An elytron (/ˈɛlaɪtrɒn/; from Greek ἔλυτρον "sheath, cover"; plural: elytra /-trə/) is a modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles (Coleoptera) and a few of the true bugs (Hemiptera); in most true bugs, the forewings are instead called hemelytra (sometimes alternatively spelled as "hemielytra"), as only the basal half is thickened while the apex is membranous. An elytron is sometimes also referred to as a shard.
The elytra primarily serve as protective wing-cases for the hindwings underneath, which are used for flying. To fly, a beetle typically opens the elytra and then extends the hindwings, flying while still holding the elytra open, though some beetles in the families Scarabaeidae and Buprestidae can fly with the elytra closed.
In some groups, the elytra are fused together, rendering the insect flightless. Some of the ground beetles (family Carabidae) are a good example of this.
The term is also used to describe the hard scales of some polychaete worms, notably the Polynoidae. These outgrowths of the body wall are distinguished from chaeta, which grow from follicles and thus possess roots.
Aepus is a genus of ground beetles of the subfamily Trechinae. Distributed in France, on Canary Islands and the archipelago Madeira in Spain, Albania, UK, Ireland, Norway and Sweden.
Representatives of this genus are characterized by the following features:
Adults are less than 2.5 mm;
Eyes are rudimentary;
Elytron have a few erect hairs.Amphizoa davidis
Amphizoa davidis is a species of beetle in the Amphizoidae family. Bodylength between 11–16 mm the elytron lack a carina on fifth interval. Pronotum have a lateral margin without lateral bead. Only known from the province Sichuan of in especially in China.Amphizoa lecontei
Amphizoa lecontei is a species of aquatic beetle. Adults have a body length between 11-16mm. Its elytron has a distinct carina on fifth interval. Found in western North America, especially in the Rocky Mountains.. Its common name is "Trout-stream beetle". Its synonym is Amphizoa carinata.Cardiosyne
Cardiosyne is an extinct genus of click beetles from the Triassic of Argentina.
C. obesaIt is the type species of the genus. The type specimen is an elytron with record number PULR-I 324. Its type locality is Picos Gemelos (5th cycle), which is in a Carnian lacustrine - large claystone in the Los Rastros Formation of Argentina.
C. elegansThe type specimen is an elytron with record number PULR-I 312. Its type locality is Rio Gualo (5th cycle), which is in a Carnian lacustrine - large claystone in the Los Rastros Formation of Argentina.Chilocorus bipustulatus
Chilocorus bipustulatus, the heather ladybird, is a beetle species belonging to the family Coccinellidae, subfamily Chilocorinae.These beetles are found in most of the Palearctic ecozone, (Europe, North Africa, Asia north of the Himalayan foothills, and northern and central Arabian Peninsula)
, and has been introduced to tropical Africa, Hawaii, and North America.The elytra of this small beetle are a shiny brown with two reddish-orange spots on each elytron (hence the Latin word bipustulatus, meaning two-blistered). Sometime three spots run in an horizontal line and join into two larger stains.
The mature larva is about 5 millimetres (0.20 in) long. Wintering occurs as an adult. The adults grow up to 3–5 millimetres (0.12–0.20 in) long and can be encountered from May through October.
In Europe it occurs in fruit gardens, pine forests, and stone quarries. In Poland it was found on grasses, low vegetation and bushes, on heath lands, under flakes of bark on pines and fruit trees, occasionally in leaf litter and in mossHeather ladybirds feed on aphids and scale insects (mainly belonging to the family Coccidae and Diaspididae) and is often introduced as a biological control in cases of infestation. In France it is considered to be
useful in Citrus orchards.Chilocorus stigma
Chilocorus stigma, commonly known as the twice-stabbed ladybug, is a native resident of the United States and Canada but does not live west of the Sierra Nevada.. It also has been introduced to Hawaii. It is shiny black, and there is one red spot on each elytron. The remainder of the body is black as well, but the abdomen is either yellow or red. It is sometimes confused with the "two-stabbed lady beetle", Chilocorus orbus, which is widespread in California.Donacia clavipes
Donacia clavipes is a species of leaf beetles from the subfamily of Donaciinae.Elytron (journal)
Elytron is a Spain-based journal for specialists in coleopterology (the study of beetles).
