Elliot Richardson

Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 – December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. As U.S. Attorney General, he was a prominent figure in the Watergate Scandal, and resigned rather than obey President Nixon's order to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox.

Richardson served as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare from 1970 to 1973, Secretary of Defense from January to May 1973, Attorney General from May to October 1973, and Secretary of Commerce from 1976 to 1977. That makes him one of only two individuals to have held four Cabinet positions within the United States government (the other being George Shultz).

Elliot Richardson
23rd United States Secretary of Commerce
In office
February 2, 1976 – January 20, 1977
PresidentGerald Ford
Preceded byRogers Morton
Succeeded byJuanita M. Kreps
United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom
In office
March 21, 1975 – January 16, 1976
PresidentGerald Ford
Preceded byWalter Annenberg
Succeeded byAnne Armstrong
69th United States Attorney General
In office
May 25, 1973 – October 20, 1973
PresidentRichard Nixon
Preceded byRichard Kleindienst
Succeeded byRobert Bork (acting)
11th United States Secretary of Defense
In office
January 30, 1973 – May 24, 1973
PresidentRichard Nixon
DeputyBill Clements
Preceded byMelvin Laird
Succeeded byJames R. Schlesinger
9th United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
In office
June 24, 1970 – January 29, 1973
PresidentRichard Nixon
Preceded byRobert Finch
Succeeded byCaspar Weinberger
25th United States Under Secretary of State
In office
January 23, 1969 – June 23, 1970
PresidentRichard Nixon
Preceded byNicholas Katzenbach
Succeeded byJohn N. Irwin, II
52nd Attorney General of Massachusetts
In office
January 18, 1967 – January 23, 1969
GovernorJohn A. Volpe
Preceded byEdward T. Martin
Succeeded byRobert H. Quinn
62nd Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
In office
January 7, 1965 – January 2, 1967
GovernorJohn A. Volpe
Preceded byFrancis X. Bellotti
Succeeded byFrancis W. Sargent
United States Attorney for the District of Massachusetts
In office
PresidentDwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded byAnthony Julian
Succeeded byWendell Arthur Garrity Jr.
Personal details
Elliot Lee Richardson

July 20, 1920
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
DiedDecember 31, 1999 (aged 79)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Anne Francis Hazard (1929–1999)
Children3 (including Henry)
EducationHarvard University (BA, LLB)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1942–1945
RankUS-O2 insignia.svg First Lieutenant
Unit4th Infantry Division
 • Army Medical Corps
Battles/warsWorld War II
AwardsBronze Star
Purple Heart

Early life and military service

Richardson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Clara Lee (née Shattuck) and Edward Peirson Richardson,[1] a doctor and professor at Harvard Medical School.[2][3] He was a Boston Brahmin, descended from the earliest Puritan settlers in New England.[2]

Richardson attended the Park School in Brookline, Massachusetts, and Milton Academy in Milton, Massachusetts. He then obtained his A.B. degree in philosophy from Harvard College, where he resided in Winthrop House, graduated cum laude in 1941, and was an editor of the Harvard Lampoon.

In 1942, following America's entry into World War II, Richardson became a combat medic in the U.S. 4th Infantry Division. He participated in the June 6, 1944, Normandy Invasion as a platoon leader, where he crossed a minefield to rescue a fellow officer whose foot was blown off.[4]

He was among the first troops of the "Big Ivy" to come up Causeway No. 2 from Utah Beach, which had been under fire from German artillery at Brécourt Manor. He was among the many who noticed the guns ceasing their firing after (unbeknownst to him), paratroopers of the 101st under Lieutenant Richard Winters had knocked them out. After Stephen Ambrose's book Band of Brothers was published, Richardson wrote to Winters and thanked him.

He continued on in the war in Europe with the 4th Infantry Division and received the Bronze Star Medal and Purple Heart with oak leaf cluster. He was discharged in 1945 with the rank of first lieutenant.

