An ellipsis (plural ellipses; from the Ancient Greek: ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, 'omission' or 'falling short') is a series of dots (typically three, such as "…") that usually indicates an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text without altering its original meaning.[1]

Opinions differ as to how to render ellipses in printed material. According to the Chicago Manual of Style, each dot should be separated from its neighbor by a non-breaking space.[2] Such spaces should be omitted, however, according to the Associated Press.[3] A third option is to use the precomposed Unicode character U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS, in which the gaps are not as wide as standard spaces.[4] This is the option used in the preceding paragraph and at the top of the sidebar to the right.

... . . .
AP format Chicago format Mid-line ellipsis


The ellipsis is also called a suspension point, points of ellipsis, periods of ellipsis, or (colloquially) "dot-dot-dot".[5]

Depending on their context and placement in a sentence, ellipses can indicate an unfinished thought, a leading statement, a slight pause, an echoing voice, or a nervous or awkward silence. Aposiopesis is the use of an ellipsis to trail off into silence—for example: "But I thought he was …" When placed at the beginning or end of a sentence, the ellipsis can also inspire a feeling of melancholy or longing.

The most common form of an ellipsis is a row of three periods or full points (...) or a precomposed triple-dot glyph (…). The usage of the em dash (—) can overlap the usage of the ellipsis, especially in dialogue. Style guides often have their own rules governing the use of ellipses. For example, The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago style) recommends that an ellipsis be formed by typing three periods, each with a space on both sides ( . . . ), while the Associated Press Stylebook (AP style) puts the dots together, but retains a space before and after the group.[6]

Whether an ellipsis at the end of a sentence needs a fourth dot to finish the sentence is a matter of debate; Chicago advises it,[7] as does the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA style),[8] while some other style guides do not; the Merriam-Webster Dictionary and related works treat this style as optional, saying that it "may" be used.[9] More commonly, a normal full stop (period) terminates the sentence, then a separate three-dot ellipsis is used to indicate one or more subsequent elided sentences before continuing a longer quotation. Business Insider magazine suggests this style,[10] and it is also used in many academic journals. Even the Associated Press Stylebook[11] – notably hostile to punctuation that journalists may consider optional and removable to save newsprint column width – favors this approach. It is consistent in intent if not exact form with the agreement among those in favor of a fused four-dot ellipsis that the first of them is a full stop terminating the sentence and the other three are the ellipsis.

In writing

In her book on the ellipsis, Ellipsis in English Literature: Signs of Omission (Cambridge University Press, 2015), Anne Toner suggests that the first use of the punctuation in the English language dates to a 1588 translation of Terence's Andria, by Maurice Kyffin.[5] In this case, however, the ellipsis consists not of dots but of short dashes.[12] "Subpuncting" of medieval manuscripts also denotes omitted meaning and may be related.[13]

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, an ellipsis was often used when a writer intentionally omitted a specific proper noun, such as a location: "Jan was born on . . . Street in Warsaw."

As commonly used, this juxtaposition of characters is referred to as "dots of ellipsis" in the English language.[14]

Occasionally, it would be used in pulp fiction and other works of early 20th-century fiction to denote expletives that would otherwise have been censored.[15]

An ellipsis may also imply an unstated alternative indicated by context. For example, when Sue says "I never drink wine . . . ", the implication is that she does drink something else—such as vodka.

In reported speech, the ellipsis can be used to represent an intentional silence.

In poetry, an ellipsis is used as a thought-pause or line break at the caesura[16] or this is used to highlight sarcasm or make the reader think about the last points in the poem.

In news reporting, often associated with brackets, it is used to indicate that a quotation has been condensed for space, brevity or relevance.

Herb Caen, Pulitzer-prize-winning columnist for the San Francisco Chronicle, became famous for his "three-dot journalism".[17]

In different languages

In American English

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests the use of an ellipsis for any omitted word, phrase, line, or paragraph from within but not at the end of a quoted passage. There are two commonly used methods of using ellipses: one uses three dots for any omission, while the second one makes a distinction between omissions within a sentence (using three dots: . . .) and omissions between sentences (using a period and a space followed by three dots: . ...).

