The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT; (Thai: การไฟฟ้าฝ่ายผลิตแห่งประเทศไทย; RTGS: kan fai fa fai phalit haeng prathet thai) is a state enterprise, managed by the Ministry of Energy, responsible for electric power generation and transmission as well as bulk electric energy sales in Thailand. EGAT, established on 1 May 1969, is the largest power producer in Thailand, owning and operating power plants at 45 sites across the country with a total installed capacity of 15,548 MW.
EGAT's monopoly position in Thailand's electrical energy market has been challenged by critics as influential as a former energy minister and other government members are on the board. It has been criticised as inefficient and an impediment to the development of renewable energy sources.
|Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT)|
|Industry||Electric power; coal mining|
|Predecessor||Yanhee Electricity Authority (YEA), Lignite Authority (LA), North-East Electricity Authority (NEEA)|
|Founded||1 May 1969|
|Mr Kornrasit Pakchotanon, Governor|
|Products||Electric power generation and transmission; lignite|
|Revenue||494,119 million baht (2017)|
|million baht (2017)|
|Total assets||986,306 million baht (2017)|
Number of employees
|22,413 (July 2017)|
As stated in EGAT's Annual Report 2017::2
EGAT's power generation plants consist of three thermal power plants, six combined cycle power plants, 24 hydropower plants, eight renewable energy plants, and four diesel power plants. As of 31 May 2018 EGAT produced 37 percent of Thailand's electricity; independent power producers, 35 percent; small power producers, 19 percent; and electricity imports, 9 percent. Gas-fired generation powers 67 percent of EGAT's electricity generation while coal-fired power plants account for 20 percent. Most of EGAT's electricity is sold to the Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA), which supplies the Bangkok region, and the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA), which supplies the rest of Thailand.
Observers have noted that in some Western countries, the state purchases renewable energy from producers first before purchasing non-renewable energy. If renewables fail to meet the country's energy demand, it is topped up using non-renewable energy sources. In Thailand, this policy is reversed.
EGAT's net profits have declined 3.5 to 4 percent per year for the last several years, in concert with its share of power generation dipping to 36 percent in 2017 from 55 percent over a decade ago. Independent power producers (IPP) ramped up production over the last four years, from a few hundred megawatts to nearly 3,000 MW at the end of 2017. As IPP-supplied power purchases increase, EGAT's profits decline.
In the first half of 2016, Thailand imported 11.13 million tonnes of coal, up 3.5 percent from 10.76 million metric tonnes (mt) in the first half of 2015. Indonesia and Australia supplied 5.6 million tonnes of bituminous coal and 5.5 million tonnes of "other" coal. China and Russia supplied 47,395 tonnes of anthracite coal. Thailand produced 6.88 million mt of lignite from January–May 2016, rising 7.5 percent from the same period in 2015. EGAT accounts for "...most of the country's domestic lignite production, which is mainly supplied to its own power plants." Coal-fired power plants consumed 10.31 million mt of coal and lignite from January to May 2016, or 60.9 percent of the total, rising 11.4 percent year on year.
In 2017, Thailand imported 22.18 million mt of coal, up 2.5 percent from 2016. The nation produced 16.26 million mt of lignite in 2017, down 4.2 percent year on year. The country consumed a total of 39.07 million mt of coal and lignite, up 0.9 percent. Coal-fired power plants consumed 23.73 million mt of the total, down 4.2 percent from 2016. Other industries consumed the remainder.
While EGAT pushes forward with plans for coal-fired generating plants, many countries are spurning coal or deferring its use:
Guiding EGAT's efforts is Thailand's Power Development Plan (PDP). The plan, prepared by the Ministry of Energy (MOE) and EGAT, is issued iteratively. The previous edition, PDP2010 Revision 3, covered the years 2012-2030.
Along with the PDP, the MOE produces several subsidiary plans that roll up into the PDP::1-1
PDP2015 begins with the assumptions that::2-3
PDP2015 projects the following changes in Thailand electrical power generation fuel mix over the period 2014-2036::2-1
PDP2015 projects that Thailand's CO2 emissions from power generation will rise from 86,998,000 tons in 2015 to 104,075,000 tons in 2036.:7-1
Thailand's newest power development plan, PDP2018, is expected to be issued in September 2018.
Several critics have pointed out that EGAT's in-house generating capacity coupled with its power purchases from other suppliers has resulted in excessive reