Elizabeth Prettejohn

Elizabeth Francesca Prettejohn (born 15 May 1961)[1] is an art historian and author of several books about art history. Her books have included Rossetti and his Circle (1997), The Art of the Pre-Raphaelites (2000) and Art for Art's Sake (2007). She has also co-edited and co-authored several publications. She has written exhibition catalogues and papers for journals such as The Burlington Magazine, Journal of Victorian Culture and Art Bulletin.

Education and career

Prettejohn was the Professor of the history of art at the University of Bristol from 2005, before becoming head of the history of art at the University of York in 2012. She has also been the Professor of Modern Art at the University of Plymouth and the curator of Paintings and Sculpture at Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery. She studied at Harvard University, where she got her Bachelor of Arts degree (summa cum laude), and at the Courtauld Institute of Art, where she got her Master of Arts degree in 1987 and PhD degree in 1991.[2] She is married to the Professor of Classics and Dean of Arts, Charles Martindale. [1]



Name Year Publisher Notes
Modern painters, old masters : the art of imitation from the Pre-Raphaelites to the First World War 2017 Yale University Press
The Modernity of Ancient Sculpture: Greek Sculpture and Modern Art from Winckelmann to Picasso 2012 I. B. Tauris
Art for Art’s Sake: Aestheticism in Victorian Painting 2007 Yale University Press Won the 2008 Historians of British Art Prize for
single-authored book on a subject from the period after 1800
Beauty and Art 1750-2000 2005 Oxford University Press Part of the Oxford History of Art series
The Art of the Pre-Raphaelites 2000 Tate Publishing and Princeton University Press
Interpreting Sargent 1998 Tate Publishing
Rossetti and his Circle 1997 Tate Publishing
After the Pre-Raphaelites: Art and Aestheticism in Victorian England 1999 Manchester University Press and Rutgers University Press Editor
Frederic Leighton: Antiquity, Renaissance, Modernity 1999 Yale University Press Edited with Tim Barringer

Curated exhibitions

Name Time Locations Notes
J.W. Waterhouse: The Modern Pre-Raphaelite (in Europe)
J.W. Waterhouse: Garden of Enchantment (in Canada)[3]
2008–2010 Groninger Museum Groningen, Royal Academy of Arts London and
Museum of Fine Arts Montreal
With Peter Trippi, Robert Upstone and MaryAnne Stevens.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti 2003-04 Walker Art Gallery and Van Gogh Museum With Julian Treuherz and Edwin Becker
Adrian Stokes 2002 June Arnolfini With Edwin Becker and others
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema 1996-97 Walker Art Gallery and Van Gogh Museum With Edwin Becker and others
Imagining Rome: British Artists and Rome in the Nineteenth Century 1996-97 Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery With Michael Liversidge
Characters and Conversations: British Art 1900-1930 1996-97 Tate Gallery Liverpool With Fiona Bradley
Impressionism for England: Samuel Courtauld as Patron and Collector 1994 Courtauld Institute Galleries Researcher


  1. ^ "CV 2011". Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  2. ^ "The Courtauld Institute of Arts newsletter archive issue 21 : spring 2006". Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
  3. ^ "J.W. Waterhouse Exhibitions". Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2009.

External links

Alfred Lys Baldry

Alfred Lys Baldry (1858 – 18 May 1939) was an English art critic and painter.He was born in Torquay, Devon, the son of Alfred Baldry and Charlotte Whitehead.Baldry studied at the University of Oxford and the Royal College of Art, and as a pupil of Albert Joseph Moore. He exhibited works during the 1880s. Later he was Moore's biographer, this being an 1892 commission from Montague Marks, editor of Art Amateur. After Moore's death in 1893 he arranged an exhibition, with Walford Graham Robertson, of 100 of Moore's works. He also wrote a biography of Hubert von Herkomer.

George Anderson Lawson

George Anderson Lawson (Edinburgh 1832 – 23 September 1904) was a British Victorian era sculptor who was associated with the New Sculpture movement.


