Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926)[a] is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.[b]

Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and she was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Prince Andrew, Duke of York; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex.

When her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, and the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (renamed Sri Lanka), became republics. Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee. She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state.

Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has consistently been and remains high, as does her personal popularity.

Elizabeth II
A photograph of Queen Elizabeth II; she appears happy.
At the HMS Ocean rededication in Devonport, 20 March 2015
Reign6 February 1952 – present
Coronation2 June 1953
PredecessorGeorge VI
Heir apparentCharles, Prince of Wales
Prime MinistersSee list
Born21 April 1926 (age 92)
17 Bruton Street, Mayfair, London, United Kingdom
Full name
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor[1]
FatherGeorge VI
MotherElizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Elizabeth II's signature

Early life

Queen Elizabeth II 1929
On the cover of Time magazine, April 1929

Elizabeth was born at 02:40 (GMT) on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, the Duke of York (later King George VI), was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth), was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair.[3] She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May,[4][c] and named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, and Mary after her paternal grandmother.[6] Called "Lilibet" by her close family,[7] based on what she called herself at first,[8] she was cherished by her grandfather George V, and during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by later biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery.[9]

Philip Alexius de Laszlo-Princess Elizabeth of York, Currently Queen Elizabeth II of England,1933
Portrait by Philip de László, 1933

Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930. The two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.[10] Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature and music.[11] Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family.[12] The book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, and her attitude of responsibility.[13] Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant."[14] Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved".[15]

Heir presumptive

During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would marry and have children of his own.[16] When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father. Later that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis.[17] Consequently, Elizabeth's father became king, and she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a later son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession.[18]

Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College,[19] and learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses.[20] A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed specifically so she could socialise with girls her own age.[21] Later, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger.[20]

In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured Canada and the United States. As in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours.[22] Elizabeth "looked tearful" as her parents departed.[23] They corresponded regularly,[23] and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.[22]

Second World War

Hrh Princess Elizabeth in the Auxiliary Territorial Service, April 1945 TR2832
In Auxiliary Territorial Service uniform, April 1945

In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham[24] suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing. This was rejected by Elizabeth's mother, who declared, "The children won't go without me. I won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave."[25] Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret stayed at Balmoral Castle, Scotland, until Christmas 1939, when they moved to Sandringham House, Norfolk.[26] From February to May 1940, they lived at Royal Lodge, Windsor, until moving to Windsor Castle, where they lived for most of the next five years.[27] At Windsor, the princesses staged pantomimes at Christmas in aid of the Queen's Wool Fund, which bought yarn to knit into military garments.[28] In 1940, the 14-year-old Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other children who had been evacuated from the cities.[29] She stated: "We are trying to do all we can to help our gallant sailors, soldiers and airmen, and we are trying, too, to bear our share of the danger and sadness of war. We know, every one of us, that in the end all will be well."[29]

In 1943, Elizabeth undertook her first solo public appearance on a visit to the Grenadier Guards, of which she had been appointed colonel the previous year.[30] As she approached her 18th birthday, parliament changed the law so she could act as one of five Counsellors of State in the event of her father's incapacity or absence abroad, such as his visit to Italy in July 1944.[31] In February 1945, she was appointed as an honorary second subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service with the service number of 230873.[32] She trained as a driver and mechanic and was given the rank of honorary junior commander five months later.[33][34][35]

Special Film Project 186 - Buckingham Palace 2
Elizabeth (far left) on the balcony of Buckingham Palace with her family and Winston Churchill on 8 May 1945, Victory in Europe Day

At the end of the war in Europe, on Victory in Europe Day, Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret mingled anonymously with the celebratory crowds in the streets of London. Elizabeth later said in a rare interview, "We asked my parents if we could go out and see for ourselves. I remember we were terrified of being recognised ... I remember lines of unknown people linking arms and walking down Whitehall, all of us just swept along on a tide of happiness and relief."[36]

During the war, plans were drawn up to quell Welsh nationalism by affiliating Elizabeth more closely with Wales. Proposals, such as appointing her Constable of Caernarfon Castle or a patron of Urdd Gobaith Cymru (the Welsh League of Youth), were abandoned for several reasons, including fear of associating Elizabeth with conscientious objectors in the Urdd at a time when Britain was at war.[37] Welsh politicians suggested she be made Princess of Wales on her 18th birthday. Home Secretary, Herbert Morrison supported the idea, but the King rejected it because he felt such a title belonged solely to the wife of a Prince of Wales and the Prince of Wales had always been the heir apparent.[38] In 1946, she was inducted into the Welsh Gorsedd of Bards at the National Eisteddfod of Wales.[39]

Princess Elizabeth went in 1947 on her first overseas tour, accompanying her parents through southern Africa. During the tour, in a broadcast to the British Commonwealth on her 21st birthday, she made the following pledge: "I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong."[40]


Elizabeth met her future husband, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, in 1934 and 1937.[41] They are second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark and third cousins through Queen Victoria. After another meeting at the Royal Naval College in Dartmouth in July 1939, Elizabeth—though only 13 years old—said she fell in love with Philip, and they began to exchange letters.[42] She was 21 when their engagement was officially announced on 9 July 1947.[43]

The engagement was not without controversy; Philip had no financial standing, was foreign-born (though a British subject who had served in the Royal Navy throughout the Second World War), and had sisters who had married German noblemen with Nazi links.[44] Marion Crawford wrote, "Some of the King's advisors did not think him good enough for her. He was a prince without a home or kingdom. Some of the papers played long and loud tunes on the string of Philip's foreign origin."[45] Later biographies reported Elizabeth's mother initially opposed the union, dubbing Philip "The Hun".[46] In later life, however, the Queen Mother told biographer Tim Heald that Philip was "an English gentleman".[47]

Before the marriage, Philip renounced his Greek and Danish titles, officially converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Anglicanism, and adopted the style Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, taking the surname of his mother's British family.[48] Just before the wedding, he was created Duke of Edinburgh and granted the style His Royal Highness.[49]

Elizabeth and Philip were married on 20 November 1947 at Westminster Abbey. They received 2,500 wedding gifts from around the world.[50] Because Britain had not yet completely recovered from the devastation of the war, Elizabeth required ration coupons to buy the material for her gown, which was designed by Norman Hartnell.[51] In post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for the Duke of Edinburgh's German relations, including his three surviving sisters, to be invited to the wedding.[52] The Duke of Windsor, formerly King Edward VIII, was not invited either.[53]

Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Prince Charles, on 14 November 1948. One month earlier, the King had issued letters patent allowing her children to use the style and title of a royal prince or princess, to which they otherwise would not have been entitled as their father was no longer a royal prince.[54] A second child, Princess Anne, was born in 1950.[55]

Following their wedding, the couple leased Windlesham Moor, near Windsor Castle, until July 1949,[50] when they took up residence at Clarence House in London. At various times between 1949 and 1951, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in the British Crown Colony of Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. He and Elizabeth lived intermittently in Malta for several months at a time in the hamlet of Gwardamanġa, at Villa Guardamangia, the rented home of Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten. The children remained in Britain.[56]


Accession and coronation

Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II Couronnement de la Reine Elizabeth II
Coronation of Elizabeth II, 2 June 1953

During 1951, George VI's health declined, and Elizabeth frequently stood in for him at public events. When she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C., in October 1951, her private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration in case the King died while she was on tour.[57] In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of Kenya. On 6 February 1952, they had just returned to their Kenyan home, Sagana Lodge, after a night spent at Treetops Hotel, when word arrived of the death of the King and consequently Elizabeth's immediate accession to the throne. Philip broke the news to the new queen.[58] Martin Charteris asked her to choose a regnal name; she chose to remain Elizabeth, "of course".[59] She was proclaimed queen throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom.[60] She and the Duke of Edinburgh moved into Buckingham Palace.[61]

With Elizabeth's accession, it seemed probable the royal house would bear her husband's name, becoming the House of Mountbatten, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband's surname on marriage. The British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, and Elizabeth's grandmother, Queen Mary, favoured the retention of the House of Windsor, and so on 9 April 1952 Elizabeth issued a declaration that Windsor would continue to be the name of the royal house. The Duke complained, "I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."[62] In 1960, after the death of Queen Mary in 1953 and the resignation of Churchill in 1955, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor was adopted for Philip and Elizabeth's male-line descendants who do not carry royal titles.[63]

Amid preparations for the coronation, Princess Margaret told her sister she wished to marry Peter Townsend, a divorcé‚ 16 years Margaret's senior, with two sons from his previous marriage. The Queen asked them to wait for a year; in the words of Martin Charteris, "the Queen was naturally sympathetic towards the Princess, but I think she thought—she hoped—given time, the affair would peter out."[64] Senior politicians were against the match and the Church of England did not permit remarriage after divorce. If Margaret had contracted a civil marriage, she would have been expected to renounce her right of succession.[65] Eventually, she decided to abandon her plans with Townsend.[66] In 1960, she married Antony Armstrong-Jones, who was created Earl of Snowdon the following year. They divorced in 1978; she did not remarry.[67]

Despite the death of Queen Mary on 24 March, the coronation on 2 June 1953 went ahead as planned, as Mary had asked before she died.[68] The ceremony in Westminster Abbey, with the exception of the anointing and communion, was televised for the first time.[69][d] Elizabeth's coronation gown was embroidered on her instructions with the floral emblems of Commonwealth countries:[73] English Tudor rose; Scots thistle; Welsh leek; Irish shamrock; Australian wattle; Canadian maple leaf; New Zealand silver fern; South African protea; lotus flowers for India and Ceylon; and Pakistan's wheat, cotton, and jute.[74]

Continuing evolution of the Commonwealth

British Empire in February 1952
Elizabeth's realms (pink) and their territories and protectorates (dark red) at the beginning of her reign

From Elizabeth's birth onwards, the British Empire continued its transformation into the Commonwealth of Nations.[75] By the time of her accession in 1952, her role as head of multiple independent states was already established.[76] In 1953, the Queen and her husband embarked on a seven-month round-the-world tour, visiting 13 countries and covering more than 40,000 miles by land, sea and air.[77] She became the first reigning monarch of Australia and New Zealand to visit those nations.[78] During the tour, crowds were immense; three-quarters of the population of Australia were estimated to have seen her.[79] Throughout her reign, the Queen has made hundreds of state visits to other countries and tours of the Commonwealth; she is the most widely travelled head of state.[80]

In 1956, the British and French prime ministers, Sir Anthony Eden and Guy Mollet, discussed the possibility of France joining the Commonwealth. The proposal was never accepted and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community, the precursor to the European Union.[81] In November 1956, Britain and France invaded Egypt in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to capture the Suez Canal. Lord Mountbatten claimed the Queen was opposed to the invasion, though Eden denied it. Eden resigned two months later.[82]

Queen Elizabeth II and the Prime Ministers of the Commonwealth Nations, at Windsor Castle (1960 Commonwealth Prime Minister's Conference)
Elizabeth II and Commonwealth leaders at the 1960 Commonwealth Conference

The absence of a formal mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that, following Eden's resignation, it fell to the Queen to decide whom to commission to form a government. Eden recommended she consult Lord Salisbury, the Lord President of the Council. Lord Salisbury and Lord Kilmuir, the Lord Chancellor, consulted the British Cabinet, Winston Churchill, and the Chairman of the backbench 1922 Committee, resulting in the Queen appointing their recommended candidate: Harold Macmillan.[83]

The Suez crisis and the choice of Eden's successor led in 1957 to the first major personal criticism of the Queen. In a magazine, which he owned and edited,[84] Lord Altrincham accused her of being "out of touch".[85] Altrincham was denounced by public figures and slapped by a member of the public appalled by his comments.[86] Six years later, in 1963, Macmillan resigned and advised the Queen to appoint the Earl of Home as prime minister, advice she followed.[87] The Queen again came under criticism for appointing the prime minister on the advice of a small number of ministers or a single minister.[87] In 1965, the Conservatives adopted a formal mechanism for electing a leader, thus relieving her of involvement.[88]

In 1957, she made a state visit to the United States, where she addressed the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the Commonwealth. On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian Parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a parliamentary session.[89] Two years later, solely in her capacity as Queen of Canada, she revisited the United States and toured Canada.[89][90] In 1961, she toured Cyprus, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran.[91] On a visit to Ghana the same year, she dismissed fears for her safety, even though her host, President Kwame Nkrumah, who had replaced her as head of state, was a target for assassins.[92] Harold Macmillan wrote, "The Queen has been absolutely determined all through ... She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as ... a film star ... She has indeed 'the heart and stomach of a man' ... She loves her duty and means to be a Queen."[92] Before her tour through parts of Quebec in 1964, the press reported extremists within the Quebec separatist movement were plotting Elizabeth's assassination.[93][94] No attempt was made, but a riot did break out while she was in Montreal; the Queen's "calmness and courage in the face of the violence" was noted.[95]