The Modern Language Association (MLA) used to indicate that an ellipsis must include spaces before and after each dot in all uses. If an ellipsis is meant to represent an omission, square brackets must surround the ellipsis to make it clear that there was no pause in the original quote: [ . . . ]. Currently, the MLA has removed the requirement of brackets in its style handbooks. However, some maintain that the use of brackets is still correct because it clears confusion.[18]

The MLA now indicates that a three-dot, spaced ellipsis ( . . . ) should be used for removing material from within one sentence within a quote. When crossing sentences (when the omitted text contains a period, so that omitting the end of a sentence counts), a four-dot, spaced (except for before the first dot) ellipsis (. . . . ) should be used. When ellipsis points are used in the original text, ellipsis points that are not in the original text should be distinguished by enclosing them in square brackets (e.g. "text […] text").[19][20]

According to the Associated Press, the ellipsis should be used to condense quotations. It is less commonly used to indicate a pause in speech or an unfinished thought or to separate items in material such as show business gossip. The stylebook indicates that if the shortened sentence before the mark can stand as a sentence, it should do so, with an ellipsis placed after the period or other ending punctuation. When material is omitted at the end of a paragraph and also immediately following it, an ellipsis goes both at the end of that paragraph and at the beginning of the next, according to this style.[21]

According to Robert Bringhurst's Elements of Typographic Style, the details of typesetting ellipses depend on the character and size of the font being set and the typographer's preference. Bringhurst writes that a full space between each dot is "another Victorian eccentricity. In most contexts, the Chicago ellipsis is much too wide"—he recommends using flush dots, or thin-spaced dots (up to one-fifth of an em), or the prefabricated ellipsis character (U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS (HTML … · …). Bringhurst suggests that normally an ellipsis should be spaced fore-and-aft to separate it from the text, but when it combines with other punctuation, the leading space disappears and the other punctuation follows. This is the usual practice in typesetting. He provides the following examples:

i … j k…. l…, l l, … l m…? n…!

In legal writing in the United States, Rule 5.3 in the Bluebook citation guide governs the use of ellipses and requires a space before the first dot and between the two subsequent dots. If an ellipsis ends the sentence, then there are three dots, each separated by a space, followed by the final punctuation (e.g. Hah . . . ?). In some legal writing, an ellipsis is written as three asterisks (*** or * * *) to make it obvious that text has been omitted. (...) is also used for awkward silence.

In British English

The Oxford Style Guide recommends setting the ellipsis as a single character (…) or as a series of three (narrow) spaced dots (. . .), and surrounding it by spaces. If there is an ellipsis at the end of an incomplete sentence, the final full stop is omitted. However, it is retained if the following ellipsis represents an omission between two complete sentences.[22]

The … fox jumps …
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. … And if they have not died, they are still alive today.

Contrary to The Oxford Style Guide, the University of Oxford Style Guide demands an ellipsis not to be surrounded by spaces, except when it stands for a pause; then, a space has to be set after the ellipsis (but not before). An ellipsis is never preceded or followed by a full stop.[23]

The…fox jumps…
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog…And if they have not died, they are still alive today.
It is not cold… it is freezing cold.

In Polish

When applied in Polish language syntax, the ellipsis is called wielokropek, which means "multidot". The word wielokropek distinguishes the ellipsis of Polish syntax from that of mathematical notation, in which it is known as an elipsa.

When an ellipsis replaces a fragment omitted from a quotation, the ellipsis is enclosed in parentheses or square brackets. An unbracketed ellipsis indicates an interruption or pause in speech.

The syntactical rules for ellipses are standardized by the 1983 Polska Norma document PN-83/P-55366, Zasady składania tekstów w języku polskim ("Rules for setting texts in the Polish Language").

In Russian

The combination "ellipsis+period" is replaced by the ellipsis. The combinations "ellipsis+exclamation mark" and "ellipsis+question mark" are written in this way: !.. ?..

In Japanese

The most common character corresponding to an ellipsis is called 3-ten rīdā ("3-dot leaders", ). 2-ten rīdā exists as a character, but it is used less commonly. In writing, the ellipsis consists usually of six dots (two 3-ten rīdā characters, ……). Three dots (one 3-ten rīdā character) may be used where space is limited, such as in a header. However, variations in the number of dots exist. In horizontally written text the dots are commonly vertically centered within the text height (between the baseline and the ascent line), as in the standard Japanese Windows fonts; in vertically written text the dots are always centered horizontally. As the Japanese word for dot is pronounced "ten", the dots are colloquially called "ten-ten-ten" (てんてんてん, akin to the English "dot dot dot")[24].

In text in Japanese media, such as in manga or video games, ellipses are much more frequent than in English, and are often changed to another punctuation sign in translation. The ellipsis by itself represents speechlessness, or a "pregnant pause". Depending on the context, this could be anything from an admission of guilt to an expression of being dumbfounded at another person's words or actions.[25] As a device, the ten-ten-ten is intended to focus the reader on a character while allowing the character to not speak any dialogue. This conveys to the reader a focus of the narrative "camera" on the silent subject, implying an expectation of some motion or action. It is not unheard of to see inanimate objects "speaking" the ellipsis.

In Chinese

In Chinese, the ellipsis is six dots (in two groups of three dots, occupying the same horizontal or vertical space as two characters) (i.e. ……).[26]

In Spanish

In Spanish, ellipsis is commonly used as a substitute of et cetera at the end of unfinished lists. So it means "and so forth" or "and other things".

Other use is the suspension of a part of a text, or a paragraph, or a phrase or a part of a word because it is obvious, or unnecessary, or implied. For instance, sometimes the ellipsis is used to avoid the complete use of expletives.

When the ellipsis is placed alone into a parenthesis (...) or—less often—between brackets […], which is what happens usually within a text transcription, it means the original text had more contents on the same position but are not useful to our target in the transcription. When the suppressed text is at the beginning or at the end of a text, the ellipsis does not need to be placed in a parenthesis.

The number of dots is three and only three. [27]

In French

In French, the ellipsis is commonly used at the end of lists to represent et cetera. In French typography, the ellipsis is written close up to the preceding word but has a space after it, for example: comme ça… pas comme ceci. If, exceptionally, it begins a sentence, there is a space before and after, for example: Lui ? … vaut rien, je crois… .

However, any omitted word, phrase or line at the end of a quoted passage would be indicated like this: [...] (space before and after the square brackets but not inside), for example: … à Paris, Nice, Nantes, Toulouse […] .

In German

In German, the ellipsis in general is surrounded by spaces, if it stands for one or more omitted words. On the other side there is no space between a letter or (part of) a word and an ellipsis, if it stands for one or more omitted letters, that should stick to the written letter or letters.

Example for both cases, using German style: The first el…is stands for omitted letters, the second … for an omitted word.

If the ellipsis is at the end of a sentence, the final full stop is omitted.[28]

Example: I think that …

Usage in menus

In computer menu functions or buttons, an appended ellipsis means that on selection a dialog will follow, where the user can or must make a choice.[29] If the ellipsis is missing, the function is already executed on selection.

E.g., the menu item "Save" indicates that the file will be overwritten without further input, whereas "Save as…" indicates that a dialog follows where the user can, for example, select another location, file name, or format.

In mathematical notation

An ellipsis is also often used in mathematics to mean "and so forth". In a list, between commas, or following a comma, a normal ellipsis is used, as in:

or to mean an infinite list, as:

To indicate the omission of values in a repeated operation, an ellipsis raised to the center of the line is used between two operation symbols or following the last operation symbol, as in:

Sometimes, e.g. in Russian mathematical texts, normal, non-raised, ellipses are used even in repeated summations[30].

The latter formula means the sum of all natural numbers from 1 to 100. However, it is not a formally defined mathematical symbol. Repeated summations or products may similarly be denoted using capital sigma and capital pi notation, respectively:

(see factorial)

Normally dots should be used only where the pattern to be followed is clear, the exception being to show the indefinite continuation of an irrational number such as:

Sometimes, it is useful to display a formula compactly, for example:

Another example is the set of zeros of the cosine function:

There are many related uses of the ellipsis in set notation.

The diagonal and vertical forms of the ellipsis are particularly useful for showing missing terms in matrices, such as the size-n identity matrix:

The use of ellipses in mathematical proofs is often discouraged because of the potential for ambiguity. For this reason, and because the ellipsis supports no systematic rules for symbolic calculation, in recent years some authors have recommended avoiding its use in mathematics altogether.[31]

Programming languages

A two- or three-dot ellipsis is used as an operator in some programming languages. The precise meaning varies by language, but it generally involves something dealing with multiple items. One of its most common uses is in defining ranges or sequences. This is used in many languages, including Pascal, Modula, Oberon, Ada, Haskell, Perl, Python, Ruby, Bash shell and F#. It is also used to indicate so called variadic functions in the C, C++ and Java languages. See Ellipsis (programming operator).


