Elihu Root

Elihu Root (/ˈɛlɪhjuː ˈruːt/; February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt and as Secretary of War under Roosevelt and President William McKinley. He moved frequently between high-level appointed government positions in Washington, D.C. and private-sector legal practice in New York City. For that reason, he is sometimes considered to be the prototype of the 20th century political "wise man," advising presidents on a range of foreign and domestic issues. He was elected by the state legislature as a U.S. Senator from New York and served one term, 1909–1915. Root was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912.

Root was a leading lawyer, whose clients included major corporations and such powerful players as Andrew Carnegie. Root served as president or chairman of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. As Secretary of War under McKinley and Roosevelt, Root designed American policies for the new colonial possessions, especially the Philippines and Cuba. His role in suppressing a Filipino revolt angered anti-imperialist activists at home. Root favored a paternalistic approach to colonial administration, emphasizing technology, engineering, and disinterested public service, as exemplified by the ethical standards of the Progressive Era. He helped design the Foraker Act of 1900, the Philippine Organic Act (1902), and the Platt Amendment of 1901, which authorized American intervention in Cuba in the future if needed to maintain a stable government. He was a strong advocate of what became the Panama Canal, and he championed the Open Door to expand world trade with China.[1]

Root was the leading modernizer in the history of the War Department, transforming the Army from a motley collection of small frontier outposts and coastal defense units into a modern, professionally organized, military machine comparable to the best in Europe. He restructured the National Guard into an effective reserve, created the Army War College for the advanced study of military doctrine, and––most important––set up a general staff. As Secretary of State under Theodore Roosevelt, Root modernized the consular service by minimizing patronage, promoted friendly relations with Latin America, and resolved frictions with Japan over the immigration of unskilled workers to the West Coast. He negotiated 24 bilateral treaties that committed the United States and other signatories to use arbitration to resolve disputes, which led to the creation of the Permanent Court of International Justice.[2][3] In the United States Senate, Root was part of the conservative Republican support network for President William Howard Taft. He played a central role at the Republican National Convention in 1912 in getting Taft renominated. By 1916–17, he was a leading proponent of preparedness, with the expectation that the United States would enter World War I. President Woodrow Wilson sent him to Russia in 1917 in an unsuccessful effort to establish an alliance with the new revolutionary government that had replaced the czar.[4] Root supported Wilson's vision of the League of Nations, but with reservations along the lines proposed by Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge.

Elihu Root
Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902
38th United States Secretary of State
In office
July 19, 1905 – January 27, 1909
PresidentTheodore Roosevelt
Preceded byJohn Hay
Succeeded byRobert Bacon
41st United States Secretary of War
In office
August 1, 1899 – January 31, 1904
PresidentWilliam McKinley
Theodore Roosevelt
Preceded byRussell A. Alger
Succeeded byWilliam Howard Taft
United States Senator
from New York
In office
March 4, 1909 – March 3, 1915
Preceded byThomas C. Platt
Succeeded byJames Wolcott Wadsworth Jr.
Personal details
BornFebruary 15, 1845
Clinton, New York, U.S.
DiedFebruary 7, 1937 (aged 91)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Clara Wales
RelationsOren Root II (Brother)
EducationHamilton College, New York (BA)
New York University (LLB)
Elihu Root's signature

Early life and education

Elihu Root was born in Clinton, New York, to Oren Root and Nancy Whitney Buttrick, both of English descent.[5] His father was professor of mathematics at Hamilton College. After studying at local schools, including Williston Seminary, where he was a classmate of G. Stanley Hall, Elihu enrolled in college at Hamilton. He joined the Sigma Phi Society and was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society[6] After graduation, Root was an instructor of physical education for two years at Williston Seminary and taught for one year at the Rome (N.Y.) Free Academy.

