Emancipation Day

Emancipation Day is observed in many former European colonies in the Caribbean and areas of the United States on various dates to commemorate the emancipation of enslaved people of African descent.

It is also observed in other areas in regard to the abolition of serfdom or other forms of involuntary servitude.

Caribbean

August 1, 1834

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833, which abolished slavery throughout the British Empire (with the exceptions "of the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company", the "Island of Ceylon" and "the Island of Saint Helena"; the exceptions were eliminated in 1843), came into force the following year, on 1 August 1834.

Only slaves below the age of six were freed. Enslaved people older than six years of age were redesignated as "apprentices" and required to work, 40 hours per week without pay, as part of compensation payment to their former owners. Full emancipation was finally achieved at midnight on 31 July 1838.[1]

Barbados

Emancipation Day in Barbados is part of the annual "Season of Emancipation", which began in 2005. The Season runs from April 14 to August 23.[2][3] Commemorations include:

Emancipation Day celebrations usually feature a walk from Independence Square in Bridgetown to the Heritage Village at the Crop Over Bridgetown Market on the Spring Garden Highway. At the Heritage Village, in addition to a concert, there is a wreath-laying ceremony as a tribute to the ancestors. Traditionally, the Prime Minister, the Minister for Culture, and representatives of the Commission for Pan African Affairs are among those laying wreaths.

Jamaica

Emancipation Park-Statues-1
Emancipation Park, Kingston, Jamaica 2004

Emancipation Day in Jamaica is a public holiday and part of a week-long cultural celebration, during which Jamaicans also celebrate Jamaican Independence Day on August 6, 1962. Both August 1 and August 6 are public holidays.

Emancipation Day had stopped being observed as a nation holiday in 1962 at the time of independence.[4] It was reinstated as a national public holiday under The Holidays (Public General) Act 1998 after a six-year campaign led by Rex Nettleford, among others.[3][5][6]

Traditionally people would keep at vigil on July 31 and at midnight ring church bell and play drums in parks and public squares to re-enact the first moments of freedom for enslaved Africans.[7] On Emancipation Day there is a reenactment of the reading of the Emancipation Declaration in town centres especially Spanish Town which was the seat of the Jamaican government when the Emancipation Act was passed in 1838.

Emancipation Park, a public park in Kingston, opened on the eve of Emancipation Day, July 31 in 2002, is named in commemoration of Emancipation Day.[8][9]

Trinidad and Tobago

On 1 August 1985 Trinidad and Tobago became the first country in the world to declare a national holiday to commemorate the abolition of slavery.[10]

It replaced Columbus Discovery Day, which commemorated the arrival of Christopher Columbus at Moruga on 31 July 1498, as a national public holiday.[11][12]

The commemoration begins the night before with an all-night vigil and includes religious services, cultural events, street processions past historic landmarks, addresses from dignitaries including an address from the President of Trinidad and Tobago and ends with an evening of shows that include a torchlight procession to the national stadium.[13][14]

Thursday before the first Monday in August

  • Bermuda celebrates its Emancipation day on this date, placing it in either July or August.[15]

First Monday in August

Some countries observe the holiday as "August Monday".