Elizabeth's pregnancies with Princes Andrew and Edward, in 1959 and 1963, mark the only times she has not performed the State Opening of the British parliament during her reign.[96] In addition to performing traditional ceremonies, she also instituted new practices. Her first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970.[97]

Acceleration of decolonisation

Elizabeth II in Queensland, Australia, 1970
In Queensland, Australia, 1970

The 1960s and 1970s saw an acceleration in the decolonisation of Africa and the Caribbean. Over 20 countries gained independence from Britain as part of a planned transition to self-government. In 1965, however, the Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, in opposition to moves towards majority rule, unilaterally declared independence while expressing "loyalty and devotion" to Elizabeth. Although the Queen formally dismissed him, and the international community applied sanctions against Rhodesia, his regime survived for over a decade.[98] As Britain's ties to its former empire weakened, the British government sought entry to the European Community, a goal it achieved in 1973.[99]

In February 1974, the British Prime Minister, Edward Heath, advised the Queen to call a general election in the middle of her tour of the Austronesian Pacific Rim, requiring her to fly back to Britain.[100] The election resulted in a hung parliament; Heath's Conservatives were not the largest party, but could stay in office if they formed a coalition with the Liberals. Heath only resigned when discussions on forming a coalition foundered, after which the Queen asked the Leader of the Opposition, Labour's Harold Wilson, to form a government.[101]

A year later, at the height of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, the Australian Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam, was dismissed from his post by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, after the Opposition-controlled Senate rejected Whitlam's budget proposals.[102] As Whitlam had a majority in the House of Representatives, Speaker Gordon Scholes appealed to the Queen to reverse Kerr's decision. She declined, saying she would not interfere in decisions reserved by the Constitution of Australia for the governor-general.[103] The crisis fuelled Australian republicanism.[102]

Silver Jubilee

In 1977, Elizabeth marked the Silver Jubilee of her accession. Parties and events took place throughout the Commonwealth, many coinciding with her associated national and Commonwealth tours. The celebrations re-affirmed the Queen's popularity, despite virtually coincident negative press coverage of Princess Margaret's separation from her husband.[104] In 1978, the Queen endured a state visit to the United Kingdom by Romania's communist leader, Nicolae Ceaușescu, and his wife, Elena,[105] though privately she thought they had "blood on their hands".[106] The following year brought two blows: one was the unmasking of Anthony Blunt, former Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, as a communist spy; the other was the assassination of her relative and in-law Lord Mountbatten by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.[107]

According to Paul Martin, Sr., by the end of the 1970s the Queen was worried the Crown "had little meaning for" Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian Prime Minister.[108] Tony Benn said the Queen found Trudeau "rather disappointing".[108] Trudeau's supposed republicanism seemed to be confirmed by his antics, such as sliding down banisters at Buckingham Palace and pirouetting behind the Queen's back in 1977, and the removal of various Canadian royal symbols during his term of office.[108] In 1980, Canadian politicians sent to London to discuss the patriation of the Canadian constitution found the Queen "better informed ... than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats".[108] She was particularly interested after the failure of Bill C-60, which would have affected her role as head of state.[108] Patriation removed the role of the British parliament from the Canadian constitution, but the monarchy was retained. Trudeau said in his memoirs that the Queen favoured his attempt to reform the constitution and that he was impressed by "the grace she displayed in public" and "the wisdom she showed in private".[109]


ElizabethIItroopingcolour crop
Elizabeth riding Burmese at the 1986 Trooping the Colour ceremony

During the 1981 Trooping the Colour ceremony, six weeks before the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, six shots were fired at the Queen from close range as she rode down The Mall on her horse, Burmese. Police later discovered the shots were blanks. The 17-year-old assailant, Marcus Sarjeant, was sentenced to five years in prison and released after three.[110] The Queen's composure and skill in controlling her mount were widely praised.[111]

Months later, in October, the Queen was the subject of another attack while on a visit to Dunedin, New Zealand. New Zealand Security Intelligence Service documents declassified in 2018 revealed that 17-year-old Christopher John Lewis fired a shot with a .22 rifle from the fifth floor of a building overlooking the parade, but missed.[112] Lewis was arrested, but never charged with attempted murder or treason, and sentenced to three years in jail for unlawful possession and discharge of a firearm. Two years into his sentence, he attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Prince Charles, who was visiting the country with Diana, Princess of Wales, and Prince William.[113]

From April to September 1982, the Queen was anxious but proud of her son, Prince Andrew, who was serving with British forces during the Falklands War.[114] On 9 July, the Queen awoke in her bedroom at Buckingham Palace to find an intruder, Michael Fagan, in the room with her. In a serious lapse of security, assistance only arrived after two calls to the Palace police switchboard.[115] After hosting US President Ronald Reagan at Windsor Castle in 1982 and visiting his California ranch in 1983, the Queen was angered when his administration ordered the invasion of Grenada, one of her Caribbean realms, without informing her.[116]

Intense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family during the 1980s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, not all of which were entirely true.[117] As Kelvin MacKenzie, editor of The Sun, told his staff: "Give me a Sunday for Monday splash on the Royals. Don't worry if it's not true—so long as there's not too much of a fuss about it afterwards."[118] Newspaper editor Donald Trelford wrote in The Observer of 21 September 1986: "The royal soap opera has now reached such a pitch of public interest that the boundary between fact and fiction has been lost sight of ... it is not just that some papers don't check their facts or accept denials: they don't care if the stories are true or not." It was reported, most notably in The Sunday Times of 20 July 1986, that the Queen was worried that Margaret Thatcher's economic policies fostered social divisions and was alarmed by high unemployment, a series of riots, the violence of a miners' strike, and Thatcher's refusal to apply sanctions against the apartheid regime in South Africa. The sources of the rumours included royal aide Michael Shea and Commonwealth Secretary-General Shridath Ramphal, but Shea claimed his remarks were taken out of context and embellished by speculation.[119] Thatcher reputedly said the Queen would vote for the Social Democratic Party—Thatcher's political opponents.[120] Thatcher's biographer John Campbell claimed "the report was a piece of journalistic mischief-making".[121] Belying reports of acrimony between them, Thatcher later conveyed her personal admiration for the Queen,[122] and the Queen gave two honours in her personal gift—membership in the Order of Merit and the Order of the Garter—to Thatcher after her replacement as prime minister by John Major.[123] Former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney said Elizabeth was a "behind the scenes force" in ending apartheid.[124][125]

By the end of the 1980s, the Queen had become the target of satire.[126] The involvement of younger members of the royal family in the charity game show It's a Royal Knockout in 1987 was ridiculed.[127] In Canada, Elizabeth publicly supported politically divisive constitutional amendments, prompting criticism from opponents of the proposed changes, including Pierre Trudeau.[124] The same year, the elected Fijian government was deposed in a military coup. As monarch of Fiji, Elizabeth supported the attempts of the Governor-General, Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau, to assert executive power and negotiate a settlement. Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka deposed Ganilau and declared Fiji a republic.[128]


In 1991, in the wake of coalition victory in the Gulf War, the Queen became the first British monarch to address a joint meeting of the United States Congress.[129]

Bundesarchiv Bild 199-1992-089-19Acropped
Philip and Elizabeth, October 1992

In a speech on 24 November 1992, to mark the 40th anniversary of her accession, Elizabeth called 1992 her annus horribilis, meaning horrible year.[130] Republican feeling in Britain had risen because of press estimates of the Queen's private wealth—which were contradicted by the Palace—and reports of affairs and strained marriages among her extended family.[131] In March, her second son, Prince Andrew, and his wife, Sarah, separated; in April, her daughter, Princess Anne, divorced Captain Mark Phillips;[132] during a state visit to Germany in October, angry demonstrators in Dresden threw eggs at her;[133] and, in November, a large fire broke out at Windsor Castle, one of her official residences. The monarchy came under increased criticism and public scrutiny.[134] In an unusually personal speech, the Queen said that any institution must expect criticism, but suggested it be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness and understanding".[135] Two days later, the Prime Minister, John Major, announced reforms to the royal finances planned since the previous year, including the Queen paying income tax from 1993 onwards, and a reduction in the civil list.[136] In December, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, formally separated.[137] The year ended with a lawsuit as the Queen sued The Sun newspaper for breach of copyright when it published the text of her annual Christmas message two days before it was broadcast. The newspaper was forced to pay her legal fees and donated £200,000 to charity.[138]

In the years to follow, public revelations on the state of Charles and Diana's marriage continued.[139] Even though support for republicanism in Britain seemed higher than at any time in living memory, republicanism was still a minority viewpoint, and the Queen herself had high approval ratings.[140] Criticism was focused on the institution of the monarchy itself and the Queen's wider family rather than her own behaviour and actions.[141] In consultation with her husband and the Prime Minister, John Major, as well as the Archbishop of Canterbury, George Carey, and her private secretary, Robert Fellowes, she wrote to Charles and Diana at the end of December 1995, saying a divorce was desirable.[142]

In August 1997, a year after the divorce, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris. The Queen was on holiday with her extended family at Balmoral. Diana's two sons by Charles—Princes William and Harry—wanted to attend church and so the Queen and Prince Philip took them that morning.[143] After that single public appearance, for five days the Queen and the Duke shielded their grandsons from the intense press interest by keeping them at Balmoral where they could grieve in private,[144] but the royal family's seclusion and the failure to fly a flag at half-mast over Buckingham Palace caused public dismay.[125][145] Pressured by the hostile reaction, the Queen agreed to return to London and do a live television broadcast on 5 September, the day before Diana's funeral.[146] In the broadcast, she expressed admiration for Diana and her feelings "as a grandmother" for the two princes.[147] As a result, much of the public hostility evaporated.[147]

In November 1997, the Queen and her husband held a reception at Banqueting House to mark their golden wedding anniversary.[148] She made a speech and praised Philip for his role as a consort, referring to him as "my strength and stay".[148]

Golden Jubilee

Elizabeth II greets NASA GSFC employees, May 8, 2007 edit
Greeting NASA employees at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, May 2007

In 2002, Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee. Her sister and mother died in February and March respectively, and the media speculated whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure.[149] She again undertook an extensive tour of her realms, which began in Jamaica in February, where she called the farewell banquet "memorable" after a power cut plunged the King's House, the official residence of the governor-general, into darkness.[150] As in 1977, there were street parties and commemorative events, and monuments were named to honour the occasion. A million people attended each day of the three-day main Jubilee celebration in London,[151] and the enthusiasm shown by the public for the Queen was greater than many journalists had expected.[152]

Though generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 she had keyhole surgery on both knees. In October 2006, she missed the opening of the new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back muscle that had been troubling her since the summer.[153]

In May 2007, The Daily Telegraph, citing unnamed sources, reported the Queen was "exasperated and frustrated" by the policies of the British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, that she was concerned the British Armed Forces were overstretched in Iraq and Afghanistan, and that she had raised concerns over rural and countryside issues with Blair.[154] She was, however, said to admire Blair's efforts to achieve peace in Northern Ireland.[155] She became the first British monarch to celebrate a diamond wedding anniversary in November 2007.[156] On 20 March 2008, at the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, the Queen attended the first Maundy service held outside England and Wales.[157]

Diamond Jubilee and longest-reigning British monarch

The Queen addressed the United Nations for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.[158] The UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, introduced her as "an anchor for our age".[159] During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a memorial garden for British victims of the September 11 attacks.[159] The Queen's visit to Australia in October 2011—her 16th visit since 1954—was called her "farewell tour" in the press because of her age.[160] By invitation of the Irish President, Mary McAleese, the Queen made the first state visit to the Republic of Ireland by a British monarch in May 2011.[161]

Day 194 - West Midlands Police - Royal Diamond Jubilee Visit (7555521830)
Visiting Birmingham in July 2012 as part of her Diamond Jubilee tour

Elizabeth's Diamond Jubilee in 2012 marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond. In a message released on Accession Day, Elizabeth wrote:

In this special year, as I dedicate myself anew to your service, I hope we will all be reminded of the power of togetherness and the convening strength of family, friendship and good neighbourliness ... I hope also that this Jubilee year will be a time to give thanks for the great advances that have been made since 1952 and to look forward to the future with clear head and warm heart.[162]

She and her husband undertook an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf.[163][164] On 4 June, Jubilee beacons were lit around the world.[165] In November, the Queen and her husband celebrated their sapphire wedding anniversary.[166] On 18 December, she became the first British sovereign to attend a peacetime Cabinet meeting since George III in 1781.[167]

The Queen, who opened the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, also opened the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in London, making her the first head of state to open two Olympic Games in two countries.[168] For the London Olympics, she played herself in a short film as part of the opening ceremony, alongside Daniel Craig as James Bond.[169] On 4 April 2013, she received an honorary BAFTA for her patronage of the film industry and was called "the most memorable Bond girl yet" at the award ceremony.[170]

