Electron capture

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell. This process thereby changes a nuclear proton to a neutron and simultaneously causes the emission of an electron neutrino.


p
  + 
e
  → 
n
  + 
ν
e

Since this single emitted neutrino carries the entire decay energy, it has this single characteristic energy. Similarly, the momentum of the neutrino emission causes the daughter atom to recoil with a single characteristic momentum.

The resulting daughter nuclide, if it is in an excited state, then transitions to its ground state. Usually, a gamma ray is emitted during this transition, but nuclear de-excitation may also take place by internal conversion.

Following capture of an inner electron from the atom, an outer electron replaces the electron that was captured and one or more characteristic X-ray photons is emitted in this process. Electron capture sometimes also results in the Auger effect, where an electron is ejected from the atom's electron shell due to interactions between the atom's electrons in the process of seeking a lower energy electron state.

Following electron capture, the atomic number is reduced by one, the neutron number is increased by one, and there is no change in mass number. Simple electron capture by itself results in a neutral atom, since the loss of the electron in the electron shell is balanced by a loss of positive nuclear charge. However, a positive atomic ion may result from further Auger electron emission.

Electron capture is an example of weak interaction, one of the four fundamental forces.

Electron capture is the primary decay mode for isotopes with a relative superabundance of protons in the nucleus, but with insufficient energy difference between the isotope and its prospective daughter (the isobar with one less positive charge) for the nuclide to decay by emitting a positron. Electron capture is always an alternative decay mode for radioactive isotopes that do not have sufficient energy to decay by positron emission. Electron capture is sometimes included as a type of beta decay,[1] because the basic nuclear process, mediated by the weak force, is the same. In nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus. Electron capture is sometimes called inverse beta decay, though this term usually refers to the interaction of an electron antineutrino with a proton.[2]

If the energy difference between the parent atom and the daughter atom is less than 1.022 MeV, positron emission is forbidden as not enough decay energy is available to allow it, and thus electron capture is the sole decay mode. For example, rubidium-83 (37 protons, 46 neutrons) will decay to krypton-83 (36 protons, 47 neutrons) solely by electron capture (the energy difference, or decay energy, is about 0.9 MeV).

Atomic rearrangement following an electron capture
Scheme of two types of electron capture. Top: The nucleus absorbs an electron. Lower left: An outer electron replaces the "missing" electron. An x-ray, equal in energy to the difference between the two electron shells, is emitted. Lower right: In the Auger effect, the energy released when the outer electron replaces the inner electron is transferred to an outer electron. The outer electron is ejected from the atom, leaving a positive ion.

History

The theory of electron capture was first discussed by Gian-Carlo Wick in a 1934 paper, and then developed by Hideki Yukawa and others. K-electron capture was first observed by Luis Alvarez, in vanadium-48. He reported it in a 1937 paper in Physical Review.[3][4][5] Alvarez went on to study electron capture in gallium-67 and other nuclides.[3][6][7]

Reaction details

Examples:

26
13
Al
  + 
e
  →  26
12
Mg
  + 
ν
e
59
28
Ni
  + 
e
  →  59
27
Co
  + 
ν
e
40
19
K
  + 
e
  →  40
18
Ar
  + 
ν
e

The electron that is captured is one of the atom's own electrons, and not a new, incoming electron, as might be suggested by the way the above reactions are written. Radioactive isotopes that decay by pure electron capture can be inhibited from radioactive decay if they are fully ionized ("stripped" is sometimes used to describe such ions). It is hypothesized that such elements, if formed by the r-process in exploding supernovae, are ejected fully ionized and so do not undergo radioactive decay as long as they do not encounter electrons in outer space. Anomalies in elemental distributions are thought to be partly a result of this effect on electron capture. Inverse decays can also be induced by full ionisation; for instance, 163Ho decays into 163Dy by electron capture; however, a fully ionised 163Dy decays into a bound state of 163Ho by the process of bound-state β decay.[8]

Chemical bonds can also affect the rate of electron capture to a small degree (in general, less than 1%) depending on the proximity of electrons to the nucleus. For example, in 7Be, a difference of 0.9% has been observed between half-lives in metallic and insulating environments.[9] This relatively large effect is due to the fact that beryllium is a small atom that employs valence electrons that are close to the nucleus, and also in orbitals with no orbital angular momentum. Electrons in s orbitals (regardless of shell or primary quantum number), have a probability antinode at the nucleus, and are thus far more subject to electron capture than p or d electrons, which have a probability node at the nucleus.

