Elisa Bonaparte

Maria Anna (Marie Anne) Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi Levoy (3 January 1777 – 7 August 1820), Princesse Française, was an Italian ruler, Princess of Lucca and Piombino (1805-1814), Princess of Lucca (1805-1814), Grand Duchess of Tuscany (1809-1814) and Countess of Compignano by appointment of her brother Napoleon Bonaparte.

She was the fourth surviving child and eldest surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. A younger sister of Napoleon Bonaparte, she had elder brothers Joseph and Lucien, and younger siblings Louis, Pauline, Caroline and Jerome.

As Princess of Lucca and Piombino, then Grand Duchess of Tuscany, she became Napoleon's only sister to possess political power. Their relations were sometimes strained due to her sharp tongue. Highly interested in the arts, particularly the theatre, she encouraged them in the territories over which she ruled.

Elisa Bonaparte
Portrait of Elisa Bonaparte
Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Reign3 March 1809 – 1 February 1814
PredecessorLouis II as King of Etruria
SuccessorFerdinand III
Princess of Lucca and Piombino
Reign19 March 1805 – 18 March 1814
SuccessorMaria Luisa as Duchess of Lucca
Born3 January 1777
Ajaccio, Corsica, France
Died7 August 1820 (aged 43)
Trieste, Austrian Empire
SpouseFelice Pasquale Baciocchi
IssueFelix Napoléon Baciocchi
Elisa Napoléone Baciocchi
Jérôme Charles Baciocchi
Frédéric Napoléon Baciocchi
Full name
Maria Anna Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi Levoy
HouseBonaparte
FatherCarlo Buonaparte
MotherLetizia Ramolino
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Life

Youth

Lorenzo bartolini, ritratto di elisa bonaparte da bambina, gesso
Élisa Bonaparte as a child (Lorenzo Bartolini)

Élisa was born in Ajaccio, Corsica. She was christened Maria-Anna, but later officially adopted the nickname "Élisa" (her brother Lucien, to whom she was very close in childhood, nicknamed her Elisa). In June 1784, a bursary allowed her to attend the Maison royale de Saint-Louis at Saint-Cyr, where she was frequently visited by her brother Napoleon. Following the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly decreed the Maison's closure on 16 August 1792 as it shut down institutions associated with the aristocracy. Élisa left on 1 September with Napoleon to return to Ajaccio.

Around 1795, the Bonaparte family relocated to Marseille. There Élisa got to know Felice Pasquale Baciocchi (who later adopted the surname Levoy). A Corsican nobleman and formerly a captain in the Royal Corse, he had been dismissed from his rank with the outbreak of the French Revolution.

Marriage and family

Élisa married Levoy in a civil ceremony in Marseille on 1 August 1797, followed by a religious ceremony in Mombello, where Napoleon had a villa. He had moved there with his family in June 1797. Concerned about Baciocchi's reputation as a poor captain, Napoleon had some initial reservations about his sister's choice of spouse. Their religious ceremony was held on the same day as her sister Pauline's marriage to general Victor-Emmanuel Leclerc.

In July, Baciocchi was promoted to Chef de bataillon, with the command of the citadel at Ajaccio. In 1799, the extended Bonaparte family moved to Paris. Élisa set up home at 125 rue de Miromesnil, in the Quartier du Roule, where she held receptions and put on plays.

During the rise of the Consulate, she and her brother Lucien held an artistic and literary salon at the Hôtel de Brissac, at which she met the journalist Louis de Fontanes, with whom she had a deep friendship for several years. On 14 May 1800, on the death of Lucien's first wife, Christine Boyer, Élisa took Lucien's two daughters under her protection. She placed Charlotte, the eldest, in Madame Campan's boarding school for young women at Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

At the start of November 1800, Lucien was reassigned from his job as Minister of the Interior to Madrid as French ambassador to the court of the King of Spain. He took Élisa's husband, Félix Baciocchi, as his secretary. Élisa remained in Paris, but maintained a regular correspondence with her brother.

On 18 May 1804, the French Senate voted in favour of setting up the First French Empire, and Élisa and Napoleon's other sisters were established as members of the Imperial family, both taking the style "Imperial Highness" ("Altesse impériale"). Felice Baciocchi was promoted to général de brigade and later made a senator.