The CSS text-overflow property can be set to ellipsis, which cuts off text with an ellipsis when it overflows the content area.[32][33]

On the Internet and in text messaging

The ellipsis is a non-verbal cue that is often used in computer-mediated interactions, in particular in synchronous genres, such as chat. The reason behind its popularity is the fact that it allows people to indicate in writing several functions:

  • The sign of ellipsis can function as a floor holding device, and signal that more is to come, for instance when people break up longer turns in chat.[34]
  • Dot-dot-dot can be used systematically to enact linguistic politeness, for instance indicating topic change or hesitation.[35]
  • Suspension dots can be turn construction units to signal silence, for example when indicating disagreement, disapproval or confusion.[36]

Although an ellipsis is technically complete with three periods (...), its rise in popularity as a "trailing-off" or "silence" indicator, particularly in mid-20th-century comic strip and comic book prose writing, has led to expanded uses online. Today, extended ellipsis anywhere from two to dozens of periods have become common constructions in Internet chat rooms and text messages.[37] The extent of repetition in itself might serve as an additional contextualization or paralinguistic cue, to "extend the lexical meaning of the words, add character to the sentences, and allow fine-tuning and personalisation of the message".[38]

Computer representations

In computing, several ellipsis characters have been codified, depending on the system used.

In the Unicode standard, there are the following characters:

Name Character Unicode UTF-8 HTML entity name or
Numeric character reference
Horizontal ellipsis U+2026 0xE2 0x80 0xA6 … General
Laotian ellipsis U+0EAF 0xE0 0xBA 0xAF ຯ General
Mongolian ellipsis U+1801 0xE1 0xA0 0x81 ᠁ General
Thai ellipsis U+0E2F 0xE0 0xB8 0xAF ฯ General
Vertical ellipsis U+22EE 0xE2 0x8B 0xAE ⋮ Mathematics
Midline horizontal ellipsis U+22EF 0xE2 0x8B 0xAF ⋯ Mathematics
Up-right diagonal ellipsis U+22F0 0xE2 0x8B 0xB0 ⋰ Mathematics
Down-right diagonal ellipsis U+22F1 0xE2 0x8B 0xB1 ⋱ Mathematics
Presentation form for vertical horizontal ellipsis U+FE19 0xEF 0xB8 0x99 ︙ Vertical form

In Windows, the horizontal ellipsis can be inserted with Alt+0133, using the numeric keypad.

In macOS, it can be inserted with ⌥ Opt+; (on an English language keyboard).

In some Linux distributions, it can be inserted with AltGr+., or alternatively Compose . . sequence can be used.

In Chinese and sometimes in Japanese, ellipsis characters are made by entering two consecutive horizontal ellipsis (U+2026). In vertical texts, the application should rotate the symbol accordingly.

Unicode recognizes a series of three period characters (U+002E) as compatibility equivalent (though not canonical) to the horizontal ellipsis character.[39]

In HTML, the horizontal ellipsis character may be represented by the entity reference … (since HTML 4.0), and the vertical ellipsis character by the entity reference ⋮ (since HTML 5.0).[40] Alternatively, in HTML, XML, and SGML, a numeric character reference such as … or … can be used.

In the TeX typesetting system, the following types of ellipsis are available:

Name Glyph TeX markup
Lower ellipsis \ldots
Centred ellipsis \cdots
Diagonal ellipsis \ddots
Vertical ellipsis \vdots

In LaTeX, note that the reverse orientation of \ddots can be achieved with \reflectbox provided by the graphicx package: \reflectbox{\ddots} yields Iddots black.svg.

With the amsmath package from AMS-LaTeX, more specific ellipses are provided for math mode.[41]

Markup Usage Example Output
\dotsc dots with commas 1, 2, \dotsc , 9
\dotsb dots with binary operators/relations 1 + 2 + \dotsb + 9
\dotsm dots with multiplication A_1 A_2 \dotsm A_9
\dotsi dots with integrals \int_{A_1}\int_{A_2}\dotsi\int_{A_9}
\dotso other dots 123 \dotso 9

The horizontal ellipsis character also appears in the following older character maps:

Note that ISO/IEC 8859 encoding series provides no code point for ellipsis.

As with all characters, especially those outside the ASCII range, the author, sender and receiver of an encoded ellipsis must be in agreement upon what bytes are being used to represent the character. Naive text processing software may improperly assume that a particular encoding is being used, resulting in mojibake.