Despite his parents' encouragement to become a Presbyterian minister, Root went to New York City to attend New York University School of Law,[7] from which he graduated in 1867. His brother Oren then became a minister and followed in their father's footsteps as a Mathematics professor at Hamilton.[8]

Law career

After admission to the bar in New York, Root went into private practice as a lawyer. While mainly focusing on corporate law, Root was a junior defense counsel for William "Boss" Tweed during his corruption trial. Among Root's prominent and wealthy private clients were Jay Gould, Chester A. Arthur, Charles Anderson Dana, William C. Whitney, Thomas Fortune Ryan, and E. H. Harriman. Root was among the friends who were present when Arthur was informed that James A. Garfield had died, and that Arthur had succeeded to the presidency.[9] He served as the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York from March 12, 1883 to July 6, 1885.[10]

Root's law practice, which he began in 1868, evolved into the law firm Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts, a predecessor of today's Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman.[11]

Defense of William M. Tweed

Root was part of the defense counsel that William M. Tweed created to defend himself during Tweed's first court case in 1873. Other members of the defense counsel included John Graham and David Dudley Field II. This first trial ended when the jury could not agree on a verdict. A second trial began November 1863 and this time Tweed received a sentence of twelve years in prison and a $12,750 fine from judge Noah Davis.[12]

Later law career

On January 19, 1898, at elections for the newly formed North American Trust Company, the elected members of the executive committee included Root.[13]

U.S Attorney and Secretary of War

Elihuroot 1904 rnc (cropped)
Crowds listen as Root delivers the opening speech of the 1904 Republican National Convention

Root received his first political appointment from President Chester A. Arthur, when he was named as the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York.

Under presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, Root served as the United States Secretary of War 1899–1904. He reformed the organization of the War Department. He enlarged West Point and established the U.S. Army War College, as well as the General Staff. He changed the procedures for promotions and organized schools for the special branches of the service. He also devised the principle of rotating officers from staff to line. Root was concerned about the new territories acquired after the Spanish–American War. He worked out the procedures for turning Cuba over to the Cubans, ensured a charter of government for the Philippines, and eliminated tariffs on goods imported to the United States from Puerto Rico. When the Anti-Imperialist League attacked American policies in the Philippines, Root defended the policies and counterattacked the critics, saying they prolonged the insurgency.[14] During the summer of 1902, Root visited Europe, including France and Germany.[15] Root left the cabinet in 1904 and returned to private practice as a lawyer.

Secretary of State

Root with William Howard Taft in 1904.

In 1905, President Roosevelt named Root as the United States Secretary of State after the death of John Hay. As secretary, Root placed the consular service under the civil service. He maintained the Open Door Policy in the Far East.

On a tour to Latin America in 1906, Root persuaded those governments to participate in the Hague Peace Conference. He worked with Japan to limit emigration to the United States and on dealings with China. He established the Root–Takahira Agreement, which limited Japanese and American naval fortifications in the Pacific. He worked with Great Britain in arbitration of issues between the United States and Canada on the Alaska boundary dispute, and competition in the North Atlantic fisheries. He supported arbitration in resolving international disputes.

United States Senator

In January 1909, Root was elected by the legislature as a U.S. Senator from New York, serving from March 4, 1909, to March 3, 1915. He was a member of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. He chose not to seek re-election in 1914.

During and after his Senate service, Root served as president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, from 1910 to 1925.

In a 1910 letter published by The New York Times, Root supported the proposed income tax amendment, which was ratified as the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution:

It is said that a very large part of any income tax under the amendment would be paid by citizens of New York....

The reason why the citizens of New York will pay so large a part of the tax in New York City is the chief financial and commercial center of a great country with vast resources and industrial activity. For many years Americans engaged in developing the wealth of all parts of the country have been going to New York to secure capital and market their securities and to buy their supplies. Thousands of men who have amassed fortunes in all sorts of enterprises in other states have gone to New York to live because they like the life of the city or because their distant enterprises require representation at the financial center. The incomes of New York are in a great measure derived from the country at large. A continual stream of wealth sets toward the great city from the mines and manufactories and railroads outside of New York.[16]

Professor Alfred McCoy argues that Root was the first "foreign policy grandmaster" in American history and that Root more than any other figure is responsible for transforming America into a world power. According to McCoy, Root devoted his time as Secretary of State and as a Senator to ensuring that the United States would have a consistent presence in world affairs, and Root helped to establish the Special Relationship between the United States and Great Britain. Root helped to ensure that powerful business interests and the intellectual elite supported an interventionist foreign policy.[17]

World War

Portrait of Elihu Root

In 1912, as a result of his work to bring nations together through arbitration and cooperation, Root received the Nobel Peace Prize.

At the outbreak of World War I, Root opposed President Woodrow Wilson's policy of neutrality. Root promoted the Preparedness Movement to get the United States ready for actual participation in the war. He was a leading advocate of American entry into the war on the side of the British and French because he feared the militarism of Germany would be bad for the world and bad for the United States.