Around the elements in the middle of the periodic table, isotopes that are lighter than stable isotopes of the same element tend to decay through electron capture, while isotopes heavier than the stable ones decay by electron emission. Electron capture happens most often in the heavier neutron-deficient elements where the mass change is smallest and positron emission isn't always possible. When the loss of mass in a nuclear reaction is greater than zero but less than 2m[0-1e-], the process cannot occur by positron emission but is spontaneous for electron capture.

Common examples

Some common radioisotopes that decay by electron capture include:

Radioisotope Half-life
7
Be
53.28 d
37
Ar
35.0 d
41
Ca
1.03×105 y
44
Ti
60 y
49
V
337 d
51
Cr
27.7 d
53
Mn
3.7×106 y
55
Fe
2.6 y
57
Co
271.8 d
59
Ni
7.5×104 y
67
Ga
3.260 d
68
Ge
270.8 d
72
Se
8.5 d

For a full list, see the table of nuclides.

References

  1. ^ Cottingham, W. N.; Greenwood, D. A. (1986). An introduction to nuclear physics. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-31960-7.
  2. ^ "The Reines-Cowan Experiments: Detecting the Poltergeist" (PDF). Los Alamos National Laboratory. 25: 3. 1997.
  3. ^ a b Luis W. Alvarez, W. Peter Trower (1987). "Chapter 3: K-Electron Capture by Nuclei (with the commentary of Emilio Segré)" In Discovering Alvarez: selected works of Luis W. Alvarez, with commentary by his students and colleagues. University of Chicago Press, pp. 11–12, ISBN 978-0-226-81304-2.
  4. ^ "Luis Alvarez, The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968", biography, nobelprize.org. Accessed October 7, 2009.
  5. ^ Alvarez, Luis W. (1937). "Nuclear K Electron Capture". Physical Review. 52: 134–135. Bibcode:1937PhRv...52..134A. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.52.134.
  6. ^ Alvarez, Luis W. (1937). "Electron Capture and Internal Conversion in Gallium 67". Physical Review. 53: 606. Bibcode:1938PhRv...53..606A. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.53.606.
  7. ^ Alvarez, Luis W. (1938). "The Capture of Orbital Electrons by Nuclei". Physical Review. 54: 486–497. Bibcode:1938PhRv...54..486A. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.54.486.
  8. ^ Fritz Bosch (1995). "Manipulation of Nuclear Lifetimes in Storage Rings" (PDF). Physica Scripta. T59: 221–229. Bibcode:1995PhST...59..221B. doi:10.1088/0031-8949/1995/t59/030. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-26.
  9. ^ B. Wang; et al. (2006). "Change of the 7Be electron capture half-life in metallic environments". The European Physical Journal A. 28: 375–377. Bibcode:2006EPJA...28..375W. doi:10.1140/epja/i2006-10068-x. (subscription required)

External links

Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) is emitted from an atomic nucleus. For example, beta decay of a neutron transforms it into a proton by the emission of an electron accompanied by an antineutrino, or conversely a proton is converted into a neutron by the emission of a positron (positron emission) with a neutrino, thus changing the nuclide type. Neither the beta particle nor its associated (anti-)neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but are created in the decay process. By this process, unstable atoms obtain a more stable ratio of protons to neutrons. The probability of a nuclide decaying due to beta and other forms of decay is determined by its nuclear binding energy. The binding energies of all existing nuclides form what is called the nuclear band or valley of stability. For either electron or positron emission to be energetically possible, the energy release (see below) or Q value must be positive.

Beta decay is a consequence of the weak force, which is characterized by relatively lengthy decay times. Nucleons are composed of up quarks and down quarks, and the weak force allows a quark to change type by the exchange of a W boson and the creation of an electron/antineutrino or positron/neutrino pair. For example, a neutron, composed of two down quarks and an up quark, decays to a proton composed of a down quark and two up quarks. Decay times for many nuclides that are subject to beta decay can be thousands of years.