The Chicago Style Q&A recommends to avoid the use of  (U+2026) character in manuscripts and to place three periods plus two nonbreaking spaces (. . .) instead, so that an editor, publisher, or designer can replace them later.[42]

In Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), the ellipsis is used as an extension marker to indicate the possibility of type extensions in future revisions of a protocol specification. In a type constraint expression like A ::= INTEGER (0..127, ..., 256..511) an ellipsis is used to separate the extension root from extension additions. The definition of type A in version 1 system of the form A ::= INTEGER (0..127, ...) and the definition of type A in version 2 system of the form A ::= INTEGER (0..127, ..., 256..511) constitute an extension series of the same type A in different versions of the same specification. The ellipsis can also be used in compound type definitions to separate the set of fields belonging to the extension root from the set of fields constituting extension additions. Here is an example: B ::= SEQUENCE { a INTEGER, b INTEGER, ..., c INTEGER }

See also


  1. ^ "ellipsis". The Free Dictionary.
  2. ^ "Ellipses defined". The Chicago Manual of Style Online (16th ed.). 2010.
  3. ^ Fung, Henry (2016). "AP Style: How to Use Ellipses".
  4. ^ Butterick, Matthew. "Butterick's Practical Typography" (2nd ed.).
  5. ^ a b Toner, Anne (2015). Ellipsis in English Literature: Signs of Omission. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 151. According to Toner it is difficult to establish when the "dot-dot-dot" phrase was first used. There is an early instance, which is perhaps the first in a piece of fiction, in Virginia Woolf's short story "An Unwritten Novel" (1920).
  6. ^ Yin, Karen (2011). "Em Dashes and Ellipses: Closed or Spaced Out?". AP vs Chicago: Edit or Die. Quiet Press. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  7. ^ The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition (2017), § 13.51–52.
  8. ^ Summarized here: Jackson, Paige (22 April 2011). "Ellipses–When and How?". Blog.APAStyle.org. American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  9. ^ "Usage Notes: All About Ellipses – It's time to stop calling them 'dot dot dot'". Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster. 2017. Archived from the original on 31 May 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  10. ^ Robinson, Melia (30 April 2016). "Here's how to use the four-dot ellipsis like a pro". BusinessInsider.com. Insider Inc. / Axel Springer SE. Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  11. ^ "Using AP Style Ellipses Correctly". WordAgents.com. Lindenhurst, New York: Word Agents. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  12. ^ Buxton, Alex (21 October 2015). "… dot, dot, dot: How the ellipsis made its mark". Research. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  13. ^ McNabb, Cameron Hunt (17 August 2016). "The Mysterious History of the Ellipsis, From Medieval Subpuncting to Irrational Numbers". Slate. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  14. ^ Humez, Alexander; Humez, Nicholas (2 October 2008). "Chapter 7". On the Dot: The Speck that Changed the World. ISBN 9780190295943. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  15. ^ Raymond Chandler, Frank MacShane. Raymond Chandler: Stories and Early Novels. First Edition. New York: Library of America. 1995. Note on the Texts.
  16. ^ "What Are Ellipses in a Poem?". Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  17. ^ `HERB CAEN WAY . . .' HONORS S.F. COLUMNIST, in the Deseret News; published May 29, 1996; retrieved September 5, 2017
  18. ^ Fowler, H. Ramsey, Jane E. Aaron, Murray McArthur. The Little, Brown Handbook. Fourth Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson Longman. 2005. p. 440.
  19. ^ Jones, Karalyn (2009). "Using Ellipsis in MLA Style". University of Houston–Victoria.
  20. ^ http://naropa.edu/documents/programs/jks/naropa-writing-center/citation-comparison.pdf
  21. ^ Goldstein, Norm, editor. "Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law". 2005. pp.328–329.
  22. ^ New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  23. ^ University of Oxford Style Guide: Hilary term 2016 (PDF). Oxford: University of Oxford, 2016. p. 15. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  24. ^ "秋元順子、古希に得意のダジャレ 「あまり"コキ"使わないでください」". SANSPO.COM. SANKEI DIGITAL Inc. 2017-06-05. Retrieved 2018-01-10.
  25. ^ Mandelin, Clyde (8 September 2013). "Legends of Localization: How Japanese Ellipsis Usage Compares with English". Legends of Localization. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  26. ^ 省略号
  27. ^ "Puntos suspensivos". RAE.
  28. ^ "Deutsche Rechtschreibung. Regeln und Wörterverzeichnis" (PDF) (in German). Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung. 2010. p. 100. Retrieved 2015-10-18. $ 100: Stehen die Auslassungspunkte am Ende eines Ganzsatzes, so setzt man keinen Satzschlusspunkt.
  29. ^ developer.apple.com: Menu and Menu Item Titles
  30. ^ Мильчин А. Э. Издательский словарь-справочник.— Изд. 3-е, испр. и доп., Электронное — М.: ОЛМА-Пресс, 2006. (in Russian)
  31. ^ Roland Backhouse, Program Construction: Calculating Implementations from Specifications. Wiley (2003), page 138
  32. ^ "text-overflow". Mozilla Developer Network. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  33. ^ "CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 3 (CSS3 UI)". drafts.csswg.org. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  34. ^ Simpson, J (2005). "Meaning-making online: Discourse and CMC in a Language learning community". Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. CiteSeerX
  35. ^ Erika, Darics (2010). "Relational work in synchronous text-based CMC of virtual teams". Handbook of research on discourse behavior and digital communication: language structures and social interaction.
  36. ^ Ong, Kenneth Keng Wee (2011). "Disagreement, Confusion, Disapproval, Turn Elicitation and Floor Holding: Actions accomplished by Ellipsis Marks-Only Turns and Blank Turns in Quasisynchronous Chat". Discourse Studies. 13 (2). doi:10.1177/1461445610392138.
  37. ^ Maness, Jack M. (2007). "The Power of Dots: Using Nonverbal Compensators in Chat Reference" (PDF). Proceedings of the 2007 Annual Meeting of ASIS&T. Annual Meeting of ASIS&T. University Libraries − University of Colorado at Boulder. doi:10.1002/meet.1450440341. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  38. ^ Kalman, Yoram M; Gergle, Darren. "CMC cues enrich lean online communication: the case of letter and punctuation mark repetitions" (PDF). Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  39. ^ UnicodeData.txt: 2026;HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS;Po;0;ON;<compat> 002E 002E 002E;;;;N;;;;;
  40. ^ "W3C Working Draft: HTML5: 8.5 Named character references". 2011. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  41. ^ User's Guide for the amsmath Package. American Mathematical Society, 1999, p. 12.
  42. ^ "Chicago Style Q&A: How do I insert an ellipsis in my manuscript?". The Chicago Manual of Style, edition 16. University of Chicago Press. 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-10.