Princess of Piombino and Lucca

Coat of Arms of Élisa Bonaparte as princesse de Lucques et Piombino
Coat of arms of the Princess

Her separation from her husband in 1805 was seen favorably by Napoleon (though he soon rejoined her after her promotion to Lucca). On 19 March 1805, Napoleon awarded her the Principality of Piombino, which had been French property for some years and was of major strategic interest to Napoleon due to its proximity to Elba and Corsica. Felice and Élisa took the titles Prince and Princess of Piombino. In June 1805, the oligarchic Republic of Lucca, which had been occupied by France since late 1799, was made a principality and added to Felice and Élisa's domain, their entry into Lucca and investiture ceremony following on 14 July 1805.

Napoleon had contemptuously called Lucca the "dwarf republic", due to its small size in terms of territory, but despite this it was a bulwark of political, religious, and commercial independence. Most of the power over Lucca and Piombino was exercised by Élisa, with Félix taking only a minor role and contenting himself with making military decisions. The inhabitants of Lucca, under French occupation and begrudging the loss of their independence, knew Élisa ironically as "la Madame" and had little sympathy for Napoleon, Élisa, or their attempts to "Frenchify" the republic.

Very active and concerned with administering the area, Élisa was surrounded at Lucca by ministers who largely remained in place right to the end of her reign. These ministers included her Minister of Justice, Luigi Matteucci, her Minister of the Interior and Foreign Affairs, Francesco Belluomini (replaced in October 1807 by his son Giuseppe), her finance ministers, Jean-Baptiste Froussard (head of the cabinet) and, later, Pierre d'Hautmesnil (with the budget portfolio). She also set up a court and court etiquette inspired by those at the Tuileries.

On 31 March 1806 Napoleon withdrew Massa and Carrara from the Kingdom of Italy to add to Élisa's possessions. Carrara was one of the biggest white marble suppliers in Europe and Élisa bolstered her prestige by establishing an Académie des Beaux-Arts, designed to host the greatest sculptors and thus make Carrara an exporter of marble statues, which had a greater value than the raw marble. She also set up the Banque Élisienne to give financial aid to sculptors and workers on marble taxes. She reformed the clergy at Lucca and Piombino from May 1806, during which reforms she nationalised their goods and lands and closed down convents which did not also function as hotels or schools. She also carried out legislative reform in Lucca, producing laws inspired by the Code Napoleon (such as the notable "Codice rurale del Principato di Piombino", issued on 24 March 1808) and producing a new penal code which was promulgated in 1807 and first reformed in 1810.

In 1807 she set up the Committee of Public Charity for distributing charity funds, made up of clergy and lay-people, and also instituted free medical consultations for the poor so as to eradicate the diseases then ravaging Lucca's population. She demolished Piombino's hospital to build a new one in the former monastery of Sant' Anastasia, with the new building opening in 1810, and also set up the Casa Sanitaria, a dispensary in the town's port. On 5 May 1807, decreed the established of the "Committee for the Encouragement of Agriculture, Arts and Commerce" to encourage and finance the invention of new machines and new techniques to increase the territories' agricultural production and experimental plantations such as those of mulberries at Massa, where an École Normale de la Soie (Silk School) was created on 16 August 1808.

Élisa also set up many teaching establishments in Lucca and, in 1809, a "Direction Générale de l'Instruction Publique" (General Department of Public Education). On 1 December 1807 she set up the "Collège Félix", the only boys' secondary school in the principality. For girls, she began by fixing set curricula for convents that also operated as schools, then set up a body of "dames d'inspection" to verify that these curricula were being adhered to. Teaching of girls aged 5 to 8 was made compulsory, though the laws were not always well applied. On 2 July 1807, Élisa founded the "Institut Élisa" within the limits of a former convent for noble-born girls, to produce well-educated and cultivated future wives. On 29 July 1812, Élisa set up an establishment for young poor girls, the "Congregazione San Felice", though this did not long outlive Élisa's fall.

As with Napoleon, Élisa set up city improvement works in her territories, mainly to expand the princely palaces. These works were hotly contested, especially in Lucca, where the expansion of the princely palaces necessitated the demolition of the Church of San Pietro in March 1807. She also razed an entire block in Lucca to build a piazza in the French style in front of her city residence (now the seat of the province and the prefecture). That block had included the Church of San Paolo with the venerated image of the Madonna dei miracoli[1] and so its demolition seriously affected the city's medieval architecture and almost sparked a revolt.