He supported Wilson once the United States entered the war. In June 1916, he scotched talk that he might contend for the Republican presidential nomination, stating that he was too old to bear the burden of the Presidency.[18] At the Republican National Convention, Root reached his peak strength of 103 votes on the first ballot. The Republican presidential nomination went to Charles Evans Hughes, who lost the election to the Democrat Woodrow Wilson.

In June 1917, at age 72, Root went to Russia, which had just overthrown the czar. He headed a mission sent by President Wilson, the Root Commission, to arrange American co-operation with the new revolutionary government. Root remained in Petrograd for close to a month, and was not much impressed by what he saw. American financial aid to the new regime was possible only if the Russians would fight on the Allied side. The Russians, he said, "are sincere, kindly, good people but confused and dazed." He summed up the Provisional Government very trenchantly: "No fight, no loans."[19] This caused the Provisional government to initiate offensives against Austrian forces in July 1917 that ended in failure and retreat of Russian forces. The resulting steep decline in popularity of the Provisional government opened the door for the Bolshevik party.[20]

Root was the founding chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations, established in 1918 in New York.

Later career

In the Senate fight in 1919 over American membership in the League of Nations, Root supported Lodge's proposal of membership with certain reservations that allowed the United States government to decide whether or not it would go to war. The US never joined, but Root supported the League of Nations and served on the commission of jurists, which created the Permanent Court of International Justice. In 1922, when Root was 77, President Warren G. Harding appointed him as a delegate of an American team headed by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes. They participated in the Washington Naval Conference (International Conference on the Limitation of Armaments).[21]

Levi P. Morton House
Root's former home in Washington, D.C.

Root also worked with Andrew Carnegie in programs for international peace and the advancement of science, becoming the first president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Root was also among the founders of the American Law Institute[22] in 1923, and also helped create the Hague Academy of International Law in the Netherlands. Root served as vice president of the American Peace Society, which publishes World Affairs, the oldest U.S. journal on international relations.

In addition to receiving the Nobel Prize, Root was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown (from Belgium) and the Grand Commander of the Order of George I (from Greece). Root joined the Empire State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution in 1895, based on his descent from Elihu Root (1772–1843), and was the second cousin twice removed of the publisher Henry Luce. Root was the last surviving member of the McKinley Cabinet.


After getting established, in 1878 at the age of 33, Root married Clara Frances Wales (died in 1928). She was the daughter of Salem Wales, the managing editor of Scientific American. They had three children: Edith (who married Ulysses S. Grant III), Elihu, Jr. (who became a lawyer), and Edward Wales Root (who became Professor of Art at Hamilton College).

Root was a member of the Union League Club of New York and twice served as its president, 1898–99, and again from 1915–16. He also served as president of the New York City Bar Association from 1904–1905.

Death and legacy

Root died in 1937 in New York City, with his family by his side. His son, Elihu Root, Jr., like his father graduated from Hamilton College and became an attorney (as well as married the daughter of Hamilton's president, M. Woolsey Stryker).[23] His daughter Edith married Ulysses S. Grant III. A simple service was held in Clinton, led by Episcopal bishop E.H. Coley of the Episcopal Diocese of Central New York.[24] Root is buried along with his wife Clara (who died in 1928) at the Hamilton College Cemetery.

During World War II the Liberty ship SS Elihu Root was built in Panama City, Florida, and named in his honor.[25]

Root's home in Clinton, which he purchased in 1893, became known as the Elihu Root House, and was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972. The United States Army Reserve Base in New York Mills, New York bears his name.

Elihu Root Gold Medal
Elihu Root Gold Medal

The Elihu Root Gold Medal is awarded to the six highest scoring civilian competitors in the National Trophy Rifle Team Match and are subsequently named as team members. The captain and coach of the highest-scoring civilian team are named as the coach and captain of the team. All eight members receive Elihu Root gold medals.

Works by Elihu Root

  • Citizen's Part in Government. Yale University Press, 1911.
  • Experiments in Government and the Essentials of the Constitution. Princeton University Press, 1913.
  • Addresses on International Subjects. Harvard University Press, 1916.
  • Military and Colonial Policy of the United States. Harvard University Press, 1916.
  • Miscellaneous Addresses. Harvard University Press, 1917.
  • Men and Policies: Addresses by Elihu Root. Harvard University Press, 1925.