Electron capture is sometimes included as a type of beta decay, because the basic nuclear process, mediated by the weak force, is the same. In electron capture, an inner atomic electron is captured by a proton in the nucleus, transforming it into a neutron, and an electron neutrino is released.

Chemical ionization

Chemical ionization (CI) is a soft ionization technique used in mass spectrometry. This was first introduced by Burnaby Munson and Frank H. Field in 1966. This technique is a branch of gaseous ion-molecule chemistry. Reagent gas molecules are ionized by electron ionization, which subsequently react with analyte molecules in the gas phase in order to achieve ionization. Negative chemical ionization (NCI), charge-exchange chemical ionization and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) are some of the common variations of this technique. CI has several important applications in identification, structure elucidation and quantitation of organic compounds. Beside the applications in analytical chemistry, the usefulness in chemical ionization extends toward biochemical, biological and medicinal fields as well.

Double beta decay

In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two neutrons are simultaneously transformed into two protons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus. As in single beta decay, this process allows the atom to move closer to the optimal ratio of protons and neutrons. As a result of this transformation, the nucleus emits two detectable beta particles, which are electrons or positrons.

The literature distinguishes between two types of double beta decay: ordinary double beta decay and neutrinoless double beta decay. In ordinary double beta decay, which has been observed in several isotopes, two electrons and two electron antineutrinos are emitted from the decaying nucleus. In neutrinoless double beta decay, a hypothesized process that has never been observed, only electrons would be emitted.

Double electron capture

Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus. For a nuclide (A, Z) with number of nucleons A and atomic number Z, double electron capture is only possible if the mass of the nuclide of (A, Z−2) is lower.

In this mode of decay, two of the orbital electrons are captured by two protons in the nucleus, forming two neutrons. Two neutrinos are emitted in the process. Since the protons are changed to neutrons, the number of neutrons increases by 2, the number of protons Z decreases by 2, and the atomic mass number A remains unchanged. By changing the number of protons, double electron capture transforms the nuclide into a new element.

Example:

In most cases this decay mode is masked by more probable modes (single electron capture etc.), but when all these modes are forbidden or strongly suppressed, double electron capture becomes the main mode of decay. There exist 35 naturally occurring isotopes that can undergo double electron capture. There are, however, only three confirmed observations of this process (for krypton-78, barium-130 and xenon-124). One reason is that the probability of double electron capture is enormously small (the theoretical predictions of half-lives for this mode lies well above 1020 years). A second reason is that the only detectable particles created in this process are X-rays and Auger electrons that are emitted by the excited atomic shell. In the range of their energies (~1–10 keV), the background is usually high. Thus, the experimental detection of double electron capture is more difficult than that for double beta decay.

Double electron capture can be accompanied by the excitation of the daughter nucleus. Its de-excitation, in turn, is accompanied by an emission of photons with energies of hundreds of keV.

If the mass difference between the mother and daughter atoms is more than two masses of an electron (1.022 MeV), the energy released in the process is enough to allow another mode of decay: electron capture with positron emission. It occurs simultaneously with double electron capture, their branching ratio depending on nuclear properties. When the mass difference is more than four electron masses (2.044 MeV), the third mode—double positron decay—is allowed. Only 6 naturally occurring nuclides can decay via these three modes simultaneously.

Electron-capture dissociation

Electron-capture dissociation (ECD) is a method of fragmenting gas-phase ions for structure elucidation of peptides and proteins in tandem mass spectrometry. It is one of the most widely used techniques for activation and dissociation of mass selected precursor ion in MS/MS. It involves the direct introduction of low-energy electrons to trapped gas-phase ions.

Electron-transfer dissociation

Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) is a method of fragmenting multiply-charged gaseous macromolecules in a mass spectrometer between the stages of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Similar to electron-capture dissociation, ETD induces fragmentation of large, multiply-charged cations by transferring electrons to them. ETD is used extensively with polymers and biological molecules such as proteins and peptides for sequence analysis. Transferring an electron causes peptide backbone cleavage into c- and z-ions while leaving labile post translational modifications (PTM) intact. The technique only works well for higher charge state peptide or polymer ions (z>2). However, relative to collision-induced dissociation (CID), ETD is advantageous for the fragmentation of longer peptides or even entire proteins. This makes the technique important for top-down proteomics.The method was developed by Hunt and coworkers at the University of Virginia.