At Massa, she demolished a cathedral on 30 April 1807. The palace at Lucca was fully redecorated and the gardens improved, with the creation of a botanical garden with a menagerie and aviary in 1811. She also began road construction, notably the "route Friedland" to link Massa and Carrara, with work beginning on 15 August 1807 but becoming delayed and only completed in 1820. Lucca's status as a spa town was also bolstered by her improvement of the architecture and decor of the town's baths. She began construction of an aqueduct into Lucca in 1811, but this too was only completed after her fall.

Grand duchess of Tuscany

Prud'hon-Elisa Bonaparte
Elisa, as Grand Duchess of Tuscany, supported Napoleon’s desire to unify Italy under Bonapartist rule.

On 21 March 1801, Lucien Bonaparte and the King of Spain signed the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, which restored Louisiana to France and in exchange established the Kingdom of Etruria by dividing Tuscany. The new kingdom was initially put in the charge of the infante Maria Louisa and her husband, Louis of Etruria, but he soon proved to be a poor ruler and deceased soon after in 1803. Thus, on 29 October 1807, Napoleon signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau with the Spanish court. This transferred Tuscany to France, and, in November of that year, Marie-Louise left the kingdom. From 12 May 1808, Tuscany was entrusted to an intermediary governor, Abdallah Jacques Menou, a French soldier who had converted to Islam during Napoleon's invasion of Egypt, but his way of life and lack of interest in the territory's affairs forced Napoleon to recall him on 5 April 1809. Élisa wished to become Governess of Tuscany in 1808, but she contracted an illness late in the year that prevented her from taking part in state affairs. She recovered in February 1809. A decree was officially created between the second and third of March that year which established the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, made Florence its capital and Élisa its grand duchess. However, the terms of the decree required Élisa to enforce the decisions of Napoleon and his ministers and denied her the power to modify any of these decisions. This was a significant difference compared to the relative autonomy Élisa enjoyed in Lucca and Piombino. The decree also promoted Félix to the rank of général de division.

On 2 April 1809, Élisa arrived in Florence, where she was coldly received by the nobility. Her arrival coincided with a revolt against compulsory conscription that ended after a mayor and a judge were assassinated. The conscription and many new taxes imposed on Tuscany by Napoleon were sources of conflicts in the region. As at Lucca, Élisa tried to nationalise the goods of the clergy and closed many convents.

She continued her patronage of arts and science. In 1809, she commissioned the sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini to create busts of her immediate family. The first two volumes of the "Annali del Museo Imperiale di Fisica e Storia Naturale" of Florence were dedicated to her, in 1808 and 1809. The observatory at that museum of physics and natural history was the ancestor of Florence's present-day Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri.

Élisa later became unwillingly involved in Napoleon's removal of Pope Pius VII. Pius opposed the Empire's annexation of the Papal States, and he refused to renounce his temporal powers. Pius then excommunicated Napoleon in the bull Quum memoranda on 10 June 1809. In response to this intransigence, Napoleon selected a general, Étienne Radet, to remove the pope and eliminate a figure that could rally opposition against the Empire and his regime. The removal occurred on the night of 6 July 1809, and in the pope traveled toward Savona in the days following his ouster. The pope passed by Florence where Élisa did not welcome him in person and also asked Pius to leave the region soon as possible, so as not to displease her brother by being seen as welcoming his enemy.

Élisa's relations with Napoleon became increasingly strained. Napoleon frequently recalled Élisa for any irregularity in her execution of his orders in Tuscany. On 17 March 1810, Élisa arrived in Paris for Napoleon's marriage to Marie-Louise of Austria, but Napoleon took advantage of her visit to reclaim the payments from his grants of Massa and Carrara. When Élisa returned to Tuscany, she found Napoleon still sought to claim payment of these grants via his envoys. Élisa refused to pay a second time, arguing that the territories had too few resources to pay Napoleon's demanded 200,000 lira. Napoleon threatened to seize Carrara from Élisa and also demanded Lucca raise men by conscription. Lucca was previously spared this burden prior to May 1811, and Napoleon's demands eroded Élisa support in Lucca. Élisa returned to Lucca from Florence and restored the villa now known as the Villa Reale di Marlia, despite the cold reception of the local community.