Further reading

Answer ellipsis

Answer ellipsis (= answer fragments) is a type of ellipsis that occurs in answers to questions. Answer ellipsis appears very frequently in any dialogue, and it is present in probably all languages. Of the types of ellipsis mechanisms, answer fragments behave most like sluicing, a point that shall be illustrated below.


Aposiopesis (; Classical Greek: ἀποσιώπησις, "becoming silent") is a figure of speech wherein a sentence is deliberately broken off and left unfinished, the ending to be supplied by the imagination, giving an impression of unwillingness or inability to continue. An example would be the threat "Get out, or else—!" This device often portrays its users as overcome with passion (fear, anger, excitement) or modesty. To mark the occurrence of aposiopesis with punctuation, an em dash (—) or an ellipsis (…) may be used.

Biffy Clyro

Biffy Clyro are a Scottish rock band that formed in Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, composed of Simon Neil (guitar, lead vocals), James Johnston (bass, vocals) and Ben Johnston (drums, vocals). Currently signed to 14th Floor Records, they have released seven studio albums, four of which (Puzzle, Only Revolutions, Opposites and Ellipsis) reached the top five in the UK Albums Chart, with their sixth studio album, Opposites claiming their first UK number-one album. After their first three albums, the band expanded their following significantly in 2007 with the release of their fourth, Puzzle, creating more mainstream songs with simpler rhythms and distancing themselves from the more unusual dissonant style that was present in their previous three albums. Puzzle peaked at number 2 on the official UK album charts on 16 June 2007. The album went Gold in the UK, selling over 100,000 units, and later in 2012 went Platinum in the UK, having sold over 300,000 copies.

The band released Only Revolutions in 2009 which reached No. 3 in the UK chart and went gold within days of its release in 2009, going platinum later in 2010 (achieving double-platinum status in August 2011) and receiving a Mercury Music Prize nomination. Only Revolutions included the UK hit singles "Mountains", "That Golden Rule" and "Many of Horror" all of which reached the UK Top Ten. The latter reached number eight on the UK Singles Chart after The X Factor 2010 winner, Matt Cardle covered the song, and became the UK number one Christmas single for the year 2010. In 2011 the band was nominated for the Brit Awards for Best British Group. At the 2013 NME Awards, they received the award for Best British Band. On 25 August 2013 Biffy Clyro headlined the main stage at Leeds & Reading Festival. Based on their album and single certifications, the band have sold in excess of 1,240,000 albums and 400,000 singles in the UK alone.