Electron capture detector

An electron capture detector (ECD) is a device for detecting atoms and molecules in a gas through the attachment of electrons via electron capture ionization. The device was invented in 1957 by James Lovelock and is used in gas chromatography to detect trace amounts of chemical compounds in a sample.

Electron capture ionization

Electron capture ionization is the ionization of a gas phase atom or molecule by attachment of an electron to create an ion of the form A. The reaction is

where the M over the arrow denotes that to conserve energy and momentum a third body is required (the molecularity of the reaction is three).

Electron capture can be used in conjunction with chemical ionization.

Fluorine-18

Fluorine-18 (18F) is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons. It has a mass of 18.0009380(6) u and its half-life is 109.771(20) minutes. It decays by positron emission 97% of the time and electron capture 3% of the time. Both modes of decay yield stable oxygen-18.

Indium-111

Indium-111 (111In) is a radioactive isotope of indium (In). It decays by electron capture to cadmium-111 with a half-life of 2.8 days.

111In chloride (Cl) solution is produced by proton irradiation ((p,2n) of a cadmium (Cd) isotope (112Cd) OR (p,n) 111Cd enriched target) in a cyclotron, as recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The former method is more commonly used as is results in a high level of radionuclide purity. 111In has a half-life (t1/2) of 2.81 days (67.32 hours) decaying by electron capture (EC) to 111Cd, which is stable (non-radioactive).It is commonly used in Nuclear Medicine Diagnostic Imaging by radio-labeling targeted molecules or cells. During its radioactive decay, it emits low energy gamma (γ) photons which can be imaged using planar or SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) gamma cameras (primary energies (ε) of 171.3 keV (91%) and 245.4 keV (94%) )

Iodine-125

Iodine-125 (125I) is a radioisotope of iodine which has uses in biological assays, nuclear medicine imaging and in radiation therapy as brachytherapy to treat a number of conditions, including prostate cancer, uveal melanomas, and brain tumors. It is the second longest-lived radioisotope of iodine, after iodine-129.

Its half-life is 59.49 days and it decays by electron capture to an excited state of tellurium-125. This state is not the metastable Te-125m, but rather a lower energy state that decays immediately by gamma decay with a maximum energy of 35 keV. Some of the excess energy of the excited Te-125 may be internally converted ejected electrons (also at 35 keV), or to x-rays (from electron bremsstrahlung), and also a total of 21 Auger electrons, which are produced at the low energies of 50 to 500 electron volts. Eventually, stable nonradioactive ground-state Te-125 is produced as the final decay product.

In medical applications, the internal conversion and Auger electrons cause little damage outside the cell which contains the isotope atom. The X-rays and gamma rays are of low enough energy to deliver a higher radiation dose selectively to nearby tissues, in "permanent" brachytherapy where the isotope capsules are left in place (I-125 competes with palladium-103 in such uses).Because of its relatively long half-life and emission of low-energy photons which can be detected by gamma-counter crystal detectors, I-125 is a preferred isotope for tagging antibodies in radioimmunoassay and other gamma-counting procedures involving proteins outside the body. The same properties of the isotope make it useful for brachytherapy (as noted), and for certain nuclear medicine scanning procedures, in which it is attached to proteins (albumin or fibrinogen), and where a longer half-life than provided by I-123 is required for test lasting several days.

Iodine-125 can be used in scanning/imaging the thyroid, but iodine-123 is preferred for this purpose, due to better radiation penetration and shorter half-life (13 hours). I-125 is useful for Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) testing in the diagnosis or monitoring of patients with kidney disease. Iodine-125 is used therapeutically in brachytherapy treatments of tumors. For radiotherapy ablation of tissues that absorb iodine (such as the thyroid), or that absorb an iodine-containing radiopharmaceutical, the beta-emitter iodine-131 is the preferred isotope.

125I is created by the electron capture decay of 125Xe, which is a synthetic isotope of xenon, itself created by neutron capture of stable 124Xe, which occurs naturally with an abundance of around 0.1%. Because of the synthetic production route of 125I and its short half-life, the natural abundance is effectively zero.