It was first published in 1987.Epilachna borealis
Epilachna borealis is a species of beetle that can commonly be found in the eastern United States. It is yellow with seven large black spots on each elytron and four small black spots on the pronotum. The species feeds on cucurbitaceous plants. Its common name is Squash beetle.Geotrupes stercorarius
Geotrupes stercorarius is a species of earth-boring dung beetle, common name Dor.
The beetle is up to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. The whole beetle is weakly lustrous and darkly colored, sometimes with a bluish sheen. The body shape is very compact and arched toward the top. On each elytron seven long rows of points are just visible. The head is clearly forward, and similar to a shovel in shape. The antennae are short and thicken into fans at the ends. On each leg there are numerous spikes.
The beetle is coprophagous, feeding on the droppings of herbivorous animals, and thus is found wherever cattle are kept. In the evenings, one can observe them closely circle around the animals on the ground. They create a chirping sound with their hind legs. In the spring, a male and female dig a passage in the earth under a heap of dung, which can be up to 50 cm (20 in) in length. From this the female digs side passages. Into each of these a piece of dung is brought, and an egg is laid. Afterwards, the chamber is closed off with more dung. The larvae which hatch from the eggs feed on the dung for a year, and then pupate. The adult beetles emerge from the pupae.Gymnopleurini
Gymnopleurini is a tribe of scarab beetles, in the dung beetle subfamily (Scarabaeinae). The side edge of each elytron (hardened fore-wing protecting the hind-wing) has a characteristic shape that exposed the underlying pleural sclerites (side plates of the abdomen). Relative to other dung beetles they are of moderate size (10–18 mm long).Hoangus venustus
Hoangus venustus, commonly known as the flax ladybird, is a species of ladybird beetle that is native to New Zealand, being found at least in the North Island. It can be found on New Zealand flax (Phormium) and Toetoe (cutty grass), reportedly eating the mealybugs that live there. Previously known as Cassiculus venustus, the valid name of the species is now Hoangus venustus.The species' colouration is black and orange: its head is orange on each side with black running down the middle, while its elytra or wing cases (which cover the back) are orange around the edge with black covering much of the area. It has four orange dots on this black area, two on each elytron. It is about 4 mm long from the tip of the head to the end of the abdomen (description based on a life-size photo in Andrew Crowe's Which New Zealand Insect).Lymnastis
Lymnastis is a genus of ground beetles of the subfamily Trechinae.
The body length of the adult is 2.0–2.2 millimetres (0.079–0.087 in). Body-color is yellow and flat. Representatives of this genus are characterized by the following features:
Head is small and narrow;
Compound eyes are usually large and are made up of about ten of the facet cells;
Frontal supraorbital notch is reduced;
Prischitkovaya groove on top is not bent;
The elytron have fine hairs and have no return grooves;
Vertex of the Abdomen appears from the elytron;
The upper body is covered in soft hairs.It contains the following species:
Lymnastis adventitius (Peringuey, 1896)
Lymnastis americanus Darlington, 1934
Lymnastis atricapillus Bates, 1892
Lymnastis barbieri Straneo, 1953
Lymnastis coomani Jeannel, 1932
Lymnastis decorsei Jeannel, 1932
Lymnastis dieneri Szekessy, 1938
Lymnastis foveicollis G.Muller, 1941
Lymnastis galilaeus Piochard de la Brullerie, 1876
Lymnastis gaudini Jeannel, 1929
Lymnastis gomerae Franz, 1965
Lymnastis herlanti Basilewsky, 1951
Lymnastis indicus (Motschulsky, 1851)
Lymnastis inops Darlington, 1962
Lymnastis jeanneli Basilewsky, 1951
Lymnastis leleupi Basilewsky, 1949
Lymnastis lesnei Jeannel, 1932
Lymnastis luigionii Dodero, 1899
Lymnastis macrops Jeannel, 1932
Lymnastis meersmanae Basilewsky, 1951
Lymnastis minutus Basilewsky, 1953
Lymnastis niloticus Motschulsky, 1862