On 3 March 2013, Elizabeth was admitted to King Edward VII's Hospital as a precaution after developing symptoms of gastroenteritis. She returned to Buckingham Palace the following day.[171] A week later, she signed the new Commonwealth charter.[172] Because of her age and the need for her to limit travelling, in 2013 she chose not to attend the biennial meeting of Commonwealth heads of government for the first time in 40 years. She was represented at the summit in Sri Lanka by her son, Prince Charles.[173] She had cataract surgery in May 2018.[174]

The Queen surpassed her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, to become the longest-lived British monarch on 21 December 2007, and the longest-reigning British monarch and longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in the world on 9 September 2015.[175][176][177] She is also the "longest-reigning sovereign in Canada's modern era".[178] (King Louis XIV of France reigned over Canada (New France) for longer than Elizabeth.[179]) She became the oldest current monarch after King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia died on 23 January 2015.[180][181] She later became the longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state following the death of King Bhumibol of Thailand on 13 October 2016,[182][183] and the oldest current head of state on the resignation of Robert Mugabe on 21 November 2017.[184][185] On 6 February 2017, she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee,[186] and on 20 November, she was the first British monarch to celebrate a platinum wedding anniversary.[187] Prince Philip had retired from his official duties as the Queen's consort in August.[188]

The Queen does not intend to abdicate,[189] though Prince Charles is expected to take on more of her duties as Elizabeth, who celebrated her 92nd birthday in 2018, carries out fewer public engagements.[190] On 20 April 2018, the government leaders of the Commonwealth of Nations announced that she will be succeeded by Prince Charles as head of the Commonwealth. The Queen stated it was her "sincere wish" that the Prince of Wales would follow her in the role.[191] Plans for her death and funeral have been extensively prepared by most British government and media organisations for decades.[192]

Public perception and character

Since Elizabeth rarely gives interviews, little is known of her personal feelings. As a constitutional monarch, she has not expressed her own political opinions in a public forum.[193] She does have a deep sense of religious and civic duty, and takes her coronation oath seriously.[194] Aside from her official religious role as Supreme Governor of the established Church of England, she is a member of that church and also of the national Church of Scotland.[195] She has demonstrated support for inter-faith relations and has met with leaders of other churches and religions, including five popes: Pius XII, John XXIII, John Paul II, Benedict XVI and Francis.[196] A personal note about her faith often features in her annual Christmas message broadcast to the Commonwealth. In 2000, she said:

To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. For me the teachings of Christ and my own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life. I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example.[197]

President Reagan and Queen Elizabeth II 1982
Elizabeth and Ronald Reagan riding at Windsor, June 1982

She is patron of over 600 organisations and charities.[198] Her main leisure interests include equestrianism and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh Corgis.[199] Her lifelong love of corgis began in 1933 with Dookie, the first corgi owned by her family.[200][201] Scenes of a relaxed, informal home life have occasionally been witnessed; she and her family, from time to time, prepare a meal together and do the washing up afterwards.[202]

In the 1950s, as a young woman at the start of her reign, Elizabeth was depicted as a glamorous "fairytale Queen".[203] After the trauma of the Second World War, it was a time of hope, a period of progress and achievement heralding a "new Elizabethan age".[204] Lord Altrincham's accusation in 1957 that her speeches sounded like those of a "priggish schoolgirl" was an extremely rare criticism.[205] In the late 1960s, attempts to portray a more modern image of the monarchy were made in the television documentary Royal Family and by televising Prince Charles's investiture as Prince of Wales.[206] In public, she took to wearing mostly solid-colour overcoats and decorative hats, which allow her to be seen easily in a crowd.[207]

At her Silver Jubilee in 1977, the crowds and celebrations were genuinely enthusiastic,[208] but in the 1980s, public criticism of the royal family increased, as the personal and working lives of Elizabeth's children came under media scrutiny.[209] Elizabeth's popularity sank to a low point in the 1990s. Under pressure from public opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public.[210] Discontent with the monarchy reached its peak on the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, though Elizabeth's personal popularity and support for the monarchy rebounded after her live television broadcast to the world five days after Diana's death.[211]

In November 1999, a referendum in Australia on the future of the Australian monarchy favoured its retention in preference to an indirectly elected head of state.[212] Polls in Britain in 2006 and 2007 revealed strong support for Elizabeth,[213] and in 2012, her Diamond Jubilee year, approval ratings hit 90 percent.[214] Referendums in Tuvalu in 2008 and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 2009 both rejected proposals to become republics.[215]

Elizabeth has been portrayed in a variety of media by many notable artists, including painters Pietro Annigoni, Peter Blake, Chinwe Chukwuogo-Roy, Terence Cuneo, Lucian Freud, Rolf Harris, Damien Hirst, Juliet Pannett, and Tai-Shan Schierenberg.[216][217] Notable photographers of Elizabeth have included Cecil Beaton, Yousuf Karsh, Annie Leibovitz, Lord Lichfield, Terry O'Neill, John Swannell, and Dorothy Wilding. The first official portrait of Elizabeth was taken by Marcus Adams in 1926.[218]


Sandringham House garden
Sandringham House, Elizabeth's private residence in Norfolk

Elizabeth's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many years. In 1971 Jock Colville, her former private secretary and a director of her bank, Coutts, estimated her wealth at £2 million (equivalent to about £28 million in 2018[219]).[220][221] In 1993, Buckingham Palace called estimates of £100 million "grossly overstated".[222] In 2002, she inherited an estate worth an estimated £70 million from her mother.[223] The Sunday Times Rich List 2017 estimated her personal wealth at £360 million, making her the 329th richest person in the UK.[224]

The Royal Collection, which includes thousands of historic works of art and the Crown Jewels, is not owned by the Queen personally but is held in trust,[225] as are her official residences, such as Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle,[226] and the Duchy of Lancaster, a property portfolio valued at £472 million in 2015.[227] Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle are personally owned by the Queen.[226] The British Crown Estate—with holdings of £12 billion in 2016[224]—is held in trust and cannot be sold or owned by Elizabeth in a personal capacity.[228]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 21 April 1926 – 11 December 1936: Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York
  • 11 December 1936 – 20 November 1947: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth
  • 20 November 1947 – 6 February 1952: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh
  • Since 6 February 1952: Her Majesty The Queen