Hallsands is a village and beach in south Devon, England, in a precarious position between cliffs and the sea, between Beesands to the north and Start Point to the south.

John Gerald Potter

John Gerald Potter (1829–1908) was an English wallpaper manufacturer, known also as a patron of James McNeill Whistler.

John Singer Sargent

John Singer Sargent (; January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American expatriate artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian-era luxury. He created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

He was born in Florence to American parents, and trained in Paris before moving to London, living most of his life in Europe. He enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his Portrait of Madame X, was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but instead resulted in scandal. From the beginning his work is characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. Art historians generally ignored "society" artists such as Sargent until the late 20th century.

List of Cambridge Companions to Literature and Classics

The Cambridge Companions to Literature and Classics form a book series published by Cambridge University Press. Each book is a collection of essays on the topic commissioned by the publisher.

List of Catholic artists

This list of Catholic artists concerns artists known, at least in part, for their works of religious Roman Catholic art. It may also include artists whose position as a Roman Catholic priest or missionary was vital to their artistic works or development. Because of the title, it is preferred that at least some of their artwork be in or commissioned for Catholic churches, which includes Eastern Catholic Churches in communion with the Pope.

Note that this is not a list of all artists who have ever been members of the Roman Catholic Church. Please do not add entries here without providing support for those artists having specifically Roman Catholic religious art among their works, or having Roman Catholicism as a major aspect in their careers as artists. Further, seeing as many to most Western European artists from the 5th century to the Protestant Reformation did at least some Catholic religious art, this list will supplement by linking to lists of artists of those eras rather than focusing on names of those eras.

List of alumni of the Courtauld Institute of Art

The following is a list of alumni of the Courtauld Institute of Art, London.

Pamela Askew, historian of Baroque art

James Austin, fine-art and architectural photographer

Reyner Banham, critic

Emily Barr, writer

Graham W. J. Beal, director, Detroit Institute of Arts (1999–)

John Béchervaise, writer

Naomi Beckwith, curator at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago

Olivier Berggruen, art historian and curator

Ron Bloore, artist

Alan Borg, director, Victoria and Albert Museum (1995–2001); director, Imperial War Museum (1982–95); keeper, Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts (1978–82)

Sir Alan Bowness, director, Henry Moore Foundation, (1988–94); director, Tate Gallery (1980–88)

Anita Brookner, novelist and art historian; winner of the 1984 Booker Prize

Aviva Burnstock, conservator

Martin Butlin, art historian

Edie Campbell, model

Thomas P. Campbell, former director, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (2009–17)

Edmund Capon, director, Art Gallery of New South Wales (1978–2011)

Rafael Cardoso, Brazilian writer and art historian

Nigel Carrington, vice-chancellor, University of the Arts London

Charlie Casely-Hayford, fashion designer

Noah Charney, art historian and novelist

Bridget Cherry, architectural historian and series editor of the Pevsner Architectural Guides (1971–2002)

Betty Churcher, director, National Gallery of Australia (1990–97)

T. J. Clark, art historian

Joshua Compston, curator

Henry Conway, socialite

Robin Cormack, classicist and Byzantine art historian

Nicholas Cullinan, director, National Portrait Gallery, London (2015–)

William J. R. Curtis, architectural historian

Melvin Day, artist and art historian

Jeremy Deller, artist; winner of the 2004 Turner Prize

Anne d'Harnoncourt, director, Philadelphia Museum of Art (1982–2008)

Emmanuel Di Donna, art dealer

Kerry Downes, architectural historian

Daisy Dunn, classicist, author, journalist and critic

Nell Dunn, writer

John Elderfield, chief curator of painting and sculpture, Museum of Modern Art, New York

David Elliott, curator

Lucy Ellmann, novelist

Gabriele Finaldi, director, National Gallery (2015–)

Jonathan Foyle, architectural historian

David Franklin, director, Cleveland Museum of Art (2010–13)