As of 2016, in total, the band have spent 155 weeks in the top seventy-five of the UK Album Charts, with two of those weeks being at the top position at number one and seventy weeks within the main top forty of the albums charts. The band's singles have spent a total of seventy-nine weeks in the UK Singles Charts, with six weeks in the top ten and forty-two in the top forty.


Big-5 or Big5 is a Chinese character encoding method used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau for traditional Chinese characters.

The People's Republic of China (PRC), which uses simplified Chinese characters, uses the GB character set instead.

Big5 gets its name from the consortium of five companies in Taiwan that developed it.

Catena (linguistics)

In linguistics, the catena (English pronunciation: , plural catenas or catenae; from Latin for "chain") is a unit of syntax and morphology, closely associated with dependency grammars. It is a more flexible and inclusive unit than the constituent and may therefore be better suited than the constituent to serve as the fundamental unit of syntactic and morphosyntactic analysis.The catena has served as the basis for the analysis of a number of phenomena of syntax, such as idiosyncratic meaning, ellipsis mechanisms (e.g. gapping, stripping, VP-ellipsis, pseudogapping, sluicing, answer ellipsis, comparative deletion), predicate-argument structures, and discontinuities (topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, extraposition, etc.). The catena concept has also been taken as the basis for a theory of morphosyntax, i.e. for the extension of dependencies into words; dependencies are acknowledged between the morphs that constitute words.While the catena concept has been applied mainly to the syntax of English, other works are also demonstrating its applicability to the syntax and morphology of other languages.

Cohesion (linguistics)

Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical linking within a text or sentence that holds a text together and gives it meaning. It is related to the broader concept of coherence.

There are two main types of cohesion: grammatical cohesion, which is based on structural content—and lexical cohesion, which is based on lexical content and background knowledge. A cohesive text is created in many different ways. In Cohesion in English, M.A.K. Halliday and Ruqaiya Hasan identify five general categories of cohesive devices that create coherence in texts: reference, ellipsis, substitution, lexical cohesion and conjunction.


In linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality, or degree. See comparison (grammar) for an overview of comparison, as well as positive and superlative degrees of comparison.

Ex: " This sofa is more comfortable than that one. " "James is smaller than Chris."

The syntax of comparative constructions is poorly understood due to the complexity of the data. In particular, the comparative frequently occurs with independent mechanisms of syntax such as coordination and forms of ellipsis (gapping, pseudogapping, null complement anaphora, stripping, verb phrase ellipsis). The interaction of the various mechanisms complicates the analysis.

Constituent (linguistics)

In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. The constituent structure of sentences is identified using tests for constituents. These tests manipulate some portion of a sentence and based on the result, clues are delivered about the constituent structure of the sentence. Many constituents are phrases. A phrase is a sequence of one or more words (in some theories two or more) built around a head lexical item and working as a unit within a sentence. A word sequence is shown to be a phrase/constituent if it exhibits one or more of the behaviors discussed below. The analysis of constituent structure is associated mainly with phrase structure grammars, although dependency grammars also allow sentence structure to be broken down into constituent parts.

Ellipsis (Biffy Clyro album)

Ellipsis is the seventh and most recent studio album by Scottish alternative rock band Biffy Clyro. It was produced by Rich Costey and released on 8 July 2016. Ellipsis entered the UK charts at number one, making it Biffy Clyro's second number one album (after 2013's Opposites).

Ellipsis (Scorn album)

Ellipsis is a remix album by Scorn, originally released in 1995 on Earache Records. It was remastered along with Evanescence and released as a two disc set in 2009.

It's mainly a remix album for Evanescence, though it contains a remix of Nights Ash Black from Colossus. The remixes were made by Meat Beat Manifesto, Coil, Bill Laswell, Scanner, Autechre, P.C.M. and Germ, as well as Scorn themselves.