In 1947, he graduated from Harvard Law School. While at Harvard he became editor and president of the Harvard Law Review.[5]

After his graduation from Law School, Richardson clerked for United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit Judge Learned Hand, and then for Justice Felix Frankfurter of the Supreme Court of the United States. Richardson joined Ropes, Gray, Best, Coolidge & Rugg in Boston following his clerkship, and became partner of Ropes & Gray in 1961 (the same year the firm, which was founded in 1865, became known as Ropes & Gray). Richardson left the firm to serve as U.S. Attorney for Massachusetts from 1959 to 1961. After returning to the firm, Richardson left permanently in 1964 after he was elected the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts and Attorney General of Massachusetts. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1958.[6]

Richardson's older son, Henry S. Richardson, is a professor of philosophy at Georgetown University, where he focuses in moral and political philosophy.

Richardson was also an active Freemason as a member of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and a 33rd Degree Freemason in the Scottish Rite Northern Masonic Jurisdiction.[7]

Cabinet career

Richardson had the distinction of serving in three high-level Executive Branch posts in a single year—the tumultuous year of 1973—as the Watergate Scandal came to dominate the attention of official Washington, and the American public at large. He is also the only person to hold five separate cabinet positions. He served three relatively uneventful years as the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare for a popular sitting president. In September 1970, Richardson was present at the funeral of Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt as part of America's delegation. He secretly met with Anwar Sadat, Nasser's successor to discuss a possible peace process with the United States.[8]

In 1972, as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, Richardson established The National High Blood Pressure Education Program, at the urging of Mary Lasker who came armed with copies of the Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents, directed by Edward Freis.

Richardson was appointed United States Secretary of Defense on January 30, 1973.[9] When President Nixon selected Richardson as Secretary, the press described him as an excellent manager and administrator, perhaps the best in the cabinet. In his confirmation hearing, Richardson expressed agreement with Nixon's policies on such issues as the adequacy of U.S. strategic forces, NATO and relationships with other allies, and Vietnam.

Although he promised to examine the budget carefully to identify areas for savings, and in fact later ordered the closing of some military installations, he cautioned against precipitate cuts. As he told a Senate committee, "Significant cuts in the Defense Budget now would seriously weaken the U.S. position on international negotiations—in which U.S. military capabilities, in both real and symbolic terms, are an important factor." Similarly, he strongly supported continued military assistance at current levels. During his short tenure, Richardson spent much time testifying before congressional committees on the proposed FY 1974 budget and other Defense matters.[10]

Richardson would serve as Secretary of Defense for 4 months before becoming Nixon's Attorney General, a move that would put him in the Watergate spotlight.[11]

In October 1973, after Richardson had served 5 months as Attorney General, President Nixon ordered him to fire the top lawyer investigating the Watergate scandal, Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox. Richardson had promised Congress he would not interfere with the Special Prosecutor, and, rather than disobey the President or break his promise, he resigned. President Nixon subsequently ordered Richardson's second-in-command, Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus, to carry out the order. He too had promised not to interfere, and also tendered his resignation. The third in command, Solicitor General Robert Bork, planned to resign after firing Cox, but Richardson persuaded him not to in order to ensure proper leadership at the Department of Justice during the crisis.[12] Bork carried out the President's order, thus completing the events generally referred to as the Saturday Night Massacre. Pat Buchanan reports on Richardson's dismissal that Nixon said in the Oval Office on the day of the Saturday Night Massacre, "I don't have any choice, I can't have President Brezhnev watch me be bullied by a member of my cabinet, I've got to fire him." [13]

Just before the resignation of Vice President Spiro Agnew, Richardson was portrayed as a cartoon figure with Agnew and Nixon on the cover of Time Magazine dated October 8, 1973.[14] Agnew was quoted as saying: "I am innocent of the charges against me. I will not resign if indicted!"[15] Agnew later claimed the prosecution which eventually drove him from office was pushed by Richardson for the specific reason that Richardson wished to be nominated as the next Vice President, which would either give him the inside track for the Republican presidential nomination in 1976, or, should Nixon resign over Watergate, elevate Richardson to the presidency. Richardson denied both then and later taking any extraordinary steps in the investigation of Agnew, instead leaving the task up to the United States Attorney for the District of Maryland.

In 1974, Richardson received the John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[16]

During the Gerald Ford administration, Richardson served as Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1975–76 and as United States Secretary of Commerce from 1976–77.

Richardson's acceptance in 1975 of the appointment as Ambassador to the Court of St. James’s, as it is formally titled, effectively eliminated him from the domestic scene during the pre-election-year period. In departing for that position, he indicated to reporters that he would not run unless Ford decided against running.[17]

From 1977 to 1980, he served as an Ambassador at Large and Special Representative of President Jimmy Carter for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and head of the U.S. delegation to the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea.[18]

Later life

In 1974 Richardson gave the commencement address at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and received an honorary Doctors of Law. In 1980, Richardson received an honorary degree from Bates College. In 1983, Richardson was admitted as an honorary member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. In 1984, he ran for the Republican nomination for the U.S. Senate seat being vacated by Paul Tsongas. Although Richardson was favored to win the seat, he was defeated in the GOP primary by more conservative candidate Ray Shamie,[19] who lost the general election to John F. Kerry.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Richardson was associated with the Washington, D.C., office of the New York City law firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, of which John J. McCloy was a founding partner. In the 1980s and early 1990s, Richardson was the attorney for Inslaw, Inc., an American software company which alleged that its software had been pirated by the U.S. Justice Department. In 1994, Richardson backed President Bill Clinton during his struggle against Paula Jones's charge of sexual harassment. In 1998, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor.


On New Year's Eve, 1999, Richardson died of a cerebral hemorrhage in Boston, Massachusetts, at the age of 79. Major media outlets, such as CNN, recognized him as the "Watergate martyr" for refusing an order from President Nixon to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox.

A recent widower, as his wife, Anne, had just died earlier that year, he was survived by three children, a sister and a brother.[20]


Richardson was the author of two books. The Creative Balance: Government, Politics, and the Individual in America's Third Century was published by Holt, Rinehart and Winston in 1976. Reflections of a Radical Moderate was published by Westview Press in 1996. Reflections expresses his outlook:

I am a moderate – a radical moderate. I believe profoundly in the ultimate value of human dignity and equality. I therefore believe as well in such essential contributions to these ends as fairness, tolerance, and mutual respect. In seeking to be fair, tolerant, and respectful I need to call upon all the empathy, understanding, rationality, skepticism, balance, and objectivity I can muster.[21]

Popular Culture

An image of Richardson taken by photographer Garry Winogrand features in the cover art of rock band Interpol's 2018 album Marauder. Singer and guitarist Paul Banks referred[22] to him as a hero, who "refused to be bullied into going against his personal principles".


  1. ^ "Richardson, Edward Peirson, 1881–1944. Papers, 1875–1931: A Finding Aid", Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine. Center for the History of Medicine. Harvard Medical Library and Boston Medical Library, August 19, 2004 (Edward Peirson Richardson was a son of the noted surgeon Maurice Howe Richardson and a brother of the noted author Wyman Richardson, M.D.)
  2. ^ a b Lewis, Neil A. (January 1, 2000). "Elliot Richardson Dies at 79; Stood Up to Nixon and Resigned In 'Saturday Night Massacre'". The New York Times.
  3. ^ "Ancestry of Dick Cheney (b. 1941)". www.wargs.com.
  4. ^ "Elliot Richardson Dies at 79; Stood Up to Nixon and Resigned In 'Saturday Night Massacre'". The New York Times.
  5. ^ Butterfield, Fox (February 6, 1990). "First Black Elected to Head Harvard's Law Review". NYT. Retrieved March 24, 2008.
  6. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter R" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
  7. ^ "Elliot Richardson Papers", Library of Congress. Cf. Box 3 : 436
  8. ^ shifoooo (October 8, 2008), Yom Kippur War 1973: The Egyptian Revenge - (1/4), retrieved February 19, 2019
  9. ^ "Elliot L. Richardson - Richard Nixon Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense - Historical Office.
  10. ^ "SecDef Histories – Elliot Richardson". Secretary of Defense. Archived from the original on August 7, 2009. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
  11. ^ Doyle, James (1977). Not Above the Law: the battles of Watergate prosecutors Cox and Jaworski. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-03192-7.
  12. ^ Nissman, David M. (October 13, 1998). "Interview with Deputy Assistant Attorney General John C. Keeney" (PDF). U.S. Attorneys' Bulletin. 47 (2, Cumulative Index): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
  13. ^ "Pat Buchanan on Nixon/Trump Comparison: History Repeats Itself, First As Tragedy, Then As Farce". RealClearPolitics.com. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
  14. ^ "Time Magazine Cover: Spiro Agnew". TIME.com. October 8, 1973. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
  15. ^ "Agnew Takes on the Justice Department". TIME. October 8, 1973. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
  16. ^ "National - Jefferson Awards Foundation".
  17. ^ "Elliot Lee Richardson". 2005 West's Encyclopedia of American Law. The Encyclopedia.com.
  18. ^ Richardson, Elliot L. (Spring 1980). "Power, Mobility and the Law of the Sea". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved April 22, 2008. (Article Preview).
  19. ^ Kornacki, Steve (January 5, 2011) The Republicans who should fear the Tea Party the most Archived January 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Salon.com
  20. ^ "Elliot Richardson dies". nytimes.com. January 1, 2000. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  21. ^ Richardson, Elliot (1996). Reflections of a Radical Moderate (preface). Pantheon Books; ISBN 978-0-679-42820-6.
  22. ^ "Interpol explore the inner Marauder on their upcoming album â€" interview". The Independent. July 10, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2019.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Francis X. Bellotti
Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
Succeeded by
Francis W. Sargent
Preceded by
Nicholas Katzenbach
United States Under Secretary of State
Succeeded by
John N. Irwin, II
Preceded by
Robert Finch
United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
Succeeded by
Caspar Weinberger
Preceded by
Melvin Laird
United States Secretary of Defense
Succeeded by
James R. Schlesinger
Preceded by
Rogers Morton
United States Secretary of Commerce
Succeeded by
Juanita M. Kreps
Legal offices
Preceded by
Edward T. Martin
Attorney General of Massachusetts
Succeeded by
Robert H. Quinn
Preceded by
Richard Kleindienst
United States Attorney General
Succeeded by
Robert Bork
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Walter Annenberg
United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom
Succeeded by
Anne Armstrong
1962 Massachusetts general election