Fall and exile

In 1813, with Napoleon facing the allied coalition after his Russian campaign, Caroline Bonaparte's husband Joachim Murat, King of Naples, abandoned his brother-in-law and joined the Austrian cause by leading the Neapolitan to Rome. Élisa was forced to abdicate as Grand Duchess of Tuscany in favor of Grand Duke Ferdinand III's restoration and leave Tuscany for Lucca. The Neapolitans captured Massa and Carrara in March. An Anglo-Austrian force under Lord William Bentinck captured Lucca soon after, forcing the pregnant Élisa to flee on the night of 13 March 1814. Élisa made several short stays in Italy and France, notably seeking support in Marseille to return to Italy as a private individual. The former duchess' requests were denied, but she was able to stay in Austria for a time thanks to the efforts of her brother, Jérôme Bonaparte, before moving to the Villa Caprara in Trieste.

Napoleon was exiled to Elba on 13 April 1814 under the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and Élisa was arrested on 25 March (??) and interned in the Austrian fortress of Brünn. She was freed at the end of August and authorized to stay in Trieste with the title of Countess of Compignano. Élisa acquired a country house at Villa Vicentina near Cervignano after her release and financed several archaeological digs in the region. She contracted a fatal illness in June 1820, probably at an excavation site, and died on 7 August at the age of 43. Élisa became the only adult sibling of Napoleon Bonaparte not to survive the emperor. She was buried in the San Petronio Basilica of Bologna.

Marriage and issue

She married Felice Pasquale Baciocchi Levoy, a member of Corsican nobility, on 1 May 1797, created Prince Français, Duke of Lucca and Prince of Piombino and Prince of Massa-Carrara and La Garfagnana. They were parents of four children:

Napoleona Elisa Baciocchi by Benoist

Elisa Napoléone by Marie-Guillemine Benoist, 1810

Elisa Bonaparte with her daughter Napoleona Baciocchi - François Gérard - Google Cultural Institute

Portrait with her daughter Elisa by François Gérard, 1811

Ancestry

Ancestors of Elisa Bonaparte
16. Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte
(1663–1703)
8. Sebastiano Nicola Buonaparte
(1683–1720/60)
17. Maria Colonna Bozzi
(1668–1704)
4. Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte
(1713–1763)
18. Carlo Tusoli
9. Maria Anna Tusoli
(1690–1760)
19. Isabella
2. Carlo Maria Buonaparte
(1746–1785)
10. Giuseppe Maria Paravicini
5. Maria Saveria Paravicini
(1715–bef. 1750)
22. Angelo Agostino Salineri
11. Maria Angela Salineri
23. Francetta Merezano
1. Elisa Bonaparte, Grand Duchess of Tuscany,
Duchess of Lucca, Princess of Piombino,
and Countess of Compignano

(1777–1820)
24. Giovanni Girolamo Ramolino
(1645–?)
12. Giovanni Agostino Ramolino
25. Maria Laetitia Boggiano
6. Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino (1723–1755)
26. Andrea Peri
(1669–?)
13. Angela Maria Peri
27. Maria Maddalena Colonna d'Istria
3. Maria Letizia Ramolino
(1750–1836)
28. Giovanni Antonio Pietrasanta
14. Giuseppe Maria Pietrasanta
29. Paola Brigida Sorba
7. Angela Maria Pietrasanta (1725–1790)
15. Maria Giuseppa Malerba

Bibliography

  • (in French) Florence Vidal, Élisa Bonaparte, éd. Pygmalion, 2005. 310 p. (ISBN 2857049692)
  • (in French) Emmanuel de Beaufond, Élisa Bonaparte, princesse de Lucques et de Piombino, Paris : L'Univers (brochure hors-série du quotidien catholique), 1895. 32 p.
  • (in French) Paul Marmottan, Élisa Bonaparte, Paris : H. Champion, 1898. 317 p.
  • (in French) Jean d'Hertault, comte de Beaufort (under the pseudonym Jean de Beaufort), Élisa Bonaparte, princesse de Lucques et Piombino, grande-duchesse de Toscane (1777–1820), 1904 (brochure de 16 pages)
  • (in French) Sforza, Giovanni, I figli di Elisa Baciocchi, in Ricordi e biografie lucchesi, Lucca, tip.ed. Baroni 1916 [ma 1918]. p. 269–293

References

  1. ^ Image Archived 19 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Elisa Bonaparte
Born: 13 January 1777 Died: 7 August 1820
Regnal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Ferdinand III
Grand Duchess of Tuscany
1809–1814
Succeeded by
Ferdinand III
New title Princess of Lucca
1805–1814
Succeeded by
Maria Louisa of Spain
Preceded by
Antonio I Boncompagni-Ludovisi
Princess of Piombino
1805–1808
Succeeded by
Felice Boncompagni-Ludovisi
1809 in art

Events in the year 1809 in Art.