Ellipsis (linguistics)

In linguistics, ellipsis (from the Greek: ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, "omission") or an elliptical construction is the omission from a clause of one or more words that are nevertheless understood in the context of the remaining elements. There are numerous distinct types of ellipsis acknowledged in theoretical syntax. This article provides an overview of them. Theoretical accounts of ellipsis can vary greatly depending in part upon whether a constituency-based or a dependency-based theory of syntactic structure is pursued.

Ellipsis (narrative device)

Ellipsis, often represented in text as "...", is the narrative device of omitting a portion of the sequence of events, allowing the reader to fill in the narrative gaps. Aside from its literary use, the ellipsis has a counterpart in film production. It is there to suggest an action by simply showing what happens before and after what is observed. The vast majority of films use ellipses to clear actions that add nothing to the narrative. Beyond these "convenience" ellipses, ellipses are also used to advance the story.


In linguistics, gapping is a type of ellipsis that occurs in the non-initial conjuncts of coordinate structures. Gapping usually elides minimally a finite verb and further any non-finite verbs that are present. This material is "gapped" from the non-initial conjuncts of a coordinate structure. Gapping exists in many languages, but by no means in all of them, and gapping has been studied extensively and is therefore one of the more understood ellipsis mechanisms. Stripping is viewed as a particular manifestation of the gapping mechanism where just one remnant (instead of two or more) appears in the gapped/stripped conjunct.

Japanese punctuation

Japanese punctuation (Japanese: 約物, Hepburn: yakumono) includes various written marks (besides characters and numbers), which differ from those found in European languages, as well as some not used in formal Japanese writing but frequently found in more casual writing, such as exclamation and question marks.

Japanese can be written horizontally or vertically, and some punctuation marks adapt to this change in direction. Parentheses, curved brackets, square quotation marks, ellipses, dashes, and swung dashes are rotated clockwise 90° when used in vertical text (see diagram).

Japanese punctuation marks are usually full width (that is, occupying an area that is the same as the surrounding characters).

Punctuation was not widely used in Japanese writing until translations from European languages became common in the 19th century.

Lacuna (manuscripts)

A lacuna (pl. lacunae or lacunas) is a gap in a manuscript, inscription, text, painting, or a musical work. A manuscript, text, or section suffering from gaps is said to be "lacunose" or "lacunulose". Some books intentionally add lacunas to be filled in by the owner (e.g., "The _____ played with the _____ in the _____."), often as a game or to encourage children to create their own stories.

Weathering, decay, and other damage to old manuscripts or inscriptions are often responsible for lacunae—words, sentences, or whole passages that are missing or illegible. Palimpsests are particularly vulnerable. To reconstruct the original text, the context must be considered. In papyrology and textual criticism this may lead to competing reconstructions and interpretations. Published texts that contain lacunae often mark the section where text is missing with a bracketed ellipsis. For example, "This sentence contains 20 words, and [...] nouns," or, "Finally, the army arrived at [...] and made camp."

Romanian Braille

Romanian Braille is the braille alphabet of the Romanian language. It has the 25 letters of basic French Braille (no w) plus the following additional letters:

Much of the punctuation and formatting (caps, italics) is like old French Braille:

⠲ [period], ⠢ ?, ⠶⠀⠶ (...), ⠦⠀⠴ “...”, ⠔ *,as seen in the chart at right. In addition, the dash and ellipsis are both

⠤⠄ —, ...,values which were also reported by Unesco (1990) but could not be confirmed by Unesco (2013).

Unesco (1990) reports inner quotation marks ⠠⠀⠠ ‘...’, while the chart at right appears to show a highly unusual double point, ⠄⠄, for the apostrophe. Other sources, however, have the normal single point, ⠄.

Silent Sanctuary

Silent Sanctuary is a 5-piece Filipino rock band that was formed in Metro Manila, Philippines in 2001. Five studio albums have been released by the band throughout its career.


In syntax, sluicing is a type of ellipsis that occurs in both direct and indirect interrogative clauses. The ellipsis is introduced by a wh-expression, whereby in most cases, everything except the wh-expression is elided from the clause. Sluicing has been studied in detail in recent years and is therefore a relatively well understood type of ellipsis. Sluicing occurs in many languages.

Verb phrase ellipsis

In linguistics, verb phrase ellipsis (VP-ellipsis or VPE) is an elliptical construction in which a non-finite verb phrase has been left out (elided), e.g. She will sell sea shells, and he will sell sea shells too. VP-ellipsis is a well-studied kind of ellipsis, particularly with regard to its occurrence in English, although certain types can be found in other languages as well.

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