A Massachusetts general election was held on November 6, 1962 in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

The election included:

statewide elections for United States Senator, Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of the Commonwealth, Treasurer, and Auditor;

district elections for U.S. Representatives, State Representatives, State Senators, and Governor's Councillors; and

ballot questions at the state and local levels.Democratic and Republican candidates were selected in party primaries held on September 18, 1962.

1966 Massachusetts general election

A Massachusetts general election was held on November 8, 1966 in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

The election included:

statewide elections for United States Senator, Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of the Commonwealth, Treasurer, and Auditor;

district elections for U.S. Representatives, State Representatives, State Senators, and Governor's Councillors; and

ballot questions at the state and local levels.Democratic and Republican candidates were selected in party primaries held on September 13, 1966.

This was the first election in which the Term of office for Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of the Commonwealth, Treasurer, and Auditor was extended from two to four years.

1976 Republican National Convention

The 1976 Republican National Convention was a United States political convention of the Republican Party that met from August 16 to August 19, 1976, to select the party's nominee for President. Held in Kemper Arena in Kansas City, Missouri, the convention nominated President Gerald Ford for a full term, but only after narrowly defeating a strong challenge from former California Governor Ronald Reagan. The convention also nominated Senator Robert J. Dole of Kansas for Vice President, instead of Vice President Nelson Rockefeller. The keynote address was delivered by Tennessee Senator Howard Baker. Other notable speakers included Minnesota Representative Al Quie, retired Lieutenant Colonel and former Vietnam prisoner of war Raymond Schrump, former Texas Governor John Connally, Providence, Rhode Island mayor Vincent Cianci and Michigan Senator Robert P. Griffin. It is the last national convention by either of the two major parties to feature a seriously contested nomination between candidates.

1984 United States Senate election in Massachusetts

The Massachusetts Senate election of 1984 was held in November 1984. The election was won by Democrat John Kerry, the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts who remained Senator until 2013 when he resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State. One-term incumbent Paul Tsongas declined to seek re-election and retired from the Senate following a battle with cancer.

Anne Armstrong

Anne Legendre Armstrong (December 27, 1927 – July 30, 2008) was a United States diplomat and politician. She was the first woman to serve as Counselor to the President and as United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom; serving in those capacities under the Ford, Nixon, and Carter administrations. She was the recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1987.

Bedazzled (2000 film)

Bedazzled is a 2000 black comedy film directed by Harold Ramis and starring Brendan Fraser and Elizabeth Hurley.