  • Antigua celebrates carnival on and around the first Monday of August. Since 1834 Antigua and Barbuda have observed the end of slavery. The first Monday and Tuesday in August was observed as a bank holiday so the populace can celebrate Emancipation Day. Monday is J'ouvert, a street party that mimics the early morning emancipation.
  • Anguilla: In addition to commemorating emancipation, it is the first day of "August Week", the Anguillian Carnival celebrations. J'ouvert is celebrated August 1, as Carnival commences.
  • The Bahamas: Celebrations are mainly concentrated in Fox Hill Village, Nassau, a former slave village whose inhabitants, according to folklore, heard about their freedom a week after everyone else on the island. The celebration known as the Bay Fest, beginning on August 1 and lasting several days, is held in the settlement of Hatchet Bay on the island of Eleuthera, and "Back to the Bay" is held in the settlement of Tarpum Bay, also on Eleuthera.
  • British Virgin Islands: The first Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of August are celebrated as "August Festival".
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis: The first Monday and Tuesday are celebrated as "Emancipation Day" and also "Culturama" in Nevis.
  • Dominica: The first Monday is celebrated as August Monday.
  • Grenada: The first Monday in August is celebrated as "Emancipation Day" with Cultural activities.
  • Martinique commemorates emancipation with a national holiday on May 22,[16] marking the slave resistance on that day in 1848 that forced Governor Claude Rostoland to issue a decree abolishing slavery.[17]
  • Guadeloupe commemorates emancipation on May 27.[16]
  • Saint Martin has a week-long celebration around May 27, commemorating the abolition of slavery.[18]
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Canada

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 ended slavery in the British Empire on August 1, 1834, and thus also in Canada. However, the first colony in the British Empire to have anti-slavery legislation was Upper Canada, now Ontario. John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada (1791–1796), passed an Act Against Slavery in 1793, which ended the importation of slaves in Upper Canada and manumitted the future children of female slaves at age twenty-five. Unfortunately, it did not free a single slave.[19] It was superseded by the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.

While the date of the First August Monday holiday in Canada is historically linked to the abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1834, not all of provinces commemorate the holiday as such.

Ontario

In 2008, the Province of Ontario dedicated August 1 as "Emancipation Day"[20]

Toronto, the capital city of Ontario, also hosts Caribana, which is held the first Monday in August. Started in 1967, it has become the largest Caribbean festival in North America. It is a two-week celebration, culminating in the long weekend with the Kings and Queens Festival, "Caribana" parade and Olympic Island activities.

Locally, the August Holiday in Toronto has been designated as "Simcoe Day" to commemorate Ontario's first Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, who in 1793 approved legislation to reduce slavery in Upper Canada, now Ontario, the first jurisdiction in the British Empire to do so.

South Africa

Emancipation Day - Old Town House CT 2016
Emancipation Day celebrations in Greenmarket Square, Cape Town at midnight, 1 December 2016.

The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 came into full effect in the Cape Colony on the 1st December 1838 after a four-year period of forced apprenticeship. About 39,000 enslaved people were freed and £1.2 million[21] (roughly equivalent to £4,175,000,000 as a proportion of GDP in 2016 pounds)[22] – of £3 million originally set aside by the British government – was paid out in compensation to 1,300 former slave holding farmers in the colony.[21]

December 1 is celebrated as Emancipation Day in South Africa most notably in the city of Cape Town.[23]

United States and territories

United States

Florida

Emancipation Day Parade Lincolnville, Florida (1920s)
Emancipation Day Parade Lincolnville, Florida, 1920s

The state of Florida observes emancipation in a ceremonial day on May 20. In the capital, Tallahassee, Civil War reenactors playing the part of Major General Edward McCook and other union soldiers act out the speech General McCook gave from the steps of the Knott House on May 20, 1865.[24] This was the first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation in Florida.[25]

Georgia

Emancipation Day is celebrated each May in Thomaston, Georgia. It is the state's oldest Emancipation Day celebration.[26] William Guilford was an early organizer of the event first held in 1866.

District of Columbia

Celebration of the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia by the colored people in Washington, April 19, 1866
Celebrating abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, April 19, 1866

The District of Columbia celebrates April 16 as Emancipation Day. On that day in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed the District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act (an act of Compensated emancipation) for the release of certain persons held to service or labor in the District of Columbia.[27] The Act freed about 3,100 slaves in the District of Columbia nine months before President Lincoln issued his broader Emancipation Proclamation. The District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act represents the only example of compensation by the federal government to former owners of emancipated slaves.[28]

On January 4, 2005, Mayor Anthony A. Williams signed legislation making Emancipation Day an official public holiday in the District.[29] Although Emancipation Day occurs on April 16, by law when April 16 falls during a weekend, Emancipation Day is observed on the nearest weekday.[30] This affects the Internal Revenue Service's due date for tax returns, which traditionally must be submitted by April 15. As the federal government observes the holiday, it causes the federal and all state tax deadlines to be moved to the 18th if Emancipation Day falls on the weekend and to the 17th if Emancipation Day falls on a Monday.[31] Each year, activities will be held during the public holiday including the traditional Emancipation Day parade celebrating the freedom of enslaved persons in the District of Columbia. The Emancipation Day celebration was held yearly from 1866 to 1901.

Mississippi

In Columbus, Mississippi, Emancipation Day is celebrated on May 8, known locally as "Eight o' May". As in other southern states, the local celebration commemorates the date in 1865 when African Americans in eastern Mississippi learned of their freedom.[32]

Though federal law outlawed slavery in the state, Mississippi itself did not ratify the federal constitutional amendment abolishing slavery until February 7, 2013.[33]

Texas

In Texas, Emancipation Day is celebrated on June 19. It commemorates the announcement in Texas of the abolition of slavery made on that day in 1865. It is commonly known as Juneteenth. Since the late 20th century, this date has gained recognition beyond Texas, and has been proposed for a national Emancipation Day.

Kentucky

Emancipation Day is celebrated on August 8 in Paducah, McCracken county and Russellville, Logan county Kentucky. According to the Paducah Sun newspaper, this is the anniversary of the day slaves in this region learned of their freedom in 1865.

Territories

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico celebrates Emancipation Day (Día de la Abolición de Esclavitud), an official holiday, on March 22. Slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico in 1873 while the island was still a colony of Spain.[34]

United States Virgin Islands

BuddhoeFrederiksted
Statue of Buddhoe at Fort Frederik, St. Croix

The United States Virgin Islands celebrates Emancipation Day as an official holiday on July 3. It commemorates the Danish Governor Peter von Scholten's 1848 proclamation that "all unfree in the Danish West Indies are from today emancipated," which followed a slave rebellion led by John Gottlieb (General Buddhoe) in Frederiksted, Saint Croix.[35]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Emancipation". Black Presence: Asian and Black History in Britain 1500-1850. The National Archives.
  2. ^ Hutchinson, Nekaelia (14 April 2014). "Season of Emancipation Launched". Barbados Government Information Service. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  3. ^ a b Oldfield, J. R. (2007). Chords of Freedom: Commemoration, Ritual and British Transatlantic Slavery By J. R. Manchester University Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780719066658. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  4. ^ Modest, Wayne (2011). "Slavery and the (Symbolic) Politics of Memory in Jamaica". In Smith, Laurajane; et al. Representing Enslavement and Abolition in Museums: Ambiguous Engagements. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 9781136667381. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  5. ^ "How we celebrate Emancipation Day". Emancipation Park, Jamaica. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  6. ^ "Holidays (Public General) Act". Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  7. ^ Wilson, Amber (2004). Jamaica: The Culture. Crabtree Publishing. ISBN 9780778793328.
  8. ^ "The History of Emancipation Day". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  9. ^ "The Development of Emancipation Park". Emancipation Park Jamaica. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  10. ^ "Emancipation Day". National Library and Information System Authority, Trinidad and Tobago. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  11. ^ Sookraj, Radhica (2011). "Moruga residents celebrate Emancipation, Discovery day". Trinidad and Tobago Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  12. ^ Schramm, Katharina (2016). African Homecoming: Pan-African Ideology and Contested Heritage. Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 9781315435404.
  13. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago Emancipation Day." Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary, edited by Helene Henderson, Omnigraphics, Inc., 5th edition, 2015. Credo Reference, http://cordproxy.mnpals.net/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hfcwd/trinidad_and_tobago_emancipation_day/0?institutionId=4015. Accessed 15 Jan 2018.
  14. ^ Winer, Lisa (2009). Dictionary of the English/Creole of Trinidad & Tobago: On Historical Principles. McGill-Queen. p. 327. ISBN 9780773576070.
  15. ^ "Bermuda's Public Holidays in 2016, 2017 and 2018".
  16. ^ a b "Emancipation Days in Martinique and Guadeloupe", Repeating Islands.
  17. ^ Elisa Bordin and Anna Scacchi (eds), Transatlantic Memories of Slavery: Remembering the Past, Changing the Future, Cambria Press, 2015, p. 107.
  18. ^ "St. Martin/St. Maarten Events, Calendar", FrenchCaribbean.com.
  19. ^ "Upper Canadian Act of 1793 Against Slavery National Historic Event". Parks Canada. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  20. ^ "Law Document English View". Ontario.ca.
  21. ^ a b Anonymous (2011-03-31). "History of Slavery and early colonisation in SA timeline 1602-1841". www.sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  22. ^ "1838 vs 2015 pound value – Economic Cost". MeasuringWorth.com. Measuring Worth. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  23. ^ Pather, Ra'eesa. "Slaves: South Africa's first freedom fighters". The M&G Online. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  24. ^ "Knott House Museum Exhibits & Programs". Archived from the original on 2007-06-08. Retrieved 2007-05-20.
  25. ^ "Knott House Museum". Archived from the original on 2007-05-27. Retrieved 2007-05-20.
  26. ^ Development, Georgia Department of Economic (23 May 2018). "Emancipation Proclamation Celebration - Thomaston, Georgia". exploregeorgia.org.
  27. ^ Chap. LIV. 12 Stat. 376 from "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875". Library of Congress, Law Library of Congress. Retrieved Oct. 19, 2009.
  28. ^ DC Celebrates Emancipation, Government of the District of Columbia
  29. ^ "District of Columbia Emancipation Day Amendment Act of 2004" (PDF).
  30. ^ DC Department of Human Resources from "Holiday Schedule (2011 Holiday Schedule)"
  31. ^ Staff report (12 April 2016). "The real reason why tax day was moved to April 18". Tribune Media. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  32. ^ https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2014/05/emancipation-day-commemoration-from-columbus-mississippi/361971/
  33. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2013/02/mississippi-officially-abolishes-slavery-ratifies-13th-amendment/
  34. ^ "Abolition of Slavery in Puerto Rico". World of 1898. Library of Congress. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  35. ^ "The slave rebellion on St. Croix and Emancipation". Rigsarkivet. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
August

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was originally named Sextilis in Latin because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, and March was the first month of the year. About 700 BC, it became the eighth month when January and February were added to the year before March by King Numa Pompilius, who also gave it 29 days. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 46 BC (708 AUC), giving it its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC, it was renamed in honor of Augustus. According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt.In the Southern Hemisphere, August is the seasonal equivalent of February in the Northern Hemisphere. In many European countries, August is the holiday month for most workers. Numerous religious holidays occurred during August in ancient Rome.Certain meteor showers take place in August. The Kappa Cygnids take place in August, with the dates varying each year. The Alpha Capricornids meteor shower takes place as early as July 10 and ends at around August 10, and the Southern Delta Aquariids take place from mid-July to mid-August, with the peak usually around July 28–29. The Perseids, a major meteor shower, typically takes place between July 17 and August 24, with the days of the peak varying yearly. The star cluster of Messier 30 is best observed around August.

Among the aborigines of the Canary Islands, especially among the Guanches of Tenerife, the month of August received in the name of Beñesmer or Beñesmen, which was also the harvest festival held this month.