Isotopes of cadmium

Naturally occurring cadmium (48Cd) is composed of 8 isotopes. For two of them, natural radioactivity was observed, and three others are predicted to be radioactive but their decays were never observed, due to extremely long half-lives. The two natural radioactive isotopes are 113Cd (beta decay, half-life is 8.04 × 1015 years) and 116Cd (two-neutrino double beta decay, half-life is 2.8 × 1019 years). The other three are 106Cd, 108Cd (double electron capture), and 114Cd (double beta decay); only lower limits on their half-life times have been set. At least three isotopes—110Cd, 111Cd, and 112Cd—are absolutely stable. Among the isotopes absent in the natural cadmium, the most long-lived are 109Cd with a half-life of 462.6 days, and 115Cd with a half-life of 53.46 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 2.5 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 5 minutes. This element also has 12 known meta states, with the most stable being 113mCd (t1/2 14.1 years), 115mCd (t1/2 44.6 days) and 117mCd (t1/2 3.36 hours).

The known isotopes of cadmium range in atomic mass from 94.950 u (95Cd) to 131.946 u (132Cd). The primary decay mode before the second most abundant stable isotope, 112Cd, is electron capture and the primary modes after are beta emission and electron capture. The primary decay product before 112Cd is element 47 (silver) and the primary product after is element 49 (indium).

Isotopes of chromium

Naturally occurring chromium (24Cr) is composed of four stable isotopes; 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, and 54Cr with 52Cr being the most abundant (83.789% natural abundance). 50Cr is suspected of decaying by β+β+ to 50Ti with a half-life of (more than) 1.8×1017 years. Twenty-two radioisotopes, all of which are entirely synthetic, have been characterized with the most stable being 51Cr with a half-life of 27.7 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 24 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 1 minute, the least stable being 66Cr with a half-life of 10 milliseconds. This element also has 2 meta states, 45mCr, the more stable one, and 59mCr, the least stable isotope or isomer.

53Cr is the radiogenic decay product of 53Mn. Chromium isotopic contents are typically combined with manganese isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology. Mn-Cr isotope ratios reinforce the evidence from 26Al and 107Pd for the early history of the solar system. Variations in 53Cr/52Cr and Mn/Cr ratios from several meteorites indicate an initial 53Mn/55Mn ratio that suggests Mn-Cr isotope systematics must result from in-situ decay of 53Mn in differentiated planetary bodies. Hence 53Cr provides additional evidence for nucleosynthetic processes immediately before coalescence of the solar system. The same isotope is preferentially involved in certain leaching reactions, thereby allowing its abundance in seawater sediments to be used as a proxy for atmospheric oxygen concentrations.The isotopes of chromium range from 42Cr to 67Cr. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 52Cr, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay.

Neil Kelleher (scientist)

Neil L. Kelleher is the Walter and Mary Elizabeth Glass Professor of Chemistry, Molecular Biosciences, and Medicine at Northwestern University. His research focuses on mass spectrometry, primarily its application to proteomics. He is known mainly for top-down proteomics and the development of the fragmentation technique of electron-capture dissociation with Roman Zubarev while in Fred McLafferty's lab at Cornell University.

Potassium-40

Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251×109 years. It makes up 0.012% (120 ppm) of the total amount of potassium found in nature.

Potassium-40 is a rare example of an isotope that undergoes both types of beta decay. About 89.28% of the time, it decays to calcium-40 (40Ca) with emission of a beta particle (β−, an electron) with a maximum energy of 1.31 MeV and an antineutrino. About 10.72% of the time it decays to argon-40 (40Ar) by electron capture (EC), with the emission of a neutrino and then a 1.460 MeV gamma ray. The radioactive decay of this particular isotope explains the large abundance of argon (nearly 1%) in the earth's atmosphere, as well as its abundance compared to 36Ar. Very rarely (0.001% of the time) it will decay to 40Ar by emitting a positron (β+) and a neutrino.

Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity or nuclear radiation) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, or a gamma ray or electron in the case of internal conversion. A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission.

Radioactive decay is a stochastic (i.e. random) process at the level of single atoms. According to quantum theory, it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will decay, regardless of how long the atom has existed. However, for a collection of atoms, the collection's expected decay rate is characterized in terms of their measured decay constants or half-lives. This is the basis of radiometric dating. The half-lives of radioactive atoms have no known upper limit, spanning a time range of over 55 orders of magnitude, from nearly instantaneous to far longer than the age of the universe.