It is a remake of the 1967 film of the same name, written by Peter Cook and Dudley Moore, which was itself a comic retelling of the Faust legend.

Daniel J. Murphy

Daniel Joseph Murphy Sr. (March 24, 1922 – September 21, 2001) was a four-star admiral in the United States Navy and an official in the Carter and Reagan administrations.Murphy grew up in Brooklyn, and graduated from the University of Maryland and the Naval War College. He joined the Navy in 1943, during his second year at St. John's University in New York, and flew anti-submarine patrols over the North Atlantic during World War II.During the 1960s he was commanding officer of the aircraft carrier USS Bennington. He commanded the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean during the Arab-Israeli War of 1973 and the Cyprus crisis of 1974. He retired from active service in 1977. Murphy's son, Vice Admiral Daniel J. Murphy Jr., later also commanded the Sixth Fleet, from 1998 to 2000.

Murphy was principal military assistant to successive Secretaries of Defense Melvin R. Laird and Elliot Richardson, deputy director of the CIA in 1976 and 1977, and Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy at the Pentagon from 1977 to 1980 under Jimmy Carter.He was Vice President George H. W. Bush's chief of staff from 1981 to 1985. During this period, a covert team of military operatives led by Vice-Admiral Arthur S. Moreau Jr. was sometimes run out of his office. His involvement in the Iran-Contra affair may have been greater than was realised at the time.At the end of Ronald Reagan's first term, Murphy left government to join the Washington D.C. lobbying and public relations firm Gray and Company (later Hill & Knowlton Worldwide) as a vice chairman. He later founded Murphy & Associates in Georgetown providing public affairs and consulting support to U.S. and international firms. He facilitated former President George H.W. Bush's celebratory visit to Kuwait in 1993.

He died at the age of 79 in 2001 of a stomach aneurysm.

Elliot Richardson (musician)

Elliot Richardson is an American music producer, mixer, songwriter, and multi instrumentalist. His productions have gone on to be Televised; charted on the top 40 Billboard charts; and have received worldwide radio airplay. His productions have been used and played on, Grey's Anatomy, One Tree Hill, Ghost Whisper, MTV Real World, and other various Television shows. Currently he is residing in the greater Nashville area and is continuing his work with nationally known up and coming artists. He has worked with artists ranging from independent to major record label artists.

Francis Bellotti

Francis Xavier Bellotti (born May 3, 1923) is an American lawyer and politician. In his first campaign he was the Democratic nominee for District Attorney of Norfolk County in 1958, but was defeated in the general election. In 1962 Bellotti was elected as Lieutenant Governor for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts from 1963 to 1965.

In 1964 he had challenged the sitting governor of his own party, Endicott Peabody, and defeated him in the Democratic Primary; but lost in the general election to John Volpe who thus regained the seat he had lost in 1962. From 1975 to 1987 he served three terms as Massachusetts Attorney General. In that capacity he instilled professionalism among his staff, was a leader for civil rights and served as President of the National Association of Attorneys General. He sought the nomination of the Democratic party for governor in 1970 and in 1990, but was defeated in the Democratic primary election in both elections losing to Kevin White the first time and John Silber the second.

In his official capacity for the state he was the named party in the commercial speech case: First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti, 435 U.S. 765 (1978), which established that corporations have some free speech rights under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.Bellotti was born in Boston. He graduated from Tufts University in 1947 and received his law degree from Boston College in 1952. Since leaving office, Bellotti has practiced law in Boston, Massachusetts with the firm of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo. He is the father of twelve children, including Norfolk County Sheriff Michael G. Bellotti.

In 2012, the district courthouse in Quincy, Massachusetts, was named in his honor.He is the Vice Chairman of Arbella Insurance Group.

George Shultz

George Pratt Shultz (; born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, elder statesman, and businessman. He served in various positions under three different Republican presidents. Along with Elliot Richardson, he is one of two individuals to serve in four different Cabinet positions. He played a major policy role in shaping the foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration. In the 2010s, Shultz was a prominent figure in the scandal around biotech firm Theranos, continuing to support it as a board member in the face of mounting evidence of fraud.