Tamar Garb, art historian

Nicky Gavron, Deputy Mayor of London (2003–4 and 2008–12)

Roselee Goldberg, art historian and curator

Cecil Gould, keeper, National Gallery (1973–1978)

Andrew Graham-Dixon, critic

Theo Green, film composer

Paul Greenhalgh, director, Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, Norwich (2010–); director, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (2006–2010)

Lavinia Greenlaw, poet and novelist

William M. Griswold, director, Cleveland Museum of Art (2014–)

Mark Hallett, director of studies, Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art

Jenny Harper, director National Art Gallery, New Zealand (1990-1992), director Christchurch Art Gallery (2006 - present)

Rosemary Harris, children's book author

Sumaya bint Hassan, Jordanian princess

John Hayes, director, National Portrait Gallery (1974–94)

Alice Instone, painter

Michael Jaffé

Lee Johnson (art historian)

Nancy Johnson

Sir Mark Jones, director, Victoria and Albert Museum (2001–11)

Martin Kemp (art historian)

Brian Kish

Michael Kitson

Tim Knox, director of the Royal Collection Trust, former director, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

Nicole Krauss, novelist

Ellen Lanyon

Narisa Levy of the royal family of Thailand

Walter Liedtke

Neil MacGregor, director, National Gallery (1987–2002), British Museum (2002–2015)

Denis Mahon

Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, curator, author, museum professional

Tim Marlow, critic

Matthew McLendon, director, Fralin Museum of Art

Sir Oliver Millar, Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures

Edward Morris (1940-2016), gallerist and art historian

Peter Murray (art historian)

Helly Nahmad, London-based gallerist and art dealer

George T. Noszlopy

John Onians, art historian

Rozsika Parker

Lucy Peltz

Nicholas Penny, director, National Gallery (2008–2015)

Joachim Pissarro, art historian

Amy Plum

Griselda Pollock, art historian

Elizabeth Prettejohn, art historian

Vincent Price, actor

Benedict Read

Jane, Lady Roberts, former royal librarian, Windsor Castle

Irit Rogoff, writer and curator

Atticus Ross, film composer

Aaron Scharf

Sir Nicholas Serota, director, Tate (1988–present)

Brian Sewell, critic

Desmond Shawe-Taylor

John Shearman, Renaissance art historian

Iain Sinclair, novelist

Bernard Smith (art historian)

David Solkin, dean and deputy director, Courtauld Institute of Art

Alastair Sooke, art historian and journalist

John Steer (art historian)

Alexander Sturgis

Ann Sumner

John Russell Taylor, film critic and author

Michael R. Taylor (museum director)

Matthew Teitelbaum

Simon Thurley, architectural historian, director of the Museum of London

Roger Took

Emily Tsingou

Pamela Tudor-Craig

Ernst Vegelin van Claerbergen, head of the Courtauld Gallery

Jeff Wall, Canadian artist

Giles Waterfield, novelist

Alexandra Wedgwood

Perdita Weeks

Marian Wenzel

David White (officer of arms)

John White (art historian)

Esmé Whittaker, curator at English Heritage

Sarah Wilson (art historian)

Joanna Woodall

Joan Elizabeth Woollard

Giles Worsley

Marion Spielmann

Marion Harry Alexander Spielmann (London 22 May 1858 – 1948) was a prolific Victorian art critic and scholar who was the editor of The Connoisseur and Magazine of Art. Among his voluminous output, he wrote a history of Punch, the first biography of John Everett Millais and a detailed investigation into the evidence for portraits of William Shakespeare.

Oxford History of Art

The Oxford History of Art is a monographic series about the history of art, design and architecture published by Oxford University Press. It combines volumes covering specific periods with thematic volumes. The history is divided into histories of Western Art, Western Architecture, World Art, Western Design, Photography, Western Sculpture, Themes and Genres, and a critical anthology of art writing. The entire work consists of over 30 volumes.

