Electro (or electro-funk) is a genre of electronic music and early hip hop directly influenced by the use of the Roland TR-808 drum machines, and funk. Records in the genre typically feature drum machines and heavy electronic sounds, usually without vocals, although if vocals are present they are delivered in a deadpan manner, often through electronic distortion such as vocoding and talkboxing. This is the main distinction between electro and previously prominent genres such as disco, in which the electronic sound was only part of the instrumentation. It also palpably deviates from its predecessor boogie for being less vocal-oriented and more focused on electronic beats produced by drum machines.
Following the decline of disco music in the United States, electro emerged as a fusion of funk and New York boogie. Early hip hop and rap combined with German and Japanese electropop influences such as Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra (YMO) inspired the birth of electro. In 1982, producer Arthur Baker with Afrika Bambaataa released the seminal "Planet Rock", which was built using samples from Kraftwerk's Trans-Europe Express (1977) and drum beats supplied by the TR-808. Planet Rock was followed later that year by another breakthrough electro record, Nunk by Warp 9. In 1983, Hashim created an electro funk sound which influenced Herbie Hancock, resulting in his hit single "Rockit". The early 1980s were electro's mainstream peak. By the mid 1980s, the genre moved away from its electronic and funk influences, using harder edged beats and rock samples, exemplified by Run DMC. Electro became popular again in the late 1990s with artists such as Anthony Rother and DJs such as Dave Clarke. A third wave of popularity occurred in 2007. Electro has branched out into subgenres, including Electrocore and Skweee, which developed in Sweden and Finland.
|Cultural origins||Early 1980s, U.S. (New York City and Detroit), Japan|
From its inception, one of the defining characteristics of the electro sound was the use of drum machines, particularly the Roland TR-808, as the rhythmic basis of the track. As the genre evolved, computers and sampling replaced drum machines in electronic music, and are now used by the majority of electro producers. It is important to note, that although the electro of the 1980s and contemporary electro (electronic dance music) both grew out of the dissolution of disco, they are now different genres.
Classic (1980s) electro drum patterns tend to be electronic emulations of breakbeats (occasionally a four to the floor pattern is used as well), with a syncopated kick drum, and usually a snare or clap accenting the backbeat. The difference between electro drumbeats and breakbeats (or breaks) is that electro tends to be more mechanical, while breakbeats tend to have more of a human-like feel, like that of a live drummer. The definition however is somewhat ambiguous in nature due to the various uses of the term.
The Roland TR-808 drum machine hit the market in 1980, defining early electro with its immediately recognizable sound. Staccato, percussive drumbeats tended to dominate electro, almost exclusively provided by the TR-808. As an inexpensive way of producing a drum sound, the TR-808 caught on quickly with the producers of early electro because of the ability of its bass drum to generate extreme low-frequencies. This aspect of the Roland TR-808 was especially appealing to producers who would test drive their tracks in nightclubs (like NYC's Funhouse), where the bass drum sound was essential for a record's success. Its unique percussion sounds like handclaps, open and closed high-hat, clave and cowbell became integral to the electro sound. A number of popular songs in the early 1980s employed the TR-808, including Marvin Gaye's “Sexual Healing,” Cybotron's “Clear,” and Afrika Bambaataa's “Planet Rock.” The Roland TR-808 has attained iconic status, eventually being used on more hits than any other drum machine. Through the use of samples, the Roland TR-808 remains popular in electro and other genres to the present day.
Other electro instrumentation was generally electronic, favoring analog synthesis, programmed bass lines, sequenced or arpeggiated synthetic riffs, and atonal sound effects all created with synthesizers. Heavy use of effects such as reverbs, delays, chorus or phasers along with eerie synthetic ensemble strings or pad sounds emphasized the science fiction or futuristic themes of classic (1980s) electro, represented in the lyrics and/or music. Electro hip hop group Warp 9's 1983 single, Light Years Away, produced and written by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, exemplifies the Sci-Fi, afrofuturist aspect of electro, reflected in both the lyrics and instrumentation. The imagery of its lyrical refrain space is the place for the human race pays homage to Sun Ra's 1974 film, while its synth lines and sound effects are informed by sci-fi, computer games, and cartoons,"born of a science-fiction revival.".:148
Most electro is instrumental, but a common element is vocals processed through a vocoder. Additionally, speech synthesis may be used to create robotic or mechanical lyrical content, as in the iconic Planet Rock and the automatous chant in the chorus of Nunk by Warp 9. Although primarily instrumental, early electro utilized rap. Male rap dominated the genre, however female rappers are an integral part of the electro tradition, whether featured in a group as in Warp 9 or as solo performers like Roxanne Shante. The lyrical style that emerged along with electro became less popular by the 1990s, as rapping continued to evolve, becoming the domain of hip hop music.
About electro origins, Greg Wilson claims:
Following the decline of disco music in the late 1970s, various funk artists such as Zapp & Roger began experimenting with talk boxes and the use of heavier, more distinctive beats. Boogie played a role during the formative years of electro, notably "Feels Good" by Electra (Emergency – EMDS-6527), the post-disco production "You're the One for Me" by D. Train (Prelude – PRL D 621), and the Eric Matthew/Darryl Payne productions "Thanks to You" by Sinnamon (Becket – BKD 508), and "On A Journey (I Sing The Funk Electric)" by Electrik Funk (Prelude – PRL D 541). Electro eventually emerged as a fusion of different styles, including funk, boogie combined with German and Japanese technopop, in addition to influences from the futurism of Alvin Toffler, martial arts films, and video game music. The genre's immediate forebearers included Kraftwerk, Yellow Magic Orchestra (YMO), and Cat Stevens.
In 1980, YMO was the first band to utilize the TR-808 programmable drum machine. That same year, YMO member Ryuichi Sakamoto released "Riot in Lagos", which is regarded as an early example of electro music, and is credited for having anticipated the beats and sounds of electro. The song's influence can be seen in the work of later pioneering electro artists such as Afrika Bambaataa and Mantronix.
1982 was a watershed year for electro. Bronx based producer Afrika Bambaataa released the seminal track "Planet Rock", which contained elements of Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express" (from the album of the same name) and "Numbers" (from Kraftwerk's 1981 Computer World album) combined with the use of distinctive TR-808 beats. "Planet Rock" is widely regarded as a turning point in the electro genre, "like a light being switched on.":146 Another groundbreaking record released that year, Nunk by Warp 9 utilized "imagery drawn from computer games and hip hop slanguage." Although remaining unreleased, a pre-Def Jam Russell Simmons produced Bruce Haack's proto hip-hop single "Party Machine" at a studio in Philadelphia. Electro hip hop releases in 1982 include songs by: Planet Patrol, Warp 9, Man Parrish, George Clinton (Computer Games), Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, Tyrone Brunson, The Jonzun Crew and Whodini.
In 1983, Hashim created the influential electro funk tune "Al-Naafiysh (The Soul)" which became Cutting Record's first release in November 1983. At the time Hashim was influenced by Man Parrish's "Hip Hop, Be Bop", Thomas Dolby's "She Blinded Me With Science" and Afrika Bambaataa's "Planet Rock". "Al-Nafyish" was later included in Playgroup's compilation album Kings of Electro (2007), alongside other electro classics such as Sakamoto's "Riot in Lagos". Also in 1983, Herbie Hancock, in collaboration with Grand Mixer D.ST, released the hit single "Rockit".
Bambaataa and groups like Planet Patrol, Jonzun Crew, Mantronix, Newcleus, Warp 9 and Juan Atkins' Detroit-based group Cybotron went on to influence the genres of Detroit techno, ghettotech, breakbeat, drum and bass and electroclash. Early producers in the electro genre (notably Arthur Baker, John Robie and Shep Pettibone) later featured prominently in the Latin Freestyle (or simply "Freestyle") movement, along with Lotti Golden and Richard Scher (the producer/writers of Warp 9) fusing electro, funk, and hip hop with elements of Latin music. Detroit techno DJ Eddie Fowlkes shaped a style called electro-soul, which was characterized by a predominant bass line and a chopped up electro breakbeat contrasted with soulful male vocals. Kurtis Mantronik's electro-soul productions for Joyce Sims presaged new jack swing's combination of hip hop and soul elements.
By the late 1980s, the genre evolved into what is known today as new school hip hop. The release of Run DMC's It's Like That (1983) marked a stylistic shift, focusing down on the beats in a stark, metal minimalism.:151 Rock samples replaced synthesizers that had figured so prominently in electro, and rap styles and techniques evolved in tandem, anchoring rap to the changing hip hop culture. Baker, Pettibone, Golden and Scher enjoyed robust careers well into the house era, eluding the "genre trap" to successfully produce mainstream artists.