Born in New York City, he graduated from Princeton University before serving in the United States Marine Corps during World War II. After the war, Shultz earned a PhD in industrial economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He taught at MIT from 1948 to 1957, taking a leave of absence in 1955 to take a position on President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers. After serving as dean of the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, he accepted President Richard Nixon's appointment as United States Secretary of Labor. In that position, he imposed the Philadelphia Plan on construction contractors who refused to accept black members, marking the first use of racial quotas by the federal government. In 1970, he became the first Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and he served in that position until his appointment as United States Secretary of the Treasury in 1972. In that role, Shultz supported the Nixon shock (which sought to revive the ailing economy in part by abolishing the gold standard) and presided over the end of the Bretton Woods system.

Shultz left the Nixon administration in 1974 to become an executive at Bechtel. After becoming president and director of that company, he accepted President Ronald Reagan's offer to serve as United States Secretary of State. He held that office from 1982 to 1989. Shultz pushed for Reagan to establish relations with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, which led to a thaw between the United States and the Soviet Union. He opposed the U.S. aid to rebels trying to overthrow the Sandinistas using funds from an illegal sale of weapons to Iran that led to the Iran–Contra affair.

Shultz retired from public office in 1989 but remained active in business and politics. He served as an informal adviser to George W. Bush and helped formulate the Bush Doctrine of preemptive war. He served on the Global Commission on Drug Policy, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's Economic Recovery Council, and on the boards of Bechtel and the Charles Schwab Corporation. Since 2013, he has repeatedly advocated for a revenue-neutral carbon tax as the most economically sound means of mitigating anthropogenic climate change. He is a member of the Hoover Institution, the Institute for International Economics, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, and other groups. Since the death of William Thaddeus Coleman Jr., Shultz is the oldest living former U.S. Cabinet member.

Massachusetts Hall (Harvard University)

Massachusetts Hall is the oldest surviving building at Harvard College, the first institution of higher learning in the British colonies in America, and second oldest academic building in the United States after the Wren Building at the College of William & Mary. As such, it possesses great significance not only in the history of American education but also in the story of the developing English Colonies of the 18th century. Massachusetts Hall was designed by Harvard Presidents John Leverett and his successor Benjamin Wadsworth. It was erected between 1718 and 1720 in Harvard Yard. It was originally a dormitory containing 32 chambers and 64 small private studies for the 64 students it was designed to house. During the siege of Boston, 640 American soldiers took quarters in the hall. Much of the interior woodwork and hardware, including brass doorknobs, disappeared at this time.

While designed as a residence for students, the building has served many purposes through the years. After Thomas Hollis donated a quadrant and a 24-foot telescope in 1722, for example, the building housed an informal observatory.

Currently, the President of the University, Provost, Treasurer, and Vice Presidents have offices that occupy the first two floors and half of the third. Freshmen reside in the fourth floor.

Massachusetts Hall, as Harvard's oldest extant dormitory, has housed many influential people. Founding fathers who lived in Massachusetts Hall include John Adams, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, Elbridge Gerry, and James Otis. Members of the Wigglesworth, Weld, Thayer, Eliot, and Lowell families (among others), whose names now grace other dormitories, also lived in Massachusetts Hall. More recent notable residents of Massachusetts Hall include Alan Jay Lerner, Elliot Richardson, John Harbison, and Jeff Schaffer.

Missing Andy

Missing Andy are a British mod influenced band based in Essex. The group comprises Alex Greaves, Jonathan Sharpe, Rob Jones, Steve Rolls and Elliot Richardson. The band's debut single "The Way We're Made (Made In England)" reached number 38 on the UK Singles Chart and number 7 on the UK Indie Chart in September 2010, after their status was confirmed as runners-up in Sky1's television talent competition, Must Be The Music. Their debut digital only single The Greatest Show On Earth - Act I was released on 4 October 2010, with four tracks. It is said to be part of a compilation of an unspecified number of singles. Missing Andy have released 3 full studio albums (Generation Silenced, Guerrilla Invasion Pt. 1 and Guerrilla Invasion Pt. 2).

Ray Shamie

Raymond Shamie (1921–1999) was an American politician from Massachusetts.