Lymnastis pilosus Bates, 1892
Lymnastis pullulus Motschulsky, 1862
Lymnastis remyi Jeannel, 1949
Lymnastis rugegeiensis Basilewsky, 1953
Lymnastis sanctaehelenae Basilewsky, 1972
Lymnastis scaritides Bruneau De Mire, 1965
Lymnastis schachti Baehr, 2003
Lymnastis schoutedeni Jeannel, 1937
Lymnastis subovatus Machado, 1992
Lymnastis sugimotoi Habu, 1975
Lymnastis swaluwenbergi Jeannel, 1932
Lymnastis tescorum Arnoldi & Kryzhanovskij, 1964
Lymnastis thoracicus Machado, 1992
Lymnastis tibesticus Bruneau De Mire, 1990
Lymnastis villiersi Bruneau De Mire, 1965
Lymnastis yanoi Nakane, 1963Madarellus undulatus
Madarellus undulatus is a species of weevils belonging to the Baridinae subfamily. It is 2.8–4.5 millimetres (0.11–0.18 in) long and have brown coloured head and black or sometimes reddish body. The prothorax is glossy and somewhat punctate with striate elytron. M. undulatus can be found in both Canada (Ontario and Quebec) and everywhere in the United States.Metrioxenini
Metrioxenini (metrioxenines) are a tribe of belids, primitive weevils of the family Belidae, containing about 30 species. They are only found in two widely separated areas, Southeast Asia extending to Indonesia, and South Africa. In the Paleogene, they were found at least in North America and Europe also, occurring perhaps across the entire Northern Hemisphere.As in other belids, their antennae are straight, not elbowed as in the true weevils (Curculionidae). They are far less characteristic than their presumed closest living relatives, the Aglycyderini. They can be recognized by the sharp-sided rostrum ("snout"). Also, their eyes are bordered by a wide and ridged groove. Metrioxena shows two sharp ribs on each elytron, which are absent in the other genera. These, by contrast, have their tarsal claws fused together at the base (they are unfused in Metrioxena) and grooves on the pygidium which are absent in Metrioxena.Oxelytrum
Oxelytrum is a genus of burying beetles or carrion beetles belonging to the family Silphidae.
Species in this genus have three ridges on each elytron, without hairs on the pronotal disk.
They are usually black with reddish markings and have 3-segmented antennal clubs. Most species are nocturnal and are mainly confined to South America.Spotted cucumber beetle
The spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata) is a species of cucumber beetle that is native to North America. The beetle is also a major agricultural pest insect in North America.
In the adult form, it eats and damages leaves of many crops, including cucumbers, soybeans, cotton, beans, and many others. In the larval form, which is known as the southern corn rootworm, it tunnels through the roots of young plants, stunting or killing them. These native pests have a wide range of host plants, but will readily infest a field of crop plants, most notoriously corn.
Adult beetles are greenish-yellow with six large black spots on each elytron. They are about 0.5 cm long. The larvae are yellowish and wormlike.The spotted cucumber beetle has three subspecies, each with a different common name;
D. u. howardi – spotted cucumber beetle (southern corn rootworm)
D. u. tenella – western cucumber beetle
D. u. undecimpunctata – western spotted cucumber beetleStenalia jakli
Stenalia jakli is a beetle in the Stenalia genus, which is in the Mordellidae family. It was described in 2006 by Horák on Sumba island in Indonesia. The species' metatibia and elytron are black in colour. The name derived from Stanislav Jákl, an entomologist who worked with Horák.Stenelmis gammoni
Stenelmis gammoni is a species of beetles in the riffle beetle family, Elmidae. It is known by the common name Gammon's riffle beetle.The beetle is native to the United States. It was first described from the New River in North Carolina in 1976. Its total distribution is still unclear, but it has been found in Virginia and Alabama as well.The specimens used in the original species description were dark brown to black beetles with elongated, convex bodies measuring between 2 and 3 millimetres (0.079 and 0.118 in) long. Each elytron has two spots.