District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act

An Act for the Release of certain Persons held to Service or Labor within the District of Columbia, 37th Cong., Sess. 2, ch. 54, 12 Stat. 376, known colloquially as the District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act or simply Compensated Emancipation Act, was a law that ended slavery in Washington, D.C. by paying slave owners for releasing their slaves. Although not written by him, the act was signed by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln on April 16, 1862. April 16 is now celebrated in the city as Emancipation Day.

Emancipation

Emancipation is any effort to procure economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in discussion of such matters. Emancipation stems from ēx manus capere ('detach from the hand'). Among others, Karl Marx discussed political emancipation in his 1844 essay "On the Jewish Question", although often in addition to (or in contrast with) the term human emancipation. Marx's views of political emancipation in this work were summarized by one writer as entailing "equal status of individual citizens in relation to the state, equality before the law, regardless of religion, property, or other 'private' characteristics of individual people.""Political emancipation" as a phrase is less common in modern usage, especially outside academic, foreign or activist contexts. However, similar concepts may be referred to by other terms. For instance, in the United States the Civil Rights Movement culminated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 can be seen as further realization of events such as the Emancipation Proclamation and abolition of slavery a century earlier. In the current and former British West Indies islands the holiday Emancipation Day is celebrated to mark the end of the Atlantic slave trade.

Freedom Plaza

Freedom Plaza, originally known as Western Plaza, is an open plaza in Northwest Washington, D.C., United States, located at the corner of 14th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW, adjacent to Pershing Park. The John A. Wilson Building, the seat of the District of Columbia government, faces the plaza, as does the historic National Theatre, which has been visited by every U.S. President since it opened in 1835. Three large hotels are to the north and west. The National Park Service administers the Plaza as part of its Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site and coordinates the Plaza's activities.

Harry John Lawson

Not to be confused with Henry Lawson, Australian writer and poet.Henry John Lawson, also known as Harry Lawson, (1852–1925) was a British bicycle designer, racing cyclist, motor industry pioneer, and fraudster. As part of his attempt to create and control a British motor industry Lawson formed and floated The Daimler Motor Company Limited in London in 1896. It later began manufacture in Coventry. Lawson organised the 1896 Emancipation Day drive now commemorated annually by the London to Brighton car run on the same course.

July

July is the seventh month of the year (between June and August) in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was named by the Roman Senate in honour of Roman general Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth. Prior to that, it was called Quintilis, being the fifth month of the 10-month calendar.

It is on average the warmest month in most of the Northern hemisphere, where it is the second month of summer, and the coldest month in much of the Southern hemisphere, where it is the second month of winter. The second half of the year commences in July. In the Southern hemisphere, July is the seasonal equivalent of January in the Northern hemisphere.

"Dog days" are considered to begin in early July in the Northern Hemisphere, when the hot sultry weather of summer usually starts. Spring lambs born in late winter or early spring are usually sold before 1 July.

July is the traditional period known as "fence month," the closed season for deer in England. The end of England's High Court of Justice Trinity Term takes place on 31 July. July is also the time in which the elections take place for the Japanese House of Councillors, held every three years and replacing half of its seats.

In Ancient Rome, the festival of Poplifugia was celebrated on 5 July, and Ludi Apollinares was held on 13 July and for several days afterwards. However, these dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

Juneteenth

Juneteenth, also known as Juneteenth Independence Day or Freedom Day, is an American holiday that commemorates the June 19, 1865, announcement of the abolition of slavery in the U.S. state of Texas, and more generally the emancipation of enslaved African Americans throughout the former Confederate States of America. Its name is a portmanteau of "June" and "nineteenth", the date of its celebration. Juneteenth is recognized as a state holiday or special day of observance in forty-five states.Today it is observed primarily in local celebrations. Traditions include public readings of the Emancipation Proclamation, singing traditional songs such as "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" and "Lift Every Voice and Sing", and reading of works by noted African-American writers such as Ralph Ellison and Maya Angelou. Celebrations may include rodeos, street fairs, cookouts, family reunions, park parties, historical reenactments, or Miss Juneteenth contests. The Mascogos, descendants of Black Seminoles, of Coahuila, Mexico also celebrate Juneteenth.