See also


  1. ^ , Robert Muccigrosso, ed., Research Guide to American Historical Biography (1988) 3:1329–33
  2. ^ Cross, Graham (2012). The Diplomatic Education of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1882-1933. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-137-01453-5.
  3. ^ Muccigrosso, ed., Research Guide to American Historical Biography (1988) 3:1330
  4. ^ "Tells How Allies Failed in Russia: Col. Robins Says Boastful American Propaganda Led Russian Army to Quit; Root Mission Knifed Here" (PDF). New York Times. March 7, 1919. p. 18.
  5. ^ The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography: Being the History of the United States as Illustrated in the Lives of the Founders, Builders, and Defenders of the Republic, and of the Men and Women who are Doing the Work and Moulding the Thought of the Present Time, Volume 11 page 15
  6. ^ History of the Society Archived 2009-07-09 at the Wayback Machine, Rutgers.edu, accessed Oct 9, 2009,
  7. ^ http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/02/constitutional-conservatives-in-the-progressive-era-elihu-root-william-howard-taft-and-henry-cabot-lodge-sr
  8. ^ http://threerivershms.com/rcautica.htm
  9. ^ "Chester A. Arthur, Theta '48, Second to take Oath in New York as President". The Diamond of Psi Upsilon. Chicago, IL: Psi Upsilon Fraternity. January 1, 1930. p. 106.
  10. ^ Hartford, William J. (January 1, 1900). "Hon Elihu Root, Secretary of War". The Successful American. New York, NY: Press Biographical Company. p. 26.
  11. ^ "Pillsbury. At-a-Glance" (PDF). Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  12. ^ Allen, Oliver E. (1993). The Tiger: The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. pp. 138–139. ISBN 0-201-62463-X.
  13. ^ "A Place for Colonel Trenholm; Head of North American Trust Company -- W.S. Johnston Succeeds Him in American Surety". The New York Times. New York City, United States. January 20, 1898. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  14. ^ James R. Arnold (2011). The Moro War: How America Battled a Muslim Insurgency in the Philippine Jungle, 1902–1913. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 171–72.
  15. ^ "The United States and France". The Times (36835). London. 1 August 1902. p. 3.
  16. ^ "Root For Adoption of Tax Amendment," New York Times, March 1, 1910
  17. ^ McCoy, Alfred (15 September 2015). "Barack Obama Is a Foreign Policy Grandmaster". The Nation. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  18. ^ Stefan Lorant, The Glorious Burden (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), page 540.
  19. ^ David Mayers (1997). The Ambassadors and America's Soviet Policy. Oxford University Press. p. 77.
  20. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1984/11/07/opinion/us-aid-to-the-bolsheviks.html
  21. ^ u-s-history.com Washington Naval Conference – Retrieved 2011-12-18
  22. ^ American Law Institute - Certification of Incorporation - Feb 23, 1923
  23. ^ Exhibition by Elihu Root, Jr. at Hamilton College (https://www.hamilton.edu/gallery/exhibitions/history-of-exhibitions/elihu-root-jr-class-of-1903-lawyer-painter Archived 2011-06-22 at the Wayback Machine)
  24. ^ http://cdsun.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/cornell?a=d&d=CDS19370210.2.33&e=-------en-20--1--txt-txIN------#
  25. ^ Williams, Greg H. (25 July 2014). The Liberty Ships of World War II: A Record of the 2,710 Vessels and Their Builders, Operators and Namesakes, with a History of the Jeremiah O’Brien. McFarland. ISBN 1476617546. Retrieved 7 December 2017.