Alexis-François Artaud de Montor

Alexis-François Artaud De Montor (born Paris, 31 July 1772; died Paris, 12 November 1849) was a diplomat and historian. An émigré during the French Revolution, he was entrusted by the royal princes with missions to the Holy See and served during the campaign of Champagne in the Army of Condé. Napoleon Bonaparte made him secretary of the French Legation in Rome. Artaud occupied this post under François Cacault, left Rome for a short time when Cardinal Joseph Fesch, Cacault's successor, brought Chateaubriand with him, and returned to Rome in the same capacity after Chateaubriand had resigned. Appointed chargé d'affaires of France to Florence in 1805 he was recalled in 1807 because he was wrongfully suspected of having employed his power on behalf of the Queen of Etruria, whose possessions Napoleon wished to give to Elisa Bonaparte.

Made censor during the last years of the empire, he became under the Bourbon Restoration secretary of the embassy in Vienna, then again in Rome. In 1830 he retired on a pension to devote himself exclusively to literary works. Besides his translation of Dante's Divina Commedia (1811–1813) which was rated very highly, Artaud de Montor left several historical works:

Machiavel, son génie et ses erreurs (Machiavelli, his genius and his errors; Paris, 1833);

the volume on the history of Italy in the collection of the Univers pittoresque (Paris, 1834);

Histoire du pape Pie VII (2 vols., Paris, 1836);

Histoire de Dante Alighieri (Paris, 1841);

Histoire des souverains pontifes romains (8 vols., Paris, 1842);

Histoire de Léon XII (Paris, 1843);

Histoire de Pie VIII (Paris, 1843).Shortly before his death, in 1849 when Pius IX was banished to Gaeta, Artaud de Montor published a work entitled: La papauté et les émeutes romaines. His recollections and his observations as a diplomat form part of Artaud de Montor's historical works. He was a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres from 17 Dec., 1830.

Charles Félix Jean-Baptiste Camerata-Passionei di Mazzoleni

Charles Félix Jean-Baptiste Camerata-Passionei di Mazzoleni (20 September 1826 – 4 March 1853) was a French-Italian aristocrat born in Ancona, the son of Filippo Camerata-Passionei di Mazzoleni, an Italian count, and Princess Elisa Napoléone Baciocchi, the daughter of Felice Baciocchi Levoy and Elisa Bonaparte. He was therefore a grandnephew of Napoleon and a first cousin once removed of Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, who became President of the French Republic in 1848 and then Emperor of the French as Napoléon III in 1852.

Camerata-Passionei di Mazzoleni was one of the maîtres des requêtes au Conseil d'État, but committed suicide at the age of twenty-six after being prevented from marrying an actress.

Duchy of Lucca

The Duchy of Lucca was a small Italian state existing from 1815 to 1847. It was centered on the city of Lucca. By the Congress of Vienna of 1815 the Duchy was to revert to Tuscany on the end of its Bourbon line of rulers, which happened in 1847. Tuscany was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont) in 1860.

The Duchy was formed in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, out of the former Republic of Lucca and the Principality of Lucca and Piombino, which had been ruled by Elisa Bonaparte. It was created to compensate the House of Bourbon-Parma for the loss of the Duchy of Parma, which had been given to Marie Louise of Austria.

In 1817, Maria Luisa of Spain, the former Infanta of Spain and Queen of Etruria, assumed the government of Lucca. She was also the mother of Charles Louis of Parma, the Bourbon heir to Parma. This followed the Treaty of Paris (1815), which confirmed both her sovereign status in Lucca, and her son's status as heir to Parma in succession to Marie Louise.

After Maria Luisa's death in 1824, Charles Louis assumed the government of the Duchy. In 1847 Charles succeeded to the Duchy of Parma, and left Lucca, which was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.From 1815 to 1818, the flag of Lucca was yellow and red horizontal stripes. From 7 November 1818, to 1847 the flag was white, with Maria Luisa's coat of arms and the yellow–red flag in the canton.

Duchy of Massa and Carrara

The Duchy of Massa and Carrara was the duchy that controlled the towns of Massa di Carrara and Carrara; the area is now part of unified Italy, but retains its local identity as the province of Massa-Carrara.