A radioactive nucleus with zero spin can have no defined orientation, and hence emits the total momentum of its decay products isotropically (all directions and without bias). If there are multiple particles produced during a single decay, as in beta decay, their relative angular distribution, or spin directions may not be isotropic. Decay products from a nucleus with spin may be distributed non-isotropically with respect to that spin direction, either because of an external influence such as an electromagnetic field, or because the nucleus was produced in a dynamic process that constrained the direction of its spin. Such a parent process could be a previous decay, or a nuclear reaction.The decaying nucleus is called the parent radionuclide (or parent radioisotope), and the process produces at least one daughter nuclide. Except for gamma decay or internal conversion from a nuclear excited state, the decay is a nuclear transmutation resulting in a daughter containing a different number of protons or neutrons (or both). When the number of protons changes, an atom of a different chemical element is created.

The first decay processes to be discovered were alpha decay, beta decay, and gamma decay. Alpha decay occurs when the nucleus ejects an alpha particle (helium nucleus). This is the most common process of emitting nucleons, but highly excited nuclei can eject single nucleons, or in the case of cluster decay, specific light nuclei of other elements. Beta decay occurs in two ways:

(i) beta-minus decay, when the nucleus emits an electron and an antineutrino in a process that changes a neutron to a proton, or

(ii) beta-plus decay, when the nucleus emits a positron and a neutrino in a process that changes a proton to a neutron.

Highly excited neutron-rich nuclei, formed as the product of other types of decay, occasionally lose energy by way of neutron emission, resulting in a change from one isotope to another of the same element. The nucleus may capture an orbiting electron, causing a proton to convert into a neutron in a process called electron capture. All of these processes result in a well-defined nuclear transmutation.

By contrast, there are radioactive decay processes that do not result in a nuclear transmutation. The energy of an excited nucleus may be emitted as a gamma ray in a process called gamma decay, or that energy may be lost when the nucleus interacts with an orbital electron causing its ejection from the atom, in a process called internal conversion.

Another type of radioactive decay results in products that vary, appearing as two or more "fragments" of the original nucleus with a range of possible masses. This decay, called spontaneous fission, happens when a large unstable nucleus spontaneously splits into two (or occasionally three) smaller daughter nuclei, and generally leads to the emission of gamma rays, neutrons, or other particles from those products.

For a summary table showing the number of stable and radioactive nuclides in each category, see radionuclide. There are 28 naturally occurring chemical elements on Earth that are radioactive, consisting of 33 radionuclides (5 elements have 2 different radionuclides) that date before the time of formation of the solar system. These 33 are known as primordial nuclides. Well-known examples are uranium and thorium, but also included are naturally occurring long-lived radioisotopes, such as potassium-40. Another 50 or so shorter-lived radionuclides, such as radium and radon, found on Earth, are the products of decay chains that began with the primordial nuclides, or are the product of ongoing cosmogenic processes, such as the production of carbon-14 from nitrogen-14 in the atmosphere by cosmic rays. Radionuclides may also be produced artificially in particle accelerators or nuclear reactors, resulting in 650 of these with half-lives of over an hour, and several thousand more with even shorter half-lives. (See List of nuclides for a list of these sorted by half-life.)

Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable. This excess energy can be used in one of three ways: emitted from the nucleus as gamma radiation; transferred to one of its electrons to release it as a conversion electron; or used to create and emit a new particle (alpha particle or beta particle) from the nucleus. During those processes, the radionuclide is said to undergo radioactive decay. These emissions are considered ionizing radiation because they are powerful enough to liberate an electron from another atom. The radioactive decay can produce a stable nuclide or will sometimes produce a new unstable radionuclide which may undergo further decay. Radioactive decay is a random process at the level of single atoms: it is impossible to predict when one particular atom will decay. However, for a collection of atoms of a single element the decay rate, and thus the half-life (t1/2) for that collection can be calculated from their measured decay constants. The range of the half-lives of radioactive atoms have no known limits and span a time range of over 55 orders of magnitude.