Raymond "Ray" Shamie was born in Brooklyn, New York. His father died in a traffic accident while he was in high school, and in 1937, during the Great Depression, he got a job as a busboy, washing dishes and mopping floors at a Horn & Hardart automat.Shamie was twice a Massachusetts Republican nominee for the United States Senate, and served as the chairman of the Massachusetts Republican Party from 1987 to 1991.

Ray Shamie was the inventor of the innovative "Metal Bellows", a flexible shaft coupling that is used in aerospace and many other fields, for which he held the patent. In 1982, Shamie, a millionaire businessman and metalwork entrepreneur (primarily from the invention of Metal Bellows), challenged longtime incumbent Senator Ted Kennedy. In a Democratic-leaning election cycle, Shamie lost in a landslide, receiving 38 percent of the vote against Kennedy's 61 percent. In 1984, he announced that he would challenge Senator Paul Tsongas for re-election; however, Tsongas, who had been diagnosed with lymphoma, did not run for re-election. Shamie won the Republican primary for the now-open seat, beating former U.S. Attorney General and Watergate icon Elliot Richardson. In the general election, he faced off against Massachusetts Lieutenant Governor John Kerry. Shamie lost the Senate race to Kerry, 55–45.

Shamie strived to maintain a human touch in his politics; his first campaign's political slogan was, "You can call me Ray!"After his second bid for the Senate, he became the chairman of the Massachusetts Republican Party. He served in that capacity until 1991. He is credited with helping Republican William Weld win the governorship in 1990.

Richard Kleindienst

Richard Gordon Kleindienst /kline-DEENST/ (August 5, 1923 – February 3, 2000) was an American lawyer, politician, and a U.S. Attorney General during the Watergate political scandal.

Robert H. Quinn

Robert Henry Quinn was a Massachusetts attorney and politician.

Robert J. Murray

Robert J. Murray (b. 1934) was United States Under Secretary of the Navy in 1980-81.

Saturday Night Massacre

The Saturday Night Massacre is the name popularly applied to the series of events that took place in the United States on the evening of Saturday, October 20, 1973, during the Watergate scandal. U.S. President Richard Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox; Richardson refused and resigned effective immediately. Nixon then ordered Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus to fire Cox; Ruckelshaus refused, and also resigned. Nixon then ordered the third-most-senior official at the Justice Department, Solicitor General Robert Bork, to fire Cox. Bork considered resigning, but did as Nixon asked. The political and public reaction to Nixon's actions were negative and highly damaging to the president. A new special counsel was appointed eleven days later on November 1, 1973, and on November 14, 1973, a court ruled that the dismissal had been illegal.

United States Attorney General

The United States Attorney General (A.G.) is the chief lawyer of the federal government of the United States, head of the United States Department of Justice per 28 U.S.C. § 503, and oversees all governmental legal affairs.

Under the Appointments Clause of the United States Constitution, the officeholder is nominated by the President of the United States and appointed with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. The U.S. Constitution provides that civil officers of the United States, which would include the U.S. Attorney General, may be impeached by Congress for treason, bribery or high crimes and misdemeanors. The United States Attorney General may be removed at will by the President of the United States under the Supreme Court decision Myers v. United States, which found that executive branch officials may be removed without the consent of any entity. In cases of the federal death penalty, the power to seek the death penalty rests with the U.S. Attorney General.

The current Attorney General is William Barr.

United States Secretary of the Air Force

The Secretary of the Air Force (SecAF, or SAF/OS) is the head of the Department of the Air Force, a component organization within the United States Department of Defense. The Secretary of the Air Force is appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Secretary reports to the Secretary of Defense and/or the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and is by statute responsible for and has the authority to conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Air Force.The Secretary works closely with his or her civilian deputy, the Under Secretary of the Air Force; and his or her military deputy, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who is the senior-most uniformed officer in the United States Air Force.

The first Secretary of the Air Force, Stuart Symington, was sworn in on 18 September 1947 upon the re-organization of the Army Air Forces into a military department and a military service of its own, independent of the War Department/Army, with the enactment of the National Security Act.

On 16 May 2017, Heather Wilson was sworn in as the next Secretary of the Air Force. Wilson was nominated by President Donald Trump on 23 January 2017, and confirmed by the U.S. Senate on 8 May 2017. On 9 March 2019, Secretary Wilson announced her resignation which will take effect on 31 May 2019.

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