Eluvium

In geology, eluvium or eluvial deposits are those geological deposits and soils that are derived by in situ weathering or weathering plus gravitational movement or accumulation.

The process of removal of materials from geological or soil horizons is called eluviation or leaching. There is a difference in the usage of this term in geology and soil science. In soil science, eluviation is the transport of soil material from upper layers of soil to lower levels by downward precipitation of water across soil horizons, and accumulation of this material (illuvial deposit) in lower levels is called illuviation.[1][2] In geology, the removed material is irrelevant, and the deposit (eluvial deposit) is the remaining material. Eluviation occurs when precipitation exceeds evaporation.

A soil horizon formed due to eluviation is an eluvial zone or eluvial horizon. In a typical soil profile, the eluvial horizon refers to a light-colored zone located (depending on context and literature) either at the lower part of the A horizon (symbol: Ae) or within a distinct horizon (E horizon) below the A, where the process is most intense and rapid. Yet some sources consider the eluvial zone to be the A horizon plus the (distinct) E horizon, as eluviation technically occurs in both.

The strict eluvial horizon (E horizon) is typically light gray, clay-depleted, contains little organic matter and has a high concentration of silt and sand particles composed of quartz and other resistant minerals.

Eluvial ore deposits are those such as tungsten and gold placer deposits formed by settling and enriched by the winnowing or removal of lower density materials. Diamonds within yellow ground (weathered portions of kimberlites) may be considered to be eluvial deposits. Cassiterite and columbite-tantalite deposits also occur as residual or eluvial concentrations. The Pitinga tin deposit in Brazil, an eluvial deposit, is one of the largest tin mines in the world. Weathering supergene enrichment of an apatite rich carbonatite in Ontario has produced a significant eluvial phosphate ore deposit.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Glossary of Soil Science Terms". Soil Science Society of America. Archived from the original on 2006-09-27. Retrieved 2006-11-10.
  2. ^ "Glossary of Terms". PhysicalGeography.net. Retrieved 2006-11-11.
  • Gupta, Chiranjib Kumar (2002) Chemical Metallurgy: Principles and Practice, Wiley, ISBN 3-527-30376-6
  • Cronan, David Spencer (1999) Handbook of Marine Mineral Deposits, CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-8429-X
  • Swiecki, Rafal (2006) Eluvial Placers Accessed 18 April 2006
  • Van Hees, Edmond H., (2002) Supergene Phosphate Enrichment in Carbonatite-Derived Eluvial Sediments: Agrium Phosphate Mine, Kapuskasing, Ontario, Canada, The Geological Society of America (GSA) abstract. Accessed 18 April 2006
An Accidental Memory in the Case of Death

An Accidental Memory in the Case of Death is the second album from Portland, Oregon ambient musician Matthew Cooper, under the name Eluvium. Strikingly different from his previous work, An Accidental Memory in the Case of Death features Cooper playing solo piano only. It was recorded in one continuous take and was completed in two hours. The artwork for the album was created by Jeannie L. Paske.

Copia (album)

Copia is the fourth album from Portland, Oregon ambient musician Matthew Cooper, under the name Eluvium. The album features many more instruments than much of Cooper's past material, such as brass and string instruments. The cover illustration is Jeannie Paske's watercolor and ink, titled In Search of a View.

Eluvium (musician)

Eluvium is the moniker of the American ambient recording artist Matthew Cooper, who currently resides in Portland, Oregon. Cooper, who was born in Tennessee and raised in Louisville, Kentucky, before relocating to the Northwest, is known for blending various genres of experimental music including electronic, minimalism and piano. His albums often feature artwork and photographs by Jeannie Paske.Eluvium is currently signed to the record label Temporary Residence Limited.

Indecipherable Text

Indecipherable Text couples the first two electronics-heavy releases, Lambent Material (2003) and Talk Amongst the Trees (2005), of Portland, Oregon ambient musician, Matthew Cooper, aka Eluvium, skipping over the solo acoustic piano of 2004's An Accidental Memory in the Case of Death. The two-disc compilation from Melbourne independent label, Sensory Projects, includes three bonus tracks not previously featured on any North American Eluvium releases.

Invention (disambiguation)

An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process.

Invented or invention may also refer to:

Invented (album), a 2010 album by Jimmy Eat World

Inventio, the method used for the discovery of arguments in Western rhetoric

Invention (musical composition), a short composition (usually for a keyboard instrument) with two-part counterpoint

"Invention", a song by Pedro the Lion from the 1999 EP The Only Reason I Feel Secure

Invention (album), a 1997 collaboration by Phil Keaggy, Wes King, and Scott Dente

Invention (Ligeti), a 1948 piano composition by György Ligeti

Inventions (album), a 1965 album by Sandy Bull

Inventions (band), a musical group composed of members of the ensembles Eluvium and Explosions in the Sky

Jesu / Eluvium

Jesu / Eluvium is a split LP between Justin Broadrick's Jesu and Matthew Cooper's Eluvium. It was released through Hydra Head Records on July 5, 2007. The album was recorded at Broadrick's own Avalanche Studio. Broadrick and Cooper wrote, recorded and mixed their respective tracks with John Golden mastering all tracks. Broadrick featured the tracks he had produced later on the Jesu release Why Are We Not Perfect?.

Lambent Material

Lambent Material is the first album from Portland, Oregon ambient musician Matthew Cooper, under the name Eluvium. Emily Wahl plays clarinet on "There Wasn't Anything". All other instruments on the album played by Cooper.

Leaves Eclipse the Light

Leaves Eclipse the Light is an EP from Portland, OR ambient musician Matthew Cooper, under the name Eluvium, following the release of the "artistically daring and critically acclaimed" album Similes. The album features the first track from the aforementioned album, a new 11-minute unreleased ambient track à la Talk Amongst the Trees, the remix of "The Motion Makes Me Last" by electronic/dance musician Four Tet which was featured on the BBC Radio 1 2-hour-long Four Tet Essential Mix and finally the video of "The Motion Makes Me Last" directed by artist and filmmaker Matt McCormick.Leaves Eclipse the Light is the first installment in a series of 2 EPs. The second one is The Motion Makes Me Last, also presenting and named after a song on Similes and featuring a remix of a song from that album.

Matthew Cooper

Matthew or Matt Cooper may refer to:

Matt Cooper, keyboardist of the British acid jazz band Incognito

Matt Cooper (Irish journalist) (born 1966), Irish journalist, broadcaster, author and former editor of the Sunday Tribune

Matt Cooper (rugby league) (born 1979), Australian rugby league footballer

Matthew Cooper, American ambient recording artist better known as Eluvium

Matthew Cooper (American journalist) (born 1962), American journalist; associated with the leaking of CIA agent Valerie Plame's name

Matthew Cooper (footballer) (born 1994), Scottish footballer

Matthew Cooper (rower) (born 1948), British Olympic rower

Matthew Cooper (rugby union) (born 1966), New Zealand rugby union footballer

Murmur (EP)

Murmur is the second EP from The Sight Below, released on October 27, 2009. It contains two new songs and three remixes of other The Sight Below songs (two from Glider and one from No Place for Us) by Eluvium, Simon Scott, and iconic Norwegian ambient producer Biosphere.

Nightmare Ending

Nightmare Ending is the seventh studio album from Portland, Oregon ambient musician Matthew Robert Cooper, under the name Eluvium. It is a double-album and was released on May 14, 2013. The album’s final track, “Happiness”, features vocals by Ira Kaplan of the band Yo La Tengo. A special digital edition, featuring a print by artist Jeannie Paske, was released on May 1, 2013, limited to 300 copies.

Placer deposit

In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes. The name is from the Spanish word placer, meaning "alluvial sand". Placer mining is an important source of gold, and was the main technique used in the early years of many gold rushes, including the California Gold Rush. Types of placer deposits include alluvium, eluvium, beach placers, and paleoplacers.

Placer materials must be both dense and resistant to weathering processes. To accumulate in placers, mineral particles must be significantly denser than quartz (whose specific gravity is 2.65), as quartz is usually the largest component of sand or gravel. Placer environments typically contain black sand, a conspicuous shiny black mixture of iron oxides, mostly magnetite with variable amounts of ilmenite and hematite. Valuable mineral components often occurring with black sands are monazite, rutile, zircon, chromite, wolframite, and cassiterite.

Similes (album)

Similes is the fifth album from Portland, Oregon ambient musician Matthew Cooper, under the name Eluvium. The album features Cooper's first vocal performances and percussion, and is the first album to have a verse-chorus form in some of its tracks. The front cover is an artwork created by his wife, Jeannie Paske, who painted artworks for most of his other albums.

Static Nocturne

Static Nocturne is a limited edition mini-album from Portland, OR ambient musician Matthew Cooper, under the name Eluvium, following the release of his EP Leaves Eclipse the Light. This mini-album is the first Eluvium album to be self-released on his own label Watership Sounds, and is available for purchase officially from his own web store.

The album is limited to 200 hand assembled copies. The music is described by the artist as "an homage to static / white noise."

The album, which features one 50-minute-long track, was made available for pre-order on September 15 from the said web store.

Talk Amongst the Trees

Talk Amongst the Trees is the third album from Portland, Oregon ambient musician Matthew Cooper, under the name Eluvium. The album is characterised by evocative ambient guitar work and features liberal use of loop/hold pedals to create lush/abstract guitar textures. The front cover is the painting "November" by Quint Buchholz.

The Motion Makes Me Last

The Motion Makes Me Last is an EP from Portland, OR ambient musician Matthew Cooper, under the name Eluvium. This EP is a follow-up to the Leaves Eclipse the Light EP released a few months earlier.

The album features the second track from Similes, 2 unreleased instrumental / ambient tracks and a remix of "Leaves Eclipse the Light" by Nick Zammuto from The Books.

Travels in Constants Vol. 20

Travels in Constants Vol. 20 is Matthew Cooper's contribution to the mail order only Travels in Constants series from label Temporary Residence Limited. Other artists in the series include By Water, Bonnevill, Tarentel, Drona Parva, Papa M, Sonna, Bonnie 'Prince' Billy, Paul Newman, Low, Cerberus Shoal, Rumah Sakit, Mogwai, Appendix Out, Songs:Ohia, Sybarite, At Right Angles, Kilowatthours, Colophon, The Drift and Explosions in the Sky.

When I Live by the Garden and the Sea

When I Live by the Garden and the Sea is an EP from the Portland, Oregon based, ambient musician Matthew Cooper, under the name Eluvium. The song "As I Drift Off" opened with an audio fragment from the 1989 film, The 'Burbs.

Why Are We Not Perfect?

Why Are We Not Perfect? is the fifth EP release by the post-metal band Jesu. It was released on 19 August 2008 via Hydra Head Records.The EP contains Jesu's tracks from the band's split with the ambient musician Eluvium, named Jesu / Eluvium, along with an alternative version for the each song.On 9 September the EP was streamed online via the official website of the record.According to Robbie Mackey of Pitchfork Media, the EP shows a further departure from the band's post-metal style in favor of an exploration of melodic shoegazing sound and occasional trip hop elements. The album was also compared to Slowdive's works. Jason Jackowokiak of The Fader also noted that the alternative version of "Farewell" could be "the most serene track Broadrick’s ever committed to tape" with its "a loping miasma of distant voices, splintered harmonium drones and stuttering breakbeats."

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