the permanent death of characters, and multiple camera perspectives in battle.

The story of Awakening takes place 2000 years after the events of the original Fire Emblem and Fire Emblem Gaiden, focusing on a group of soldiers from the kingdom of Ylisse. The player controls a customizable Avatar character, (known widely by Fire Emblem fans as Robin, his/her default name) who suffers from amnesia. The Avatar is taken in by Chrom, the prince of Ylisse, and his personal army known as the "shepherds" of Ylisse. Over the course of the story, the Avatar aids Chrom's army in defending Ylisse from monsters dubbed the Risen, and attacks from the hostile nation of Plegia.

Development of Fire Emblem Awakening began in 2010, with multiple veterans of the Fire Emblem series filling key development roles. Development was handled by Intelligent Systems with supervision from Nintendo. As the series had seen declining sales with previous installments, Awakening was designed as the possible last entry in the series, with elements from all previous Fire Emblem games incorporated. Due to the 3DS still being fine-tuned by developers, the team's decisions for content and graphics were made based on what they thought was feasible for what they had available to them. However, some gameplay options and proposals were met with mixed feelings, such as the option to disable permanent character death, often known as 'permadeath', a staple of the Fire Emblem franchise.

Upon release, the game received critical acclaim and achieved strong sales worldwide, with many critics praising the new additions to the traditional gameplay and accessibility to newcomers of the series. After release, the game was nominated for multiple awards from video game publications, often being cited as one of the best games on the 3DS platform, is credited with boosting sales for the 3DS and is considered one of the best role-playing video games of all time. Awakening's commercial success ensured the continuation of the series. The successor of Awakening, Fire Emblem Fates, was released in Japan in June 2015, and in Western territories in February 2016.

Flag of the United Nations

The flag of the United Nations was adopted on December 7, 1946, and consists of the official emblem of the United Nations in white on a blue background.

Floral emblem

In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas. Some countries have a country-wide floral emblem; others in addition have symbols representing subdivisions. Different processes have been used to adopt these symbols – some are conferred by government bodies, whereas others are the result of informal public polls. The term floral emblem, which refers to flowers specifically, is primarily used in Australia and Canada. In the United States, the term state flower is more often used.

Hammer and sickle

The hammer and sickle (Unicode: "☭") is a symbol meant to represent proletarian solidarity – a union between the peasantry and working-class, that was first adopted – as Russian: серп и мо́лот, romanized: serp i mólot: "sickle and hammer" – during the Russian Revolution. At the time of its creation, the hammer stood for the proletariat and the sickle for the peasantry—combined they stood for the worker-peasant alliance for socialism. The sickle symbol resembles a sickle used to harvest grain crops and the hammer is one that would be used to make a razor sharp edge on a sickle or scythe.

After World War I (from which Russia withdrew in the year 1917) and the Russian Civil War, the hammer and sickle became more widely used as a symbol for peaceful labor within the Soviet Union and for international proletarian unity. It was taken up by many communist movements around the world, some with local variations. Today, even after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the hammer and sickle remains commonplace in Russia and other former union republics, but its display is prohibited in some other former communist countries as well as in countries where communism is banned by law.

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

The movement consists of several distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the movement through common basic principles, objectives, symbols, statutes and governing organisations. The movement's parts are:

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland, in particular by Henry Dunant and Gustave Moynier. Its 25-member committee has a unique authority under international humanitarian law to protect the life and dignity of the victims of international and internal armed conflicts. The ICRC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on three occasions (in 1917, 1944 and 1963).

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) was founded in 1919 and today it coordinates activities between the 190 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies within the Movement. On an international level, the Federation leads and organizes, in close cooperation with the National Societies, relief assistance missions responding to large-scale emergencies. The International Federation Secretariat is based in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1963, the Federation (then known as the League of Red Cross Societies) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with the ICRC.

National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies exist in nearly every country in the world. Currently 190 National Societies are recognized by the ICRC and admitted as full members of the Federation. Each entity works in its home country according to the principles of international humanitarian law and the statutes of the international Movement. Depending on their specific circumstances and capacities, National Societies can take on additional humanitarian tasks that are not directly defined by international humanitarian law or the mandates of the international Movement. In many countries, they are tightly linked to the respective national health care system by providing emergency medical services.

Jain symbols

Jain symbols are symbols based on the Jain philosophy.

Mon (emblem)

Mon (紋), also monshō (紋章), mondokoro (紋所), and kamon (家紋), are Japanese emblems used to decorate and identify an individual, a family, or (more recently) an institution or business entity. While mon is an encompassing term that may refer to any such device, kamon and mondokoro refer specifically to emblems used to identify a family. An authoritative mon reference compiles Japan's 241 general categories of mon based on structural resemblance (a single mon may belong to multiple categories), with 5116 distinct individual mon (it is however well acknowledged that there exist lost or obscure mon that are not in this compilation).The devices are similar to the badges and coats of arms in European heraldic tradition, which likewise are used to identify individuals and families. Mon are often referred to as crests in Western literature, another European heraldic device similar to the mon in function.

National emblem of Turkey

The Republic of Turkey has no official national emblem, but the star and crescent (Turkish: ay-yıldız "crescent-star") design from the national flag is in use as de facto emblem, among other things printed on Turkish passports, on Turkish identity cards and diplomatic missions of Turkey.

The star and crescent is retained from the 19th-century Ottoman flag, and has acquired its status as de facto national emblem following the abolition of the Ottoman coat of arms in 1922. It was used on national identity cards by the 1930s (with the horns of the crescent facing left instead of the now more common orientation towards the right).

State Emblem of India

The State Emblem of India, as the national emblem of India is called, is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, preserved in the Sarnath Museum near Varanasi, India. A representation of Lion Capital of Ashoka was initially adopted as the emblem of the Dominion of India in December 1947. The current version of the emblem was officially adopted on 26 January 1950, the day that India became a republic.

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