  • Ferraioli, GianPaolo, L'Italia e l'ascesa degli Stati Uniti al rango di potenza mondiale (1896-1909). Diplomazia, dibattito pubblico, emigrazione durante le amministrazioni di William McKinley e Theodore Roosevelt, Napoli, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 2013.
  • Hewes, James E., Jr. From Root to McNamara: Army Organization and Administration, 1900–1963 (1975)
  • Jessup, Phillip C. Elihu Root (1938), the standard biography
  • Leopold, Richard W. Elihu Root and the Conservative Tradition (1954)
  • Needham, Henry Beach (November 1905). "Mr. Root and the State Department". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XI: 6835–6840. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
  • Ten Eyck, Andrew (October 19, 1921). "Elihu Root - A Study Of The Man And His Ways". The Outlook. 129: 429–430. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  • Zimmermann, Warren. First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power (2004) excerpt and text search
  • The National Cyclopædia of American Biography. (1939) Vol. XXVI. New York: James T. White & Co. pp. 1–5.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Russell A. Alger
U.S. Secretary of War
Served under: William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt

August 1, 1899 – January 31, 1904
Succeeded by
William Howard Taft
Preceded by
John Hay
U.S. Secretary of State
Served under: Theodore Roosevelt

July 19, 1905 – January 27, 1909
Succeeded by
Robert Bacon
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Thomas C. Platt
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from New York
March 4, 1909 – March 3, 1915
Served alongside: Chauncey Depew, James O'Gorman
Succeeded by
James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr.
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Adelbert Ames
Oldest living U.S. Senator
April 12, 1933 – February 7, 1937
Succeeded by
Newell Sanders
1903 United States Senate election in New York

The 1903 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 20, 1903, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

1909 United States Senate election in New York

The 1909 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 19, 1909, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

1916 Republican National Convention

The 1916 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago from June 7 to June 10. A major goal of the party's bosses at the convention was to heal the bitter split within the party that had occurred in the 1912 presidential campaign. In that year, Theodore Roosevelt bolted the GOP and formed his own political party, the Progressive Party, which contained most of the GOP's liberals. William Howard Taft, the incumbent president, won the nomination of the regular Republican Party. This split in the GOP ranks divided the Republican vote and led to the election of Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Although several candidates were openly competing for the 1916 nomination—most prominently conservative Senator Elihu Root of New York, Senator John W. Weeks of Massachusetts, and liberal Senator Albert Cummins of Iowa—the party's bosses wanted a moderate who would be acceptable to all factions of the party. They turned to Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who had served on the court since 1910 and thus had the advantage of not having publicly spoken about political issues in six years. Although he had not sought the nomination, Hughes made it known that he would not turn it down; he won the nomination on the third ballot. Former Vice-President Charles W. Fairbanks was nominated as his running mate. Hughes was the only Supreme Court Justice to be nominated for president by a major political party. Fairbanks (as of 2016) was the last former vice president, to be nominated for vice president.

Then-Senator Warren G. Harding is credited with coining the phrase "Founding Fathers" during his keynote address.

1916 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1916 was the 33rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1916. Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson defeated Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, the Republican candidate. Wilson was the only sitting Democratic president to win re-election between 1832 and 1936.

Wilson was re-nominated without opposition at the 1916 Democratic National Convention. The 1916 Republican National Convention chose Hughes as a compromise between the conservative and progressive wings of the party. Hughes defeated John W. Weeks, Elihu Root, and several other candidates on the third ballot of the convention, becoming the only Supreme Court Justice to serve as a major party's presidential nominee. While conservative and progressive Republicans had been divided in the 1912 election between the candidacies of then-incumbent President William Howard Taft and former President Theodore Roosevelt, they largely united around Hughes in his bid to oust Wilson.

The election took place during the time of the Mexican Revolution and World War I. Although officially neutral in the European conflict, public opinion in the United States leaned towards the Allied forces headed by Great Britain and France against the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, due in large measure to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army in Belgium and northern France and the militaristic character of the German and Austrian monarchies, but in spite of their sympathy with the Allied forces most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war and preferred to continue a policy of neutrality. Wilson's campaign used the popular slogans "He kept us out of war" and "America First" to appeal to those voters who wanted to avoid a war in Europe or with Mexico. Hughes criticized Wilson for not taking the "necessary preparations" to face a conflict, which only served to strengthen Wilson's image as an anti-war candidate. Ironically, the United States would enter the war in April 1917, one month after Wilson's inauguration as president.

After a hard-fought contest, Wilson defeated Hughes by nearly 600,000 votes in the popular vote. The 1916 election saw an increase in Wilson's popular vote from the four-way election of 1912, but a major decline in the number of electoral votes won. Wilson secured a narrow majority in the Electoral College by sweeping the Solid South and winning several swing states with razor-thin margins. Wilson won California by just 3,773 votes; had he lost California, he would have lost the election. Allan L. Benson of the Socialist Party and Frank Hanly of the Prohibition Party each finished with greater than 1% of the popular vote.

American Federation of Arts

The American Federation of Arts (AFA) is a nonprofit organization that creates art exhibitions for presentation in museums around the world, publishes exhibition catalogues, and develops education programs. The organization’s founding in 1909 was endorsed by Theodore Roosevelt and spearheaded by Secretary of State Elihu Root and eminent art patrons and artists of the day. The AFA’s mission is to enrich the public’s experience and understanding of the visual arts, and this is accomplished through its exhibitions, catalogues, and public programs. To date, the AFA has organized or circulated approximately 3,000 exhibitions that have been viewed by more than 10 million people in museums in every state, as well as in Canada, Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Dewey Ballantine

Dewey Ballantine LLP was a corporate law firm headquartered in New York City. In 2007, Dewey Ballantine merged with LeBoeuf, Lamb, Greene & MacRae to form Dewey & LeBoeuf. Dewey Ballantine underwent numerous name changes throughout its history as partners left to serve in government positions or form new firms.

Elihu Root House

Elihu Root House was the home of American statesman Elihu Root.

Foraker Act

The Foraker Act, Pub.L. 56–191, 31 Stat. 77, enacted April 12, 1900, officially known as the Organic Act of 1900, is a United States federal law that established civilian (albeit limited popular) government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had recently become a possession of the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War. Section VII of the Foraker Act also established Puerto Rican citizenship. President William McKinley signed the act on April 12, 1900 and it became known as the Foraker Act after its sponsor, Ohio Senator Joseph B. Foraker. Its main author has been identified as Secretary of War Elihu Root.

The new government had a governor and an 11-member executive council appointed by the President of the United States, a House of Representatives with 35 elected members, a judicial system with a Supreme Court and a United States District Court, and a non-voting Resident Commissioner in Congress. The Executive council was all appointed: five individuals were selected from Puerto Rico residents while the rest were from those in top cabinet positions, including attorney general and chief of police (also appointed by the President). The Insular Supreme Court was also appointed. In addition, all federal laws of the United States were to be in effect on the island. The first civil governor of the island under the Foraker Act was Charles H. Allen, inaugurated on May 1, 1900 in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This law was superseded in 1917 by the Jones–Shafroth Act.

Fort Howard (Maryland)

Fort Howard is the name of a park in Baltimore County. It is also the name of the former military installation of the Spanish–American War, named by Elihu Root, Secretary of War under President Theodore Roosevelt, in 1902 after Colonel John Eager Howard (1752–1827). The installation earned the nickname the "Bulldog at Baltimore's Gate", serving as the coastal artillery headquarters for Baltimore, Maryland. Fort Howard's historical significance is its military connection with the War of 1812, the Spanish–American War, and World War II.

Fort Schuyler Club

The Fort Schuyler Club, founded in 1883, is a traditional gentlemen's club located in downtown Utica, New York, USA. Early members of the club included Elihu Root, Francis Kernan, Horatio Seymour, Charlemagne Tower, and Ward Hunt.The club's clubhouse is "significant as a rare and substantially intact example of a late 19th-early 20th century social club" in downtown utica. The building, built in stages from 1830 on, is a landmark located prominently on Genesee Street, the "principal thoroughfare" of Utica. First used as a residence, the club purchased the building in 1883, shortly after its establishment. It was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 2004.

Hamilton College

Hamilton College is a private, nonsectarian liberal arts college in Clinton, New York. Founded as an academy in 1793, it was chartered as Hamilton College in 1812 in honor of inaugural trustee Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton has been coeducational since 1978, when it merged with its coordinate sister school Kirkland College.

Hamilton's student body is 51% female and 49% male, and comes from 49 U.S. states and 49 countries. Hamilton is a member of the New England Small College Athletic Conference.

Hamilton is an exclusively undergraduate institution, enrolling 1,850 students in the fall of 2017. Students may choose from 56 areas of study, including 43 concentrations (majors), or design an interdisciplinary concentration. Hamilton received 6,240 applicants for the class of 2022 and accepted 1,300, yielding a 20.8% acceptance rate. The annual ranking for 2016 by U.S. News & World Report categorizes Hamilton as "most selective" in admissions and ranks the College tied for 14th overall and tied for 12th in "Best Undergraduate Teaching" among "National Liberal Arts Colleges."

Henry deForest

Henry Wheeler De Forest (1855–1938) was an American railroad executive, capitalist and industrialist.

He was chair of the executive committee of the Southern Pacific Railroad from 1925 to 1928, and chairman of its board of directors from 1929 to 1932.

He assisted E.H. Harriman in the recapitalization of the Wells Fargo Express Company, and was a longtime director of the Equitable Life Assurance Company. With Elihu Root he was the trustee of the majority of the Equitable's capital stock.He was a graduate of Williston Seminary, Yale (1876), and Columbia University Law School (1878).

Through his daughter Alice, he is the grandfather of Edie Sedgwick.

J. Fred Helf

J. Fred Helf (1870? – November 19, 1915) was an American composer and sheet music publisher during the early 20th century.

Helf was born in Maysville, Kentucky. He went to seek his fortune in New York City at the age of 31. There he composed over 100 songs, some in collaboration with Will A. Heelan.

In October 1910 his music publishing company, J. Fred Helf Music, filed for bankruptcy with Elihu Root, Jr. acting as receiver. All the company's property and assets were sold at auction on March 12, 1913 in New York.

He retired from the music business five months before he died due to an illness. He died in Liberty, New York at the age of 45 leaving a widow and a daughter.

List of Republican National Conventions

This is a list of Republican National Conventions. The quadrennial convention is the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States.

Mount Root

Mount Root, also named Boundary Peak 165, is a mountain in Alaska and British Columbia, located on the Canada–United States border, and part of the Fairweather Range of the Saint Elias Mountains. It is named for Elihu Root, who was one of the diplomats involved in settling the Alaska boundary dispute between the United States and Canada. It is where the Margerie Glacier is located.

The first ascent was made by Laurel Adkins, Thomas Distler, George Fisher and Walter Grove in 1977. It involved 22 pitches of ice climbing.

Oren Root II

Oren Root Jr. (May 18, 1838 – August 27, 1907) was a professor of mathematics and natural sciences at Hamilton College in Clinton, New York and professor of English at the University of Missouri. He was founder of the Zeta Phi Society as well as a member of the Sigma Phi fraternity and a high degree Freemason. He was the elder brother of Secretary of State Elihu Root.

Pan American Union Building

The Pan American Union Building is the headquarters for the Organization of American States. It is located at 17th Street N.W. between C Street N.W. and Constitution Avenue, Northwest, Washington, D.C. on the former site of the John Peter Van Ness Mansion. The cornerstone was laid on May 11, 1908, by Theodore Roosevelt, Elihu Root, and Andrew Carnegie, and the building was dedicated on April 26, 1910.In 1919, the initial meeting of the International Labour Organization was held in the building.In 1969, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

Root–Takahira Agreement

The Root–Takahira Agreement (高平・ルート協定, Takahira-Rūto Kyōtei) was an agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan negotiated between United States Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Ambassador to the United States Takahira Kogorō.

Signed on November 30, 1908, the agreement consisted of an official recognition of the territorial status quo as of November 1908, affirmation of the independence and territorial integrity of China (i.e. the "Open Door Policy" as proposed by John Hay), maintenance of free trade and equal commercial opportunities, Japanese recognition of the American annexation of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the Philippines and American recognition of Japan's position in northeast China. Implicit in the agreement was American acknowledgment of Japan's right to annex Korea and dominance over southern Manchuria, and Japan's acquiescence to limitations on Japanese immigration to California.With the conclusion of the Spanish–American War, the United States had become a major power in East Asia. The American occupation of Hawaii and the Philippines, combined with aggressive economic policies in China were increasingly perceived as a threat by the Japanese government. The American government, on the other hand, was increasingly concerned by Japanese ambitions towards territorial gain at the expense of China, and with Japan's increasingly modern and powerful navy in the aftermath of the Russo-Japanese War.

The Agreement was credited at the time with averting mounting tensions between the United States and Japan. However, with Japan's rapprochement to Russia after 1907, and increasing economic investment into Manchuria, the Agreement resulted in a weakened American influence over further Japanese control over China.

SS Elihu Root

SS Elihu Root was a Liberty ship built in the United States during World War II. She was named after Elihu Root, a United States Senator from New York, the United States Secretary of War under presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, the United States Secretary of State under Theodore Roosevelt, and the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

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