Despite palpably heterosexist and male-dominated, like the hip-hop culture it aligns itself with, electro music-oriented clubs historically catered to Anglophile post-punk art scene members and uptown hip-hop/breakdance crews, inspiring a mixed-race subculture.
Although the early 1980s were electro's heyday in the mainstream, it enjoyed renewed popularity in the late 1990s with artists such as Anthony Rother and DJs such as Dave Clarke, and has made yet another comeback for a third wave of popularity in 2007. The continued interest in electro, though influenced to a great degree by Florida, Detroit, Miami, Los Angeles and New York styles, has primarily taken hold in Florida and Europe with electro club nights becoming commonplace again. The scene still manages to support hundreds of electro labels, from the disco electro of Clone Records, to the old school b-boy styles of Breakin’ Records and Dominance Electricity, to the electrofunk of Citinite, and to harder more modern styles of electro of labels like Bass Frequency Productions and Nu Illusion Music.
New branches of electro have risen over the last couple of years. Florida has pioneered the "Electrocore" sound, started in the late 1990s by artists like Jackal & Hyde and Dynamix II and carried on to this day. Skweee is a genre which developed in Nordic countries such as Sweden and Finland, hence its first name "Scandinavian Funk". The outlets and artists of Skweee are still mostly limited to the Nordic countries.
From the late 1990s onward, the term "electro" is also used to refer two other fusion genres of electro, either blended with techno and new wave in electroclash, or with house and the former in electro house. There is some debate within the electro community on how much these genres constitute electro.
The dominant style at Hard Summer, provided by artists like Zedd, Erol Alkan and Bloody Beetroots, is what's been tagged 'electro house', although to my ears it has little relationship with either house or electro (in the original eighties 808-bass-bumping sense).
Despite its successes (documented in full on Rhino's four-disc Electric Funk set), the style was quickly eclipsed by the mid-'80s rise of hip-hop music built around samples (often from rock records) rather than musical synthesizers.
Electro house : Sometimes resembles tech house, but often influenced by the 'electro' sound of the early 1980's, a.k.a. breakdancing music, via samples or just synthesizer usage.
It was in the early 2000s when a big movement of electroclash being mixed with synthpop. Meanwhile, tech house was also becoming more known and gaining some serious buzz. When the two were combined that is when Electro House came to be the way it is now. ... 'Satisfaction' was one of those songs that people would have stuck in their head for days. This song still continues to receive a lot of attention even now. It won world wide rewards as well as make Benny Benassi the father of Electro House.
Many people want to find out exactly where did this style of music emerge from. There isn't any factual evidence to prove anything. As with most music history, it isn't certain... It is noted that about ten years ago there was a large revolutionary time in electro music being mixed with pop. At the same time tech house was gaining popularity. When the two were mixed that is when Electro House came to be the way it is now.Missing or empty
The Avenue Mohammed VI, formerly Avenue de France, is the major city thoroughfare of Marrakesh, Morocco. It is named after the King, Mohamed VI. It has seen rapid development of residential complexes and many luxury hotels. Avenue Mohammed VI contains what is claimed to be the largest nightclub of Africa, Pacha Marrakech, a trendy club attracting young people and clubbers, featuring house and electro music. It also has two large cinema complexes, Le Colisée à Gueliz and Cinéma Rif, and the new shopping precinct, Al Mazar.Bass music
Bass music (also called UK bass or post-dubstep) is an umbrella term for club music that emerged in the United Kingdom during the mid-2000s under the influence of diverse genres such as dubstep, UK garage, R&B, wonky, house, and grime. The phrase "bass music" came into use as artists began ambiguously blending the sounds of these defined genres while maintaining an emphasis on percussive, bass-led rhythm.Berlin Festival
Berlin Festival is a two-day outdoor rock/ electro music event which is located near the city of Berlin, Germany at the former airfield 'Berlin Tempelhof Airport' which is now a community park. It was first organized in 2005, since then, its audience has grown to about 20,000 visitors. Berlin Festival was awarded 'Best European Festival Line-Up' at the European Festivals Awards in 2013.Usually, the festival takes place in September. The organisators announced that they will take a "creative break" in 2016.Huguenot, Orange County, New York
Huguenot is a hamlet in the town of Deerpark, in Orange County, New York. It is north of Port Jervis on US-209. Huguenot Schoolhouse and Neversink Valley Grange Hall No. 1530 are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The community was named after Huguenot immigrants.Since 2005, the annual electro-music music festival has been held in Huguenot's Greenkill Retreat Center.