Keti Koti

Keti Koti (Sranantongo: "the chain is cut" or "the chain is broken") is an annual celebration on July 1 that marks Emancipation Day in Suriname. The day is also known as Maspasi or Prisiri Maspasi, meaning "Emancipation" or "Emancipation Festival".Keti Koti marks the date when slavery was abolished in Suriname and the Dutch Antilles in 1863. However, enslaved people in Suriname would not be fully free until 1873, after a mandatory 10-year transition period during which time they were required to work on the plantations for minimal pay and without state sanctioned torture.

After 1873 many slaves left the plantations where they had suffered for several generations, in favor of the city of Paramaribo.

In 2009 several cities in the Netherlands hosted various activities, making this day a day of national celebration and remembrance throughout the country.

National Freedom Day

National Freedom Day is a United States observance on February 1 honoring the signing by Abraham Lincoln of a joint House and Senate resolution that later became the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. President Lincoln signed the Amendment outlawing slavery on February 1, 1865, although it was not ratified by the states until later.

National Hispanic Heritage Month

National Hispanic Heritage Month is the period from September 15 to October 15 in the United States, when people recognize the contributions of Hispanic and Latino Americans to the group's heritage and culture.

Public holidays in Grenada

This is a list of holidays in Grenada.

January 1: New Year's Day

February 7: Independence Day

(variable): Good Friday

(variable) Easter Monday

May 1: Labour Day

May 1: Indian Arrival Day

(variable): Whit Monday

(variable): Corpus Christi

first Monday of August: Emancipation Day

August 11: Carnival

October 25: Thanksgiving Day

December 25: Christmas Day

December 26: Boxing Day

Public holidays in Saint Kitts and Nevis

This is a list of holidays in Saint Kitts and Nevis.

January 1: New Year Day

January 2: Carnival Day

April 14: Good Friday

April 17: Easter Monday

May 1: Labour Day

June 5: Whit Monday

August 1: Emancipation Day

August 2: Culturama Day

September 16: National Heroes' Day

September 19: Independence Day

December 25: Christmas Day

December 26: Boxing Day

Public holidays in Saint Lucia

This is a list of holidays in Saint Lucia.1 January: New Year's Day

2 January: Second New Year's Day

22 February: Independence Day

(variable): Good Friday

(variable): Easter Monday

1 May: Labour Day

(variable): Whit Monday

(variable): Corpus Christi

(variable): Carnival Monday

1 August: Emancipation Day

First Monday in October: Thanksgiving

13 December: National Day

25 December: Christmas Day

26 December: Boxing Day

Public holidays in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

This is a list of holidays in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.(2016 dates)

January 1: New Year Day

March 14: National Hero's Day

March 25: Good Friday (varies each year)

March 28: Easter Monday (varies each year)

May 1: Labour Day

May 16: Whit Monday (varies each year)

First Monday in July: Carnival Monday

Day After Carnival Monday: Carnival Tuesday

August 1: Emancipation Day

October 27: Independence Day

December 25: Christmas Day

December 26: Boxing Day

Serfs Emancipation Day

Serfs Emancipation Day, on March 28, is an annual holiday in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, which celebrates the emancipation of serfs in Tibet. The holiday was adopted by the Tibetan legislature on January 19, 2009, and was promulgated that same year. In modern Tibetan history, March 28, 1959, was the day that the Tibetan government was declared illegal by China, which, according to official Chinese history, liberated Tibetans from feudalism and theocracy.

Slavery in Seychelles

Abolition of slavery in Seychelles was a gradual process that became increasingly powerful in the early nineteenth century and finalized in 1835.

Tax Day

In the United States, Tax Day is a colloquial term for the day on which individual income tax returns are due to be submitted to the federal government. The term may also refer to the same day for individual states, even where the tax return due date is a different day.