Elisa Napoléone Baciocchi

Elisa Napoleona Baciocchi Levoy (3 June 1806 – 3 February 1869) was the daughter of Felice Baciocchi and Elisa Bonaparte, Princess of Lucca and Piombino and a sister of Napoleon I. She was their only child to live beyond the teenage years.

Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte

Nobile Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte or Giuseppe Maria di Buonaparte (31 May 1713, Ajaccio – 13 December 1763, Ajaccio) was an Italian politician.

He was the son of Sebastiano Nicola Buonaparte and his wife Maria Anna Tusoli (1690–1760).

In 1749, Giuseppe was the Delegate who represented the City of Ajaccio in the Council of Corte.

Grand Dignitaries of the French Empire

The Grand Dignitaries of the French Empire (French: Grands Dignitaires de l'Empire Français) were created in 1804 by the Constitution of the Year XII, which established Napoleon Bonaparte, previously First Consul for Life, as Emperor of the French. The seven Grand Dignitaries broadly paralleled the Great Officers of the Crown which had existed under the Ancien Régime and were essentially honorific, although several limited functions were ascribed to them in the new constitution of the Empire. In the Imperial nobility the Grand Dignitaries ranked in status directly behind the Princes of France, although in practice, most Grand Dignitaries also held the title of Prince.

In 1807 two new dignitaries were created, a further two in 1809, and another in 1810, raising the final number to twelve. Many of the dignitaries were also members of the Imperial Family, with those that were not being high-ranking figures in the Imperial administration. The Grand Dignitaries were abolished along with the First Empire in 1814 upon the Bourbon Restoration, the Great Officers of the Crown being resurrected, and were not restored under the Second Empire.

House of Bonaparte

The House of Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) was an imperial and royal European dynasty of Italian origin. It was founded in 1804 by Napoleon I, the son of Genoese nobleman Carlo Buonaparte. Napoleon was a French military leader who had risen to power during the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his coup d'état of November 1799. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories during the Napoleonic Wars. He installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, extending the power of the dynasty.

The House of Bonaparte formed the Imperial House of France during the French Empire, together with some non-Bonaparte family members. In addition to holding the title of Emperor of the French, the Bonaparte dynasty held various other titles and territories during the Napoleonic Wars, including the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Kingdom of Holland, and the Kingdom of Naples. The dynasty held power for around a decade until the Napoleonic Wars began to take their toll. Making very powerful enemies, such as Austria, Britain, Russia, and Prussia, as well as royalist (particularly Bourbon) restorational movements in France, Spain, the Two Sicilies, and Sardinia, the dynasty eventually collapsed due to the final defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and the restoration of former dynasties by the Congress of Vienna.

During the reign of Napoleon I, the Imperial Family consisted of the Emperor's immediate relations – his wife, son, siblings, and some other close relatives, namely his brother-in-law Joachim Murat, his uncle Joseph Fesch, and Eugène de Beauharnais his stepson.

Between 1852 and 1870, there was a Second French Empire, when a member of the Bonaparte dynasty again ruled France: Napoleon III, the youngest son of Louis Bonaparte. However, during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, the dynasty was again ousted from the Imperial Throne. Since that time, there has been a series of pretenders. Supporters of the Bonaparte family's claim to the throne of France are known as Bonapartists. Current head Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon, has a Bourbon mother.

Lucca

Lucca (Italian pronunciation: [ˈlukka] (listen)) is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca. It is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls.

Museo Nazionale di Palazzo Mansi

The Museo Nazionale di Palazzo Mansi is one of the two main art museum hosting tapestry collections and mainly post-19th century art collections owned by the city of Lucca, Italy. The collection is displayed in the Baroque palace, formerly belonging to the Mansi family, and located in central Lucca. Many of the original room decorations remain in place.The Palace was first erected at the site of a few earlier tower-houses bought in 1616 by the Lucchese merchant of silk Ascanio Mansi and his descendants. While the facade retains earlier Renaissance window features, between 1686 and 1691, Ascanio's son Raffaello employed the architect Raffaello Mazzanti to further renovate the now palace, and the piano nobile rooms acquired the present decoration and a grand staircase access. The cooler ground floor rooms were turned into a summer apartment.