Peter Trippi

Peter Trippi is editor-in-chief of Fine Art Connoisseur, a bimonthly magazine for collectors of representational painting, sculpture, drawings and prints—both historical and contemporary. From 2003 until 2006, Trippi was director of New York City's Dahesh Museum of Art, the only institution in the United States devoted to 19th- and early 20th-century European academic art.

Most recently, Trippi co-curated (with Elizabeth Prettejohn and Ivo Blom) the major touring exhibition Lawrence Alma-Tadema: At Home in Antiquity. Organized by the Fries Museum (Leeuwarden, Netherlands), this project premiered at that museum on 1 October 2016; it closed there on 7 February 2017 and moved to the Belvedere in Vienna, where it was seen from 24 February through 18 June 2017. Its final venue was London's Leighton House Museum (7 July - 29 October 2017.) Trippi co-edited the accompanying 250-page book (published by Prestel) with Prof. Prettejohn, and co-convened (with her and others) a symposium in London devoted to Alma-Tadema in October 2017 (Paul Mellon Centre and Birkbeck Institute of the Moving Image).

Before arriving at the Dahesh Museum, Trippi held positions at the Brooklyn Museum, Baltimore Museum of Art, Association of Art Museum Directors (where he wrote a history of that organization from 1916 to 1991), Cooper-Hewitt Museum, National Arts Education Research Center at New York University, and American Arts Alliance in Washington, D.C. He holds an MA in Art History from the Courtauld Institute of Art, London; an MA in Visual Arts Administration from New York University; and a BA in History and Art History from the College of William and Mary, Virginia. His 250-page biography of the British painter J. W. Waterhouse R.A. (1849–1917) was published by Phaidon Press (London) in 2002, and has sold more than 50,000 copies. He contributed two chapters to the catalogue accompanying the exhibition "A Grand Design: The Art of the Victoria and Albert Museum" (1997, organized by the Baltimore Museum of Art and published by Abrams). In 2002, Trippi co-founded, with Professor Petra ten-Doesschate Chu (Seton Hall University) and Professor Gabriel P. Weisberg (University of Minnesota), the peer-reviewed journal Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide, and he has served on the boards of the Association of Historians of Nineteenth-Century Art, Historians of British Art, and American Friends of Attingham. In 2011 he completed a three-year term as chair of the Courtauld Institute of Art's U.S. Alumni program, and became president of Historians of British Art. In 2013 he became past president of HBA and became president of the Association of Historians of Nineteenth-Century Art.

Trippi operates his own firm, Projects in 19th-Century Art, organizing exhibitions, writing articles, essays, and catalogues, and lecturing widely. He guest co-curated (with Elizabeth Prettejohn, Robert Upstone, and Patty Wageman) a popular touring retrospective of J. W. Waterhouse that visited the Groninger Museum, Royal Academy of Arts, and Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (2008–2010) and was accompanied by a catalogue honored in February 2011 by Historians of British Art as the best in its category. Recent lecturing/moderating venues have included the College Art Association, Christie's, Royal Academy of Arts, Florence Academy of Art, Grand Central Academy, Oil Painters of America, Bard Graduate Center, Grolier Club, and International Fine Print Dealers Association.

Study (Flandrin)

Study (Young Male Nude Seated beside the Sea) (French: Jeune Homme nu assis au bord de la mer, figure d'étude) is a painting by Hippolyte Flandrin executed between 1835 and 1836. Flandrin had won France's Prix de Rome in 1832, a bursary which provided the winner with a trip to Rome to concentrate on their vocation. There, Flandrin produced this study, which he sent back to Paris in 1837, in fulfillment of the bursary's requirements for the student to submit works in the tradition of various genres. In 1857, Napoleon III purchased the painting, which is now in the collection of Paris's Louvre.