Elizabeth has held many titles and honorary military positions throughout the Commonwealth, is Sovereign of many orders in her own countries, and has received honours and awards from around the world. In each of her realms she has a distinct title that follows a similar formula: Queen of Jamaica and her other realms and territories in Jamaica, Queen of Australia and her other realms and territories in Australia, etc. In the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, which are Crown dependencies rather than separate realms, she is known as Duke of Normandy and Lord of Mann, respectively. Additional styles include Defender of the Faith and Duke of Lancaster. When in conversation with the Queen, the practice is to initially address her as Your Majesty and thereafter as Ma'am.[229]


From 21 April 1944 until her accession, Elizabeth's arms consisted of a lozenge bearing the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing a Tudor rose and the first and third a cross of St George.[230] Upon her accession, she inherited the various arms her father held as sovereign. The Queen also possesses royal standards and personal flags for use in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, and elsewhere.[231]

Coat of Arms of Elizabeth, Heiress Presumptive (1944-1947)
Coat of Arms of Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh (1947-1952)
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Scotland)
Coat of arms of Canada (1957-1994)
Coat of arms of Princess Elizabeth (1944–1947)
Coat of arms of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh (1947–1952)
Coat of arms of Elizabeth II in England, Wales and Northern Ireland
Coat of arms of Elizabeth II in Scotland
Coat of arms of Elizabeth II in Canada (one of three versions used in her reign)[e]


Name Birth Marriage Their children Their grandchildren
Date Spouse
Charles, Prince of Wales 14 November 1948 29 July 1981
Divorced 28 August 1996
Lady Diana Spencer Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince George of Cambridge
Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
Prince Louis of Cambridge
Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex None
9 April 2005 Camilla Parker Bowles None
Anne, Princess Royal 15 August 1950 14 November 1973
Divorced 28 April 1992
Mark Phillips Peter Phillips Savannah Phillips
Isla Phillips
Zara Tindall Mia Tindall
Lena Tindall
12 December 1992 Timothy Laurence None
Prince Andrew, Duke of York 19 February 1960 23 July 1986
Divorced 30 May 1996
Sarah Ferguson Princess Beatrice of York None
Princess Eugenie None
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex 10 March 1964 19 June 1999 Sophie Rhys-Jones Lady Louise Windsor None
James, Viscount Severn None


Ancestors of Elizabeth II
8. Edward VII of the United Kingdom
4. George V of the United Kingdom
9. Princess Alexandra of Denmark
2. George VI of the United Kingdom
10. Francis, Duke of Teck
5. Princess Mary of Teck
11. Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge
1. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
12. Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
6. Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
13. Frances Dora Smith
3. Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
14. Charles Cavendish-Bentinck
7. Nina Cavendish-Bentinck
15. Carolina Burnaby[233]

See also


  1. ^ See Queen's Official Birthday for an explanation of why Elizabeth II's official birthdays are not on the same day as her actual one.
  2. ^ As a constitutional monarch, the Queen is head of state, but her executive powers are limited by constitutional rules.[2]
  3. ^ Her godparents were: King George V and Queen Mary; Lord Strathmore; Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (her paternal great-granduncle); Princess Mary, Viscountess Lascelles (her paternal aunt); and Lady Elphinstone (her maternal aunt).[5]
  4. ^ Television coverage of the coronation was instrumental in boosting the medium's popularity; the number of television licences in the United Kingdom doubled to 3 million,[70] and many of the more than 20 million British viewers watched television for the first time in the homes of their friends or neighbours.[71] In North America, just under 100 million viewers watched recorded broadcasts.[72]
  5. ^ Canada has used three versions of the arms during her reign. This version was used between 1957 and 1994.[232]


  1. ^ Her full name can be seen on her marriage certificate, which is signed by both her and her father.
  2. ^ "Britain's monarchy". The Guardian. 16 May 2002.
  3. ^ Bradford, p. 22; Brandreth, p. 103; Marr, p. 76; Pimlott, pp. 2–3; Lacey, pp. 75–76; Roberts, p. 74
  4. ^ Hoey, p. 40
  5. ^ Brandreth, p. 103; Hoey, p. 40
  6. ^ Brandreth, p. 103
  7. ^ Pimlott, p. 12
  8. ^ Williamson, p. 205
  9. ^ Lacey, p. 56; Nicolson, p. 433; Pimlott, pp. 14–16
  10. ^ Crawford, p. 26; Pimlott, p. 20; Shawcross, p. 21
  11. ^ Brandreth, p. 124; Lacey, pp. 62–63; Pimlott, pp. 24, 69
  12. ^ Brandreth, pp. 108–110; Lacey, pp. 159–161; Pimlott, pp. 20, 163
  13. ^ Brandreth, pp. 108–110
  14. ^ Brandreth, p. 105; Lacey, p. 81; Shawcross, pp. 21–22
  15. ^ Brandreth, pp. 105–106
  16. ^ Bond, p. 8; Lacey, p. 76; Pimlott, p. 3
  17. ^ Lacey, pp. 97–98
  18. ^ Marr, pp. 78, 85; Pimlott, pp. 71–73
  19. ^ Brandreth, p. 124; Crawford, p. 85; Lacey, p. 112; Marr, p. 88; Pimlott, p. 51; Shawcross, p. 25
  20. ^ a b "Her Majesty The Queen: Early life and education". Royal Household. 29 December 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  21. ^ Marr, p. 84; Pimlott, p. 47
  22. ^ a b Pimlott, p. 54
  23. ^ a b Pimlott, p. 55
  24. ^ Warwick, Christopher (2002). Princess Margaret: A Life of Contrasts. London: Carlton Publishing Group. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-233-05106-2.
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  28. ^ Crawford, pp. 137–141
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  32. ^ "No. 36973". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 March 1945. p. 1315.
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  85. ^ Lord Altrincham in National Review quoted by Brandreth, p. 374 and Roberts, p. 83
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  • Bond, Jennie (2006). Elizabeth: Eighty Glorious Years. London: Carlton Publishing Group. ISBN 1-84442-260-7
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  • Hoey, Brian (2002). Her Majesty: Fifty Regal Years. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-653136-9
  • Lacey, Robert (2002). Royal: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-85940-0
  • Macmillan, Harold (1972). Pointing The Way 1959–1961 London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-12411-1
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External links

Coronation of Elizabeth II

The coronation of Elizabeth II took place on 2 June 1953 at Westminster Abbey, London. Elizabeth II ascended the throne at the age of 25 upon the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952, being proclaimed queen by her privy and executive councils shortly afterwards. The coronation was held more than one year later because of the tradition of allowing an appropriate length of time to pass after a monarch dies before holding such festivals. It also gave the planning committees adequate time to make preparations for the ceremony. During the service, Elizabeth took an oath, was anointed with holy oil, invested with robes and regalia, and crowned Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).Celebrations took place across the Commonwealth realms and a commemorative medal was issued. It was the first British coronation to be televised; television cameras had not been allowed inside the abbey during her father's coronation in 1937. Elizabeth's was the fourth and last British coronation of the 20th century. It was estimated to have cost £1.57 million (c. £38,680,000 in 2016).

Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II

The Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II was a multinational celebration throughout 2012, that marked the 60th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II on 6 February 1952. The only other time in British history that a monarch celebrated a Diamond Jubilee was in 1897, when Queen Victoria celebrated hers.

Commemorative events were held throughout the Commonwealth of Nations. Unlike the Queen's Silver and Golden Jubilees, when the Queen toured most of her realms around the world, Elizabeth II and her husband the Duke of Edinburgh, toured only the United Kingdom. Other parts of the Commonwealth were toured by her children and grandchildren as her representatives.

Family tree of the British royal family

This is the British monarchs' family tree, from James VI & I (whose accession united the thrones of England and Scotland) to the present monarch, Elizabeth II.

Flags of Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth II has and has had a variety of flags to represent her personally and as head of state of 16 independent nations around the world. They are usually used on any building, ship, car, or aircraft where she is present.

These heraldic flags are usually a nation's coat of arms in banner form.

Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II

The Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II was the international celebration held in 2002 marking the 50th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II to the thrones of seven countries, upon the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952, and was intended by the Queen to be both a commemoration of her 50 years as monarch and an opportunity for her to officially and personally thank her people for their loyalty. Despite the deaths of her sister, Princess Margaret, and mother, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, in February and March 2002 respectively, and predictions in the media that the anniversary would be a non-event, the jubilee was marked with large-scale and popular events throughout London in June of the same year, bookended by events throughout the Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth attended all of the official celebrations as scheduled, along with her husband, the Duke of Edinburgh; over twelve months, the royal couple journeyed more than 40,000 miles (64,000 km) to the Caribbean, Australia, New Zealand, then around the United Kingdom, and wrapped up the jubilee year in Canada. Numerous landmarks, parks, buildings, and the like, were also named in honour of the golden jubilee and commemorative medals, stamps, and other symbols were issued.

Head of the Commonwealth

The Head of the Commonwealth is the "symbol of the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations (commonly known as the Commonwealth), an intergovernmental organisation that currently comprises fifty-three sovereign states. There is no set term of office or term limit and the role itself involves no part in the day-to-day governance of any of the member states within the Commonwealth.

By 1949, the British Commonwealth was a group of eight countries, each having George VI as king. India, however, desired to become a republic, but not depart the Commonwealth by doing so. This was accommodated by the creation of the title Head of the Commonwealth for the King and India became a republic in 1950. Subsequently, many other nations including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Singapore ceased to recognise the monarch of the United Kingdom as their respective head of state, but as members of the Commonwealth of Nations recognised the British monarch as Head of the Commonwealth.The title is currently held by Queen Elizabeth II, George VI's eldest daughter. Charles, Prince of Wales, was appointed her designated successor at the 2018 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.

House of Windsor

The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The dynasty is of German paternal descent and was originally a branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, itself derived from the House of Wettin, which succeeded the House of Hanover to the British monarchy following the death of Queen Victoria, wife of Albert, Prince Consort.

The name was changed from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the English Windsor (from "Windsor Castle") in 1917 because of anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I. There have been four British monarchs of the house of Windsor to date: three kings and the present queen, Elizabeth II. During the reign of the Windsors, major changes took place in British society. The British Empire participated in the First and Second World Wars, ending up on the winning side both times, but subsequently lost its status as a superpower during decolonisation. Much of Ireland broke with the United Kingdom and the remnants of the Empire became the Commonwealth of Nations.

The current head of the house is monarch of sixteen sovereign states. These are the United Kingdom (where they are based), Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. As well as these separate monarchies, there are also three Crown dependencies, fourteen British Overseas Territories and two associated states of New Zealand.

List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the Government of the United Kingdom, and chairs Cabinet meetings. There is no specific date for when the office of Prime Minister first appeared, as the role was not created but rather evolved over a period of time through a merger of duties. The term had been used in the House of Commons as early as 1805, and it was certainly in parliamentary use by the 1880s. In 1905 the post of Prime Minister was officially given recognition in the order of precedence. Modern historians generally consider Sir Robert Walpole, who led the government of Great Britain for over twenty years from 1721, as the first Prime Minister. Walpole is also the longest-serving British prime minister by this definition. However, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was the first and Margaret Thatcher the longest-serving Prime Minister officially referred to as such in the order of precedence. The first to officially use the title was Benjamin Disraeli, who signed the Treaty of Berlin as "Prime Minister of her Britannic Majesty" in 1878.Strictly, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Ireland) was William Pitt the Younger. The first Prime Minister of the current United Kingdom, i.e. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was Bonar Law, although the country was not renamed officially until 1927, when Stanley Baldwin was the serving Prime Minister.Due to the gradual evolution of the post of Prime Minister, the title is applied to early prime ministers only retrospectively; this has sometimes given rise to academic dispute. Lord Bath and Lord Waldegrave are sometimes listed as prime ministers. Bath was invited to form a ministry by George II when Henry Pelham resigned in 1746, as was Waldegrave in 1757 after the dismissal of William Pitt the Elder, who dominated the affairs of government during the Seven Years' War. Neither was able to command sufficient parliamentary support to form a government; Bath stepped down after two days, and Waldegrave after three. Modern academic consensus does not consider either man to have held office as Prime Minister, and they are therefore not listed.

List of prime ministers of Elizabeth II

Since succeeding her father on 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II has been head of state of 32 different independent states; currently, there are 16 states, called Commonwealth realms. Within the Westminster system in each realm, the Queen's government is headed by a prime minister. Appointment and dismissal of prime ministers are common reserve powers that can be exercised by the Queen or her governors-general.

This list does not cover Commonwealth nations that are not Commonwealth realms, nor holders of offices of prime minister in colonies or sub-national entities such as states or provinces.

The Queen has had over 160 individuals serve as her realms' prime ministers throughout her reign, the first new appointment being Dudley Senanayake as Prime Minister of Ceylon and the most recent being Scott Morrison as Prime Minister of Australia. Several of the Queen's prime ministers from various realms have been appointed for life to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.

List of titles and honours of Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (born 21 April 1926) has held numerous titles and honours, both during and before her time as monarch of each of her Commonwealth realms. Each is listed below; where two dates are shown, the first indicates the date of receiving the title or award (the title as Princess Elizabeth of York

being given as from her birth), and the second indicates the date of its loss or renunciation.

Order of Canada

The Order of Canada (French: Ordre du Canada) is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, which is the personal gift of Canada's monarch.

To coincide with the centennial of Canadian Confederation, the three-tiered order was established in 1967 as a fellowship that recognizes the outstanding merit or distinguished service of Canadians who make a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "they desire a better country", a phrase taken from Hebrews 11:16. The three tiers of the order are Companion, Officer, and Member; specific individuals may be given extraordinary membership and deserving non-Canadians may receive honorary appointment into each grade.

The Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is Sovereign of the order and the serving governor general, currently Julie Payette, is its Chancellor and Principal Companion and administers the order on behalf of the Sovereign. Appointees to the order are recommended by an advisory board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of August 2017, 6,898 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada, including scientists, musicians, politicians, artists, athletes, business people, film stars, benefactors, and others. Some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial. Appointees are presented with insignia and receive the right to armorial bearings.

Queen Elizabeth 2

Queen Elizabeth 2, often referred to simply as QE2, is a floating hotel and retired ocean liner built for the Cunard Line which was operated by Cunard as both a transatlantic liner and a cruise ship from 1969 to 2008. Since 18 April 2018 she has been operating as a floating hotel in Dubai.QE2 was designed for the transatlantic service from her home port of Southampton, UK, to New York, and was named after the earlier Cunard liner RMS Queen Elizabeth. She served as the flagship of the line from 1969 until succeeded by RMS Queen Mary 2 in 2004. Designed in Cunard's then headquarters and regional offices in Liverpool and Southampton respectively, and built in Clydebank, Scotland, QE2 was considered the last of the great transatlantic ocean liners until Queen Mary 2 entered service.

The QE2 was also the last oil-fired passenger steamship to cross the Atlantic in scheduled liner service until she was refitted with a modern diesel powerplant in 1986/1987. During almost forty years of service, Queen Elizabeth 2 undertook regular world cruises and later operated predominantly as a cruise ship, sailing out of Southampton, England. QE2 had no running mate and never ran a year-round weekly transatlantic express service to New York. QE2 did, however, continue the Cunard tradition of regular scheduled transatlantic crossings every year of her service life. QE2 was never given a Royal Mail Ship designation, instead carrying the SS and later MV or MS prefixes in official documents.QE2 was retired from active Cunard service on 27 November 2008. She had been acquired by the private equity arm of Dubai World, which planned to begin conversion of the vessel to a 500-room floating hotel moored at the Palm Jumeirah, Dubai. The 2008 financial crisis, however, intervened and the ship was laid up at Dubai Drydocks and later Port Rashid. Subsequent conversion plans were announced by Istithmar in 2012 and by the Oceanic Group in 2013 but these both stalled. In November, 2015 Cruise Arabia & Africa quoted DP World chairman Ahmed Sultan Bin Sulayem as saying that QE2 would not be scrapped and in March, 2017, a Dubai-based construction company announced it had been contracted to refurbish the ship. The restored QE2 opened to visitors on 18 April 2018, with a soft opening, with discounted rates and only five of the planned 13 restaurants and bars completed. The grand opening was set for October 2018.

Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal

The Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal is a commemorative medal instituted to celebrate the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II on 2 June 1953.

Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal

The Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal or The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Medal is a commemorative medal created in 2012 to mark the sixtieth anniversary of Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the Commonwealth realms. There are three versions of the medal: one issued by the United Kingdom, another by Canada, and the third for the Caribbean realms of Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. The ribbons used with the Canadian and British versions of the medal are the same, while the ribbon of the Caribbean medal differs slightly. The different iterations of the medal were presented to tens of thousands of recipients throughout the Commonwealth realms in the jubilee year.

Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal

The Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal (French: Médaille du jubilé de la Reine Elizabeth II) or the Queen's Golden Jubilee Medal was a commemorative medal created in 2002 to mark the fiftieth anniversary of Elizabeth II's accession. The Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal was awarded in Canada to nominees who contributed to public life. The Queen's Golden Jubilee Medal was awarded to active personnel in the British Armed Forces and Emergency Personnel who had completed 5 years of qualifying service.

Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal

The Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal (French: Médaille du jubilé de la reine Élisabeth II) was a commemorative medal created in 1977 to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of Elizabeth II's accession in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The medal was physically identical in all realms where it was awarded, save for Canada, where it contained unique elements. As an internationally distributed award, the Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal holds a different place in each country's order of precedence for honours.

Royal Family Order of Elizabeth II

The Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II is an honour bestowed on female members of the British royal family by Queen Elizabeth II. The order is worn on formal occasions.The order should not be confused with the Mistress of the Robes badge of office worn by the Dowager Duchess of Grafton and previously by her predecessor as Mistress of the Robes, the Dowager Duchess of Devonshire.

Royal corgis

Queen Elizabeth's corgis were the Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs owned by Queen Elizabeth II and her parents, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. Fond of corgis since she was a small child, Elizabeth II has owned more than 30 corgis since she became Queen of the Commonwealth realms in 1952.In 2007, Elizabeth II had five corgis: Monty, Emma, Linnet, Willow and Holly; five cocker spaniels: Bisto, Oxo, Flash, Spick and Span; and four dorgis (dachshund-corgi crossbreeds): Cider, Berry, Vulcan and Candy. Monty, Willow and Holly appeared in the 2012 Olympic opening ceremony when, in a sketch, Daniel Craig (in character as James Bond) arrived at Buckingham Palace to escort the Queen to the event. Monty had previously belonged to the Queen Mother, and died in September 2012. It was reported in 2015 that the Queen stopped breeding corgis so as not to leave any behind when she died. Her final corgi, Willow, died in April of 2018. Two corgis, Vulcan and Candy, are still alive.The royal corgis are known all across the world and have been portrayed in many ways such as statues and works of art. For example, the crown coin which commemorated the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II shows her with a corgi.

Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II

The Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II marked the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. It was celebrated with large-scale parties and parades throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth throughout 1977, culminating in June with the official "Jubilee Days", held to coincide with the Queen's Official Birthday. The anniversary date itself was commemorated in church services across the land on 6 February 1977, and continued throughout the month. In March, preparations started for large parties in every major city of the United Kingdom, as well as for smaller ones for countless individual streets throughout the country.

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