In the second half of the 18th century, Luigi Mansi pursued further refurbishing. The Mansi family retained prestige in the early 19th century; Raffaele Mansi and Camilla Parensi had been appointed courtiers to Elisa Bonaparte and Felice Baciocchi. Raffaello Mansi Orsetti, who died in 1956, was the first to display the art collections to the public. In the mid-1960s his children sold the palace to the state, which has converted into a National Museum of arts and tapestries.

The interiors house a highly decorated bedroom alcove with gilded caryatid columns flanking the portal.

Palazzo Ranuzzi

The Palazzo Ranuzzi, also called Palazzo Baciocchi, is a Baroque style palace in central Bologna. It is now houses the Court of Appeals of Bologna.

The palace was built in the late-1500s, commissioned by the academic and lawyer Carlo Ruini. The palace was extensively rebuilt by the Ranuzzi family, owners from 1679 to 1822, and later by Prince Felice Baciocchi, husband of Elisa Bonaparte, sister of Napoleon, and briefly grand-duchess of Tuscany. The city of Bologna bought the palace in 1873, and converted it to use by the courts.

Some attribute the original designs to an inspiration, if not plan, by Andrea Palladio, with the scenic Rococo entrance stairs by Giuseppe Antonio Torri and Giovanni Battista Piacentini. The palace contains statuary by Filippo Balugani. The interior decoration includes works by Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena and Giuseppe Maria Mazza. Frescoes were completed in various rooms by painters including Marco Antonio Franceschini, Giuseppe and Antonio Rolli, Vittorio Bigari, Antonio Basoli, Felice Giani, Giovanni Battista Sangiorgi, and Pelagio Palagi. A major restoration was completed in 1993.

Pascale Petit (actress)

Pascale Petit (born Anne-Marie Pettit; 27 February 1938) is a French actress. She appeared in more than fifty films from 1957 to 2001.

Pierre Napoléon Bonaparte

Prince Pierre-Napoléon Bonaparte (11 October 1815 – 7 April 1881) was born in Rome, Italy, the son of Prince Lucien Bonaparte and his second wife Alexandrine de Bleschamp.

He was a nephew of Napoleon I of France, Joseph Bonaparte, Elisa Bonaparte, Louis Bonaparte, Pauline Bonaparte, Caroline Bonaparte and Jérôme Bonaparte.

Principality of Lucca and Piombino

The Principality of Lucca and Piombino was created in July 1805 by Napoleon I for his beloved sister Elisa Bonaparte. It was a State located on the central Italian Peninsula (present-day Italy), reporting to the needs of Napoleonic France.

Puppet monarch

A puppet monarch is a majority figurehead who is installed or patronized by an imperial power in order to provide the appearance of local authority, while allowing political and economic control to remain among the dominating nation.

Figurehead monarch, as source of legitimacy and possibly divine reign, has been the used form of government in several situations and places of history.

There are two basic forms of using puppets as monarchs (rulers, kings, emperors):

figurehead: the monarch is a puppet of another person or a group in the country, who are ruling instead of the nominal ruler.

puppet government under a foreign power.Examples of the first type are the Emperors who were the puppets of the shōguns of Japan and the kings who were the puppets of the Mayor of Palace in the Frankish kingdom. The British Empire's colonial relationship with King Farouk of Egypt, in the 1950s, is an example of the second type.

San Petronio Basilica

The Basilica of San Petronio is a minor basilica and church of the Archdiocese of Bologna located in Bologna, Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. It dominates Piazza Maggiore. The basilica is dedicated to the patron saint of the city, Saint Petronius, who was the bishop of Bologna in the fifth century. Construction began in 1390 and its main facade has remained unfinished since. The building was transferred from the city to the diocese in 1929; the basilica was finally consecrated in 1954. It has been the seat of the relics of Bologna's patron saint only since 2000; until then they were preserved in the Santo Stefano church of Bologna.

Sexy Susan Sins Again

Sexy Susan Sins Again (German: Frau Wirtin hat auch einen Grafen, Italian: Susanna... ed i suoi dolci vizi alla corte del re) is a 1968 Austrian-Italian costume drama-adventure-sex comedy film directed by Franz Antel. It is the first film of the series Frau Wirtin, following the 1967 film The Sweet Sins of Sexy Susan.

Villa Vicentina

Villa Vicentina is a frazione of Fiumicello Villa Vicentina in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 35 kilometres (22 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 30 kilometres (19 mi) southeast of Udine.

The Villa Ciardi, in the town's territory, was the summer residence of Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, sister of Napoleon Bonaparte.

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