Huegenot is named for Huguenot families Cuddeback and Gumaer who settled here in 1698. Indian name Seneyaugnquan.Kortenaken
Kortenaken (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈkɔrtənaːkə(n)]) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. The municipality comprises the towns of Hoeleden, Kersbeek-Miskom, Kortenaken proper, Ransberg and Waanrode. On January 1, 2014, Kortenaken had a total population of 7,881. The total area is 49.06 km² which gives a population density of 160,63 inhabitants per km².
Every year in August there used to be a three-day festival in Kortenaken, named Boerenrock, with electro music on Friday, rock music and a party on Saturday, and on Sunday music aimed at children and their parents. The final edition of this festival took place in 2016.Music Instructor
Music Instructor was a German electro-dance music project. The producers and songwriters of Music Instructor were Mike Michaels, Mark "MM" Dollar, and Mark Tabak, also known as Triple-M Crew. Triple-M has also produced other artists and bands such as Brainbug, Flying Steps, Mystica, Highland, The Boyz, Overground, Before Four, US5 and Ayman. Music Instructor often worked with many other artists, especially a group Lunatics and a breakdance crew Flying Steps, and was most active in the late 1990s and early 2000s.Spank Rock
Naeem Juwan, better known by his stage name Spank Rock, is an American rapper and songwriter from Baltimore. He rose to fame with his 2006 album YoYoYoYoYo, which was produced by former group member Alex Epton (XXXChange). A harbinger of post-millennial alternative rap, the duo became known for its mixing of disparate hip hop and club genres, including Baltimore club, Miami bass, electro music and rock.
In 2007, Epton left the group to pursue his own production while Juwan went on to release the Bangers & Cash EP (2007) with pop producer Benny Blanco. After a five-year contract struggle with his label Downtown Records, Juwan released his sophomore LP Everything Is Boring and Everyone Is a Fucking Liar (2011) with a range of producers including Boys Noize, Le1f, XXXChange, and Squeak E. Clean.Street Sounds Crucial Electro 2
Street Sounds Crucial Electro 2 is the second compilation album in a series and was released 1984 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains eight electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by D.J. Maurice assisted by D.J. Noel.Street Sounds Crucial Electro 3
Street Sounds Crucial Electro 3 is the third compilation album in a series and was released 1987 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains twenty electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by Herbie Laidley.Street Sounds Electro 1
Street Sounds Electro 1 is the first compilation album in a series released 1983 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains eight electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by Herbie Laidley.Street Sounds Electro 10
Street Sounds Electro 10 is the tenth compilation album in a series and was released 1985 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains eight electro music and old-school hip hop tracks mixed by Herbie Laidley.Street Sounds Electro 3
Street Sounds Electro 3 is the third compilation album in a series and was released 1984 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains seven electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by Herbie Laidley.Street Sounds Electro 4
Street Sounds Electro 4 is the fourth compilation album in a series released in 1984 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains seven electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by DJ Morris.Street Sounds Electro 9
Street Sounds Electro 9 is the ninth compilation album in a series and was released 1985 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains eight electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by Herbie Laidley.Street Sounds Hip Hop Electro 11
Street Sounds Hip Hop Electro 11 is the eleventh compilation album in a series and was released 1986 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains ten electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by The Frog and Mad Dog Harris.Street Sounds Hip Hop Electro 12
Street Sounds Hip Hop Electro 12 is the twelfth compilation album in a series and was released 1986 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains eight electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by Herbie Laidley.Street Sounds Hip Hop Electro 13
Street Sounds Hip Hop Electro 13 is the thirteenth compilation album in a series and was released 1986 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains twenty-one electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by Herbie Laidley.Street Sounds Hip Hop Electro 14
Street Sounds Hip Hop Electro 14 is the fourteenth compilation album in a series and was released 1986 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains eight electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by Herbie Laidley.Street Sounds Hip Hop Electro 15
Street Sounds Hip Hop Electro 15 is the fifteenth compilation album in a series and was released 1986 on the StreetSounds label. The album was released on LP and cassette and contains eight electro music and old school hip hop tracks mixed by Herbie Laidley. The LP came with a bonus 7" single record with "The Man Marley Marl" by Marley Marl on the A-side, and "Stronger Than Strong (Remix)" by Faze One on the B-side. Track four on side one was released the following year as "South Bronx" by Boogie Down Productions.
Categories: Dance-rock and Boogie
decade of origin