Since 1955, for those living in the United States, Tax Day has typically fallen on April 15. For people who file a U.S. tax return and live outside the United States and Puerto Rico, Tax Day has typically fallen on June 15, because of the two-month automatic extension granted to filers by IRS Publication 54.At least two local holidays in the United States sometimes coincide with Tax Day. First, Emancipation Day, a holiday in Washington, D.C. commemorating the emancipation in April 1862 of enslaved people of African descent. It is observed on the weekday closest to April 16. Second, is Patriots' Day, a holiday in Maine and Massachusetts that celebrates the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1776 that initiated the American Revolutionary War. It is now celebrated on the third Monday in April. The local IRS Andover Campus in Andover, MA is closed whenever April 15th falls on the Monday of the three-day long weekend. For both Patriot Day and Emancipation Day, special rules apply. (also see below:Alignment with state and District of Columbia holidays) For Emancipation Day, when April 15 falls on a Friday, tax returns are due the following Monday. For both Emancipation Day and Patriots' Day, when April 15 falls on a Saturday or Sunday, tax returns are due the following Tuesday. .

Wayne Grady (author)

Wayne Grady (born 1948 in Windsor, Ontario) is a Canadian writer, editor, and translator. He is the author of fourteen books of nonfiction, the translator of more than a dozen novels from the French, and the editor of many literary anthologies of fiction and nonfiction. He currently teaches creative writing in the MFA program at the University of British Columbia.

As a translator, Grady has won the 1989 Governor General's Award for French to English translation for On the Eighth Day, his translation of Antonine Maillet's novel Le Huitième jour, and the John Glassco Translation Prize for Christopher Cartier of Hazelnut, his translation of Maillet's Christophe Cartier de la Noisette dit Nounours. As a writer, he won the 2008 National Outdoor Book Award (Nature and the Environment category) for The Great Lakes: The Natural History of a Changing Region.

His book Bringing Back the Dodo (2006) is a collection of intuitive and humbling essays on our history with the natural world, extinction, and our effects on the planet.

His first novel, Emancipation Day, deals with the marriage, during the Second World War, of a black man who is passing for white, and a white woman who knows nothing of her husband's past; the novel was inspired by Grady's discovery, while doing genealogical research, that his own great-grandfather was an African American emigrant from the United States. Emancipation Day was named a longlisted nominee for the 2013 Scotiabank Giller Prize. October 1970, his English translation of Louis Hamelin's 2010 novel La Constellation du Lynx, was also a longlisted nominee for the Giller in the same year. On April 29, 2014, Emancipation Day was named the winner of the 2013 Amazon.ca First Novel Award.Grady is married to writer Merilyn Simonds.

Wright Brothers Day

Wright Brothers Day (December 17) is a United States national observation. It is codified in the US Code, and commemorates the first successful flights in a heavier-than-air, mechanically propelled airplane, that were made by Orville and Wilbur Wright on December 17, 1903, near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. On September 24, 1959 U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower declared December 17 to be Wright Brothers Day.Wright Brothers Day was announced as an official commemorative day in Ohio, on October 5, 2011, celebrating 100 years of practical flight for the Wright Brothers.

United States Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States
January
January–February
February
American Heart Month
Black History Month
February–March
March
Irish-American Heritage Month
National Colon Cancer Awareness Month
Women's History Month
March–April
April
Confederate History Month
May
Asian Pacific American Heritage Month
Jewish American Heritage Month
June
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and
Transgender Pride Month
July
July–August
August
September
Prostate Cancer Awareness Month
September–October
Hispanic Heritage Month
October
Breast Cancer Awareness Month
Disability Employment Awareness Month
Filipino American History Month
LGBT History Month
October–November
November
Native American Indian Heritage Month
December
Varies (year round)
Season of Emancipation in Barbados (April 14 to August 23)

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