Radionuclides occur naturally or are artificially produced in nuclear reactors, cyclotrons, particle accelerators or radionuclide generators. There are about 730 radionuclides with half-lives longer than 60 minutes (see list of nuclides). Thirty-two of those are primordial radionuclides that were created before the earth was formed. At least another 60 radionuclides are detectable in nature, either as daughters of primordial radionuclides or as radionuclides produced through natural production on Earth by cosmic radiation. More than 2400 radionuclides have half-lives less than 60 minutes. Most of those are only produced artificially, and have very short half-lives. For comparison, there are about 253 stable nuclides. (In theory, only 146 of them are stable, and the other 107 are believed to decay (alpha decay or beta decay or double beta decay or electron capture or double electron capture))

All chemical elements can exist as radionuclides. Even the lightest element, hydrogen, has a well-known radionuclide, tritium. Elements heavier than lead, and the elements technetium and promethium, exist only as radionuclides. (In theory, elements heavier than dysprosium exist only as radionuclides, but the half-life for some such elements (e.g. gold and platinum) are too long to found)

Unplanned exposure to radionuclides generally has a harmful effect on living organisms including humans, although low levels of exposure occur naturally without harm. The degree of harm will depend on the nature and extent of the radiation produced, the amount and nature of exposure (close contact, inhalation or ingestion), and the biochemical properties of the element; with increased risk of cancer the most usual consequence. However, radionuclides with suitable properties are used in nuclear medicine for both diagnosis and treatment. An imaging tracer made with radionuclides is called a radioactive tracer. A pharmaceutical drug made with radionuclides is called a radiopharmaceutical.

Supernova

A supernova ( plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is an event that occurs upon the death of certain types of stars.

Supernovae are more energetic than novae. In Latin, nova means "new", referring astronomically to what appears to be a temporary new bright star. Adding the prefix "super-" distinguishes supernovae from ordinary novae, which are far less luminous. The word supernova was coined by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky in 1931.Only three Milky Way, naked-eye supernova events have been observed during the last thousand years, though many have been seen in other galaxies. The most recent directly observed supernova in the Milky Way was Kepler's Supernova in 1604, but two more recent supernova remnants have also been found. Statistical observations of supernovae in other galaxies suggest they occur on average about three times every century in the Milky Way, and that any galactic supernova would almost certainly be observable with modern astronomical telescopes.

Supernovae may expel much, if not all, of the material away from a star at velocities up to 30,000 km/s or 10% of the speed of light. This drives an expanding and fast-moving shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium, and in turn, sweeping up an expanding shell of gas and dust, which is observed as a supernova remnant. Supernovae create, fuse and eject the bulk of the chemical elements produced by nucleosynthesis. Supernovae play a significant role in enriching the interstellar medium with the heavier atomic mass chemical elements. Furthermore, the expanding shock waves from supernovae can trigger the formation of new stars. Supernova remnants are expected to accelerate a large fraction of galactic primary cosmic rays, but direct evidence for cosmic ray production was found only in a few of them so far. They are also potentially strong galactic sources of gravitational waves.Theoretical studies indicate that most supernovae are triggered by one of two basic mechanisms: the sudden re-ignition of nuclear fusion in a degenerate star or the sudden gravitational collapse of a massive star's core. In the first instance, a degenerate white dwarf may accumulate sufficient material from a binary companion, either through accretion or via a merger, to raise its core temperature enough to trigger runaway nuclear fusion, completely disrupting the star. In the second case, the core of a massive star may undergo sudden gravitational collapse, releasing gravitational potential energy as a supernova. While some observed supernovae are more complex than these two simplified theories, the astrophysical collapse mechanics have been established and accepted by most astronomers for some time.

Owing to the wide range of astrophysical consequences of these events, astronomers now deem supernova research, across the fields of stellar and galactic evolution, as an especially important area for investigation.

Tandem mass spectrometry

Tandem mass spectrometry, also known as MS/MS or MS2, involves multiple steps of mass spectrometry selection, with some form of fragmentation occurring in between the stages.In a tandem mass spectrometer, ions are formed in the ion source and separated by mass-to-charge ratio in the first stage of mass spectrometry (MS1). Ions of a particular mass-to-charge ratio (precursor ions) are selected and fragment ions (product ions) are created by collision-induced dissociation, ion-molecule reaction, photodissociation, or other process. The resulting ions are then separated and detected in a second stage of mass spectrometry (MS2). A common use is for analysis of biomolecules such as proteins and peptides.

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