Elite

In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society. Defined by the Cambridge Dictionary, the "elite" are "those people or organizations that are considered the best or most powerful compared to others of a similar type." [1]

The Royal Feast of Belshazzar Blaine and the Money Kings (1884)
Political cartoon from October 1884, showing wealthy plutocrats feasting at a table while a poor family begs beneath

Identity and social structure

American sociologist C. Wright Mills wrote of the "elite" in his 1957 book The Power Elite as "those political, economic, and military circles, which as an intricate set of overlapping small but dominant groups share decisions having at least national consequences. Insofar as national events are decided, the power elite are those who decide them".[2] Mills states that the power elite members recognize other members' mutual exalted position in society.[3] "As a rule, 'they accept one another, understand one another, marry one another, tend to work, and to think, if not together at least alike'."[4][5] "It is a well-regulated existence where education plays a critical role. Youthful upper-class members attend prominent preparatory schools, which not only open doors to such elite universities as Harvard, Columbia, Yale, and Princeton, but also to the universities' highly exclusive clubs. These memberships in turn pave the way to the prominent social clubs located in all major cities and serving as sites for important business contacts".[6][7]

Elitist privilege

According to Mills, men receive the education necessary for elitist privilege to obtain their background and contacts, allowing them to enter three branches of the power elite, which are;

  • The Political Leadership: Mills contended that since the end of World War II, corporate leaders had become more prominent in the political process, with a decline in central decision-making for professional politicians.
  • The Military Circle: In Mills' time a heightened concern about warfare existed, making top military leaders and such issues as defense funding and personnel recruitment very important. Most prominent corporate leaders and politicians were strong proponents of military spending.
  • The Corporate Elite: According to Mills, in the 1950s when the military emphasis was pronounced, it was corporate leaders working with prominent military officers who dominated the development of policies. These two groups tended to be mutually supportive.[8][9]

According to Mills, the governing elite in the United States primarily draws its members from political leaders, including the president, and a handful of key cabinet members, as well as close advisers, major corporate owners and directors, and high-ranking military officers.[10] These groups overlap and elites tend to circulate from one sector to another, consolidating power in the process.[11]

Unlike the ruling class, a social formation based on heritage and social ties, the power elite is characterized by the organizational structures through which its wealth is acquired. According to Mills, the power elite rose from "the managerial reorganization of the propertied classes into the more or less unified stratum of the corporate rich".[12] Domhoff further clarified the differences in the two terms: "The upper class as a whole does not do the ruling. Instead, class rule is manifested through the activities of a wide variety of organizations and institutions...Leaders within the upper class join with high-level employees in the organizations they control to make up what will be called the power elite".[13]

The Marxist theoretician Nikolai Bukharin anticipated the elite theory in his 1929 work, Imperialism and World Economy: "present-day state power is nothing but an entrepreneurs' company of tremendous power, headed even by the same persons that occupy the leading positions in the banking and syndicate offices".[14]

Power elite

The power elite is a term used by American sociologist C. Wright Mills to describe a relatively small, loosely connected group of individuals who dominate American policy making. This group includes bureaucratic, corporate, intellectual, military, media, and government elites who control the principal institutions in the United States and whose opinions and actions influence the decisions of the policymakers.[15]

The basis for membership of a power elite is institutional power, namely an influential position within a prominent private or public organization.[6] A study of the French corporate elite has shown that social class continues to hold sway in determining who joins this elite group, with those from the upper-middle class tending to dominate.[16] Another study (published in 2002) of power elites in the United States under President George W. Bush (in office 2001-2009) identified 7,314 institutional positions of power encompassing 5,778 individuals.[17] A later study of U.S. society noted demographic characteristics of this elite group as follows:

Age 
Corporate leaders aged about 60; heads of foundations, law, education, and civic organizations aged around 62; government employees aged about 56.
Gender 
Men contribute roughly 80% in the political realm whereas women contribute roughly only 20% in the political realm. In the economic denomination, as of October 2017, only 32 (6.4%) of the fortune 500 CEOs are women.[18]
Ethnicity 
Jews dominate in the power elite, with Protestants representing about 80% of the top business leaders, and about 73% of members of Congress. As of October 2017, only 4 of the fortune 500 CEOs are African American.[18] In similarly low proportions, as of October 2017, 10 of the fortune 500 CEOs are Latino, and 2% are Asian.[18]
Education 
Nearly all the leaders have a college education, with almost half graduating with advanced degrees. About 54% of the big-business leaders, and 42% of the government elite graduated from just 12 prestigious universities with large endowments.
Social clubs 
Most holders of top positions in the power elite possess exclusive membership to one or more social clubs. About a third belong to a small number of especially prestigious clubs in major cities like London, New York City, Chicago, Boston, and Washington, D.C.[19]

Impacts on economy

In the 1970s an organized set of policies promoted reduced taxes, especially for the wealthy, and a steady erosion of the welfare safety net.[20] Starting with legislation in the 1980s, the wealthy banking community successfully lobbied for reduced regulation.[21] The wide range of financial and social capital accessible to the power elite gives their members heavy influence in economic and political decision making, allowing them to move toward attaining desired outcomes. Sociologist Christopher Doob gives a hypothetical alternative, stating that these elite individuals would consider themselves the overseers of the national economy. Also appreciating that it is not only a moral, but a practical necessity to focus beyond their group interests. Doing so would hopefully alleviate various destructive conditions affecting large numbers of less affluent citizens.[6]

Global politics and hegemony

Mills determined that there is an "inner core" of the power elite involving individuals that are able to move from one seat of institutional power to another. They therefore, have a wide range of knowledge and interests in many influential organizations, and are, as Mills describes, "professional go-betweens of economic, political, and military affairs".[22] Relentless expansion of capitalism and the globalizing of economic and military power, binds leaders of the power elite into complex relationships with nation states that generate global-scale class divisions. Sociologist Manuel Castells writes in The Rise of the Network Society that contemporary globalization does not mean that "everything in the global economy is global".[23] So, a global economy becomes characterized by fundamental social inequalities with respect to the "level of integration, competitive potential and share of the benefits from economic growth".[24] Castells cites a kind of "double movement" where on one hand, "valuable segments of territories and people" become "linked in the global networks of value making and wealth appropriation", while, on the other, "everything and everyone" that is not valued by established networks gets "switched off...and ultimately discarded".[24] The wide-ranging effects of global capitalism ultimately affect everyone on the planet, as economies around the world come to depend on the functioning of global financial markets, technologies, trade and labor.

See also

References

  1. ^ https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/type
  2. ^ Doob, Christopher (2013). Social inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. p. 18.
  3. ^ Doob, Christopher (2013). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. 2013: Pearson Education Inc. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-205-79241-2.
  4. ^ Doob, Christopher (2013). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-205-79241-2.
  5. ^ Mills, Charles W. The Power Elite. pp. 4–5.
  6. ^ a b c Doob, Christopher (2013). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Upper Saddle River, new Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-205-79241-2.
  7. ^ Mills, Charles W. (1956). The Power Elite. pp. 63–67.
  8. ^ Doob, Christopher (2013). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-205-79241-2.
  9. ^ Mills, Charles W. (1956). The Power Elite. pp. 274–276.
  10. ^ Powell, Jason L.; Chamberlain, John M. (2007). "Power elite". In Ritzer, George; Ryan, J. Michael. The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 466. ISBN 978-1-4051-8353-6.
  11. ^ Powell, Jason L. (2007) "power elite" in George Ritzer (ed.) The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing, 2007, pp. 3602-3603
  12. ^ Mills, Charles W. The Power Elite, p 147.
  13. ^ Domhoff, William G, Who Rules America Now? (1997), p. 2.
  14. ^ Bukharin, Nikolai. Imperialism and World Economy (1929)
  15. ^ power elite. (n.d.). The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Retrieved January 18, 2015, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/power%20elite
  16. ^ Maclean, Mairi; Harvey, Charles; Kling, Gerhard (2014-06-01). "Pathways to Power: Class, Hyper-Agency and the French Corporate Elite". Organization Studies. 35 (6): 825–855. doi:10.1177/0170840613509919. ISSN 0170-8406.
  17. ^ Dye, Thomas (2002). Who's Running America? The Bush Restoration, 7th edition. ISBN 9780130974624.
  18. ^ a b c "Fortune 500 list". Fortune. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  19. ^ Doob, Christopher (2012). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in U.S. Society. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education. p. 42.
  20. ^ Jenkins and Eckert 2000
  21. ^ Francis 2007
  22. ^ Mills, Charles W. The Power Elite, p 288.
  23. ^ Castells, Manuel (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. p. 101. ISBN 978-1557866172.
  24. ^ a b Castells, Manuel (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. p. 108. ISBN 978-1557866172.

Further reading

External links

All Elite Wrestling

All Elite Wrestling, LLC (AEW) is an American professional wrestling promotion founded in 2019. Its inception was announced by entrepreneurs Shahid Khan and his son Tony, with the former acting as the promotion's lead investor, while the latter serves as president and CEO of the company. Professional wrestlers Cody as well as Matt and Nick Jackson, collectively known as The Elite, are the promotion's inaugural contracted talents, serving as both in-ring performers and executive vice presidents alongside fellow professional wrestler and co-founder of The Elite Kenny Omega, whose signing was announced in February 2019.

Beretta 92

The Beretta 92 (also Beretta 96 and Beretta 98) is a series of semi-automatic pistols designed and manufactured by Beretta of Italy. The model 92 was designed in 1972 and production of many variants in different calibers continues today.

The United States military replaced the M1911A1 .45 ACP pistol in 1985 with the Beretta 92FS, designated as the M9.

Darkseid's Elite

Darkseid's Elite are supervillains and fictional characters created in Jack Kirby's Fourth World miniseries in DC Comics.

Duke Blue Devils men's basketball

The Duke Blue Devils men's basketball team represents Duke University in NCAA Division I college basketball and competes in the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC). The team is fourth all-time in wins of any NCAA men's basketball program, and is coached by Mike Krzyzewski.

Duke has won 5 NCAA Championships (tied with Indiana for fourth all-time behind UCLA, Kentucky and North Carolina) and appeared in 11 Championship Games (third all-time) and 16 Final Fours (fourth all-time behind North Carolina, UCLA, and Kentucky), and has an NCAA-best .755 NCAA tournament winning percentage. Eleven Duke players have been named the National Player of the Year, and 71 players have been selected in the NBA Draft. Additionally, Duke has 36 players named All-Americans (chosen 60 times) and 14 Academic All-Americans. Duke has been the Atlantic Coast Conference Champions a record 20 times, and also lays claim to 19 ACC regular season titles. Prior to joining the ACC, Duke won the Southern Conference championships five times. Duke has also finished the season ranked No. 1 in the AP poll seven times and is the all time leader in total weeks ranked as the number one team in the nation by the AP with 135 weeks. Additionally, the Blue Devils have the second longest streak in the AP Top 25 in history with 200 consecutive appearances from 1996 to 2007, trailing only UCLA's 221 consecutive polls from 1966 to 1980. As a result of such success, ESPN, in 2008, named Duke the most prestigious college basketball program since the 1985–86 season, noting that "by any measure of success, Duke is king of the hill in college basketball in the 64-team era of the NCAA tournament." Since that designation, Duke has won two additional national titles in 2010 and 2015.

Elite Ice Hockey League

The Elite Ice Hockey League (EIHL) is an ice hockey league in the United Kingdom. Formed in 2003 following the demise of the Ice Hockey Superleague, it is the highest level of ice hockey competition in the United Kingdom.

The league currently consists of eleven teams, with representation from all four nations of the United Kingdom – the only league in any sport to do so. In fourteen completed seasons the league has been won by five different teams.

The day-to-day operation of the league is overseen by chairman Tony Smith, Director of Hockey Andy French, and a board of directors. Disciplinary matters are handled by Director of Discipline and former referee Simon Kirkham. The level below the Elite League is the National Ice Hockey League. A system of promotion and relegation is not operated by the Elite League; teams enter the league on the basis of a decision by the board of directors.

Elite Model Management

Elite Model Management is a chain modeling agency that originated in Paris, France in 1972 and expanded to numerous locations throughout the globe. It is a subsidiary of Elite World S.A.

Elite Panel of ICC Referees

The Emirates Elite Panel of ICC Referees is composed of former international cricket players who are appointed by the ICC to oversee all Test match, One Day International and Twenty20 International cricket matches in the capacity of Match referee. The referees are ultimately in charge of all international cricket matches, and act as the ICC's representative at the grounds. In addition they are responsible for imposing penalties for infringements of the ICC Code of Conduct, and so being ex-international cricketers they can ensure that the punishments dealt out are just. The referees also form part of the ICC's umpire performance review, submitting reports about the umpires after each match.

Elitism

Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite—a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience—are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.

Alternatively, the term elitism may be used to describe a situation in which power is concentrated in the hands of a limited number of people. Oppositions of elitism include anti-elitism, egalitarianism, populism and political theory of pluralism.

Elite theory is the sociological or political science analysis of elite influence in society: elite theorists regard pluralism as a utopian ideal. Elitism is closely related to social class and what sociologists call social stratification, which in the Anglo Saxon tradition have long been anchored in the "blue blood" claims of hereditary nobility. Members of the upper classes are sometimes known as the social elite. The term elitism is also sometimes used to denote situations in which a group of people claiming to possess high abilities or simply an in-group or cadre grant themselves extra privileges at the expense of others. This form of elitism may be described as discrimination.

Nike, Inc.

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Osprey Publishing

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Populism

Populism is a range of political approaches that deliberately appeal to 'the people', often juxtaposing this group against the "elite". There is no single definition of the term, which developed in the 19th century and has been used to mean various things since that time. In Europe, few politicians or political groups describe themselves as 'populist' and in political discourse the term is often applied to others pejoratively. Within political science and other social sciences, various different definitions of populism have been used, although some scholars propose rejecting the term altogether.

A common framework for interpreting populism is known as the ideational approach: this defines populism as an ideology which presents "the people" as a morally good force against "the elite", who are perceived as corrupt and self-serving. Populists differ in how "the people" are defined, but it can be based along class, ethnic, or national lines. Populists typically present "the elite" as comprising the political, economic, cultural, and media establishment, depicted as a homogeneous entity and accused of placing their own interests, and often the interests of other groups—such as foreign countries or immigrants—above the interests of "the people". According to this approach, populism is a thin-ideology which is combined with other, more substantial thick ideologies such as nationalism, liberalism, or socialism. Thus, populists can be found at different locations along the left–right political spectrum and there is both left-wing populism and right-wing populism.

Other scholars active in the social sciences have defined the term populism in different ways. According to the popular agency definition used by some historians of United States history, populism refers to popular engagement of the population in political decision making. An approach associated with the scholar Ernesto Laclau presents populism as an emancipatory social force through which marginalised groups challenge dominant power structures. Some economists have used the term in reference to governments which engage in substantial public spending financed by foreign loans, resulting in hyperinflation and emergency measures. In popular discourse, the term has sometimes been used synonymously with demagogy, to describe politicians who present overly simplistic answers to complex questions in a highly emotional manner, or with opportunism, to characterise politicians who seek to please voters without rational consideration as to the best course of action.

The term populism came into use in the late 19th century alongside the promotion of democracy. In the United States, it was closely associated with the People's Party, while in the Russian Empire it was linked to the agrarian socialist Narodnik movement. During the 20th century, various parties emerged in liberal democracies that were described as populist. In the 21st century, the term became increasingly popular, used in reference largely to left-wing groups in the Latin American pink tide and current right-wing conservative wave, right-wing groups in Europe, and both right and leftist groups in the U.S. In 2017 'populism' was chosen as the Cambridge Dictionary Word of the Year.

Russian Superleague

The Russian Superleague (Russian: Чемпионат России Суперлига, Russian Championship Superleague), commonly abbreviated as RSL, was the highest division of the main professional ice hockey league in Russia. It was considered the second best league in the world, after the National Hockey League (NHL) of North America. It was a part of the Russian Pro Hockey League which was composed of three divisions — the Superleague, Major League (Vysshaya Liga), and First League (Pervaya Liga).

The league was rebranded after the 2007/2008 season as the KHL. The KHL absorbed all 20 teams from the previous RSL season, for a total of 24 for its inaugural campaign.

Shahid Khan

Shahid "Shad" Khan (Urdu: شاہد خان‬‎; born July 18, 1950), is a Pakistani-American billionaire businessman. He is the owner of the Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League (NFL) and Fulham F.C. of the English Premier League and Professional wrestling promotion All Elite Wrestling (AEW) where he is lead investor. Khan is also the owner of the automobile parts manufacturer Flex-N-Gate in Urbana, Illinois.

Khan was featured on the front cover of Forbes magazine in 2012, associating him as the face of the American Dream. As of February 2019, Khan's net worth is $7 billion. He is ranked 65th in the Forbes 400 list of richest Americans, and is overall the 217th wealthiest person in the world. He is also the richest person of Pakistani origin.

Special forces

Special forces and special operations forces (SOF) are military units trained to conduct special operations. NATO has defined special operations as "military activities conducted by specially designated, organized, trained, and equipped forces, manned with selected personnel, using unconventional tactics, techniques, and modes of employment".Special forces emerged in the early 20th century, with a significant growth in the field during the Second World War, when "every major army involved in the fighting" created formations devoted to special operations behind enemy lines. Depending on the country, special forces may perform functions including airborne operations, counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism, foreign internal defense, covert ops, direct action, hostage rescue, high-value targets/manhunting, intelligence operations, mobility operations, and unconventional warfare.

In Russian-speaking countries special forces of any country are typically called spetsnaz, an acronym for "special purpose". In the United States the term special forces often refers specifically to the US Army's Special Forces, while the term special operations forces (SOF) is used more broadly for these types of unit.

Swedish Hockey League

The Swedish Hockey League (SHL; Swedish: Svenska hockeyligan) is the highest division in the Swedish ice hockey system. The league currently consists of 14 teams. The league was founded in 1975, and while Swedish ice hockey champions have been crowned through various formats since 1922, the title, as well as the Le Mat Trophy, have been awarded to the winner of the SHL playoffs since the league's inaugural 1975–76 season.

As of 2010–11, the SHL was the world's most evenly matched professional ice hockey league. During the 2011–12 season, the SHL was the most well attended ice hockey league in Europe, averaging 6,385 spectators per game, however in 2013–14, the SHL was third best in Europe, with an attendance average of 5,978. SHL was the second most popular sports team league within Sweden, after the football league Allsvenskan, which in the 2013 season had an average attendance of 7,627.The league was founded in 1975 as Elitserien (in English often called the Swedish Elite League or SEL), and initially featured 10 teams, though this was expanded to 12 for the 1987–88 season. The league was renamed the SHL in 2013, and in 2014, a number of format changes were announced, including an expansion to 14 teams to be finalized prior to the 2015–16 season, and a new format for promotion from and relegation to HockeyAllsvenskan, the second tier league.

UEFA stadium categories

UEFA stadium categories are categories for football stadiums laid out in the UEFA Stadium Infrastructure Regulations. Using these regulations, stadiums are rated as category one, two, three, or four (renamed from elite) in ascending ranking order. These categories replaced the previous method of ranking stadiums on one to five star scale in 2006. A stadium must be category four to host games in the playoffs of the qualifying stage for the UEFA Champions League or any game in the main competition. Category four is also required to host any game in the main competition of the UEFA Europa League or the UEFA European Football Championship. UEFA does not publish lists of stadiums fulfilling the criteria for any of the categories defined in the UEFA Stadium Infrastructure Regulations.

White Anglo-Saxon Protestant

White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) are a social group of wealthy and well-connected white Americans, of Protestant and predominantly British ancestry, who trace their ancestry to the American colonial period.

Until at least the 1960s, the group dominated American society and culture and the leadership of the Whig and Republican parties. They were usually well placed in major financial, business, legal and academic institutions and had close to a monopoly of elite society due to intermarriage and nepotism.During the latter half of the twentieth century, outsider ethnic and racial groups grew in influence and WASP dominance weakened. Americans are increasingly criticizing the WASP hegemony and disparaging WASPs as the epitome of "the Establishment". The Random House Unabridged Dictionary (1998) says the term is "Sometimes Disparaging and Offensive". The term WASP is often used as a pejorative to classify their historical dominance over the financial, cultural, academic, and legal institutions of the United States.Sociologists sometimes use the term very broadly to include all Protestant Americans of Northern European or Northwestern European ancestry regardless of their class or power. The term is also used in Australia, New Zealand and Canada for similar elites.

Women's Premier Soccer League Elite

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Xbox 360

The Xbox 360 is a home video game console developed by Microsoft. As the successor to the original Xbox, it is the second console in the Xbox series. It competed with Sony's PlayStation 3 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. It was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information announced later that month at the 2005 Electronic Entertainment Expo.

The Xbox 360 features an online service, Xbox Live, which was expanded from its previous iteration on the original Xbox and received regular updates during the console's lifetime. Available in free and subscription-based varieties, Xbox Live allows users to: play games online; download games (through Xbox Live Arcade) and game demos; purchase and stream music, television programs, and films through the Xbox Music and Xbox Video portals; and access third-party content services through media streaming applications. In addition to online multimedia features, it allows users to stream media from local PCs. Several peripherals have been released, including wireless controllers, expanded hard drive storage, and the Kinect motion sensing camera. The release of these additional services and peripherals helped the Xbox brand grow from gaming-only to encompassing all multimedia, turning it into a hub for living-room computing entertainment.Launched worldwide across 2005–2006, the Xbox 360 was initially in short supply in many regions, including North America and Europe. The earliest versions of the console suffered from a high failure rate, indicated by the so-called "Red Ring of Death", necessitating an extension of the device's warranty period. Microsoft released two redesigned models of the console: the Xbox 360 S in 2010, and the Xbox 360 E in 2013. As of June 2014, 84 million Xbox 360 consoles have been sold worldwide, making it the seventh-highest-selling video game console in history, and the highest-selling console made by an American company. Although not the best-selling console of its generation, the Xbox 360 was deemed by TechRadar to be the most influential through its emphasis on digital media distribution and multiplayer gaming on Xbox Live.The Xbox 360's successor, the Xbox One, was released on November 22, 2013. On April 20, 2016, Microsoft announced that it would end the production of new Xbox 360 hardware, although the company will continue to support the platform.

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