The painting gained attention among contemporary French art critics, and remains one of Flandrin's best-known works, despite being produced relatively early in his career. The subject is an unidentified youth, an "ephebe", who sits nude on a rock with his arms wrapped around his legs and his head resting on his knees, eyes closed. There is a sea in the background, and no distinguishable landmarks locate the figure. The enigmatic scene provides no explanation for the figure's pose: Théophile Gautier (1811–1872) commented that the young man could be shipwrecked on a deserted island, or be a shepherd who has lost his flock. Ultimately, any explanation for this scene is left to the imagination, leading to comparisons with Surrealist art in the twentieth century.In examining the influence of German aesthetic theory on French art, critic Elizabeth Prettejohn finds that the roundedness of form and "flawless" modeling of flesh would have met with Johann Joachim Winckelmann's approval as an exemplar of the beautiful. Prettejohn compares the figure's almost circular pose and sparse framing with that of Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man.

Vital to the painting's spread were reproductions based on an 1887 engraving by Jean-Baptiste Danguin that was commissioned by the state. As awareness of the work grew, the painting became an icon of homosexual culture in the 20th century. Photographers Marcel Moore and Claude Cahun adopted the pose in a photograph of the lesbian Cahun, c. 1911. The painting was similarly evoked in early twentieth-century art photography by F. Holland Day and Wilhelm von Gloeden, and later by Robert Mapplethorpe.

The Awakening Conscience

The Awakening Conscience (1853) is an oil-on-canvas painting by the English artist William Holman Hunt, one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which depicts a young woman rising from her position in the lap of a man and gazing transfixed out of the window of a room.

The painting is in the collection of the Tate Britain in London.

Victorian morality

Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living during the time of Queen Victoria's reign (1837–1901), the Victorian era, and of the moral climate of Great Britain in the mid-19th century in general. The British sought to bring these values to the British Empire. Historian Harold Perkin writes:

Between 1780 and 1850 the English ceased to be one of the most aggressive, brutal, rowdy, outspoken, riotous, cruel and bloodthirsty nations in the world and became one of the most inhibited, polite, orderly, tender-minded, prudish and hypocritical. The transformation diminished cruelty to animals, criminals, lunatics, and children (in that order); suppressed many cruel sports and games, such as bull-baiting and cock-fighting, as well as innocent amusements, including many fairs and wakes; rid the penal code of about two hundred capital offences, abolished transportation [of criminals to Australia], and cleaned up the prisons; turned Sunday into a day of prayer for some and mortification for all.Victorian values emerged in all classes and reached all facets of Victorian living. The values of the period—which can be classed as religion, morality, Evangelicalism, industrial work ethic, and personal improvement—took root in Victorian morality. Current plays and all literature—including old classics like Shakespeare—were cleansed of naughtiness, or "bowdlerized."

Contemporary historians have generally come to regard the Victorian era as a time of many conflicts, such as the widespread cultivation of an outward appearance of dignity and restraint, together with serious debates about exactly how the new morality should be implemented. The international slave trade was abolished, and this ban was enforced by the Royal Navy. Slavery was ended in all the British colonies, child labour was ended in British factories, and a long debate ensued regarding whether prostitution should be totally abolished or tightly regulated. Homosexuality remained illegal.

As of the turn of the 21st century, the term "Victorian morality" can describe any set of values that espouse sexual restraint, low tolerance of crime and a strict social code of conduct.


Whympston (anciently Wimpstone, Wymondston, Wimston, Wymston, etc), in the parish of Modbury in Devon, England, is a historic manor. In the 12th century it became the earliest English seat of the prominent Norman family of Fortescue, influential in British and West Country history, which survives today as Earl Fortescue, seated at Ebrington in Gloucestershire, but until recently seated at Castle Hill and Weare Giffard in Devon.

Women in the art history field

Women were professionally active in the academic discipline of art history already in the nineteenth century and participated in the important shift early in the century that began involving an "emphatically corporeal visual subject", with Vernon Lee as a notable example. It is argued that in the twentieth century women art historians (and curators), by choosing to study women artists, "dramatically" "increased their visibility". In fact, women art historians are one of two groups (besides authors of high-school texbooks) "who say there have been great women artists" in the first place, according to the authors of a study of the representations of women artists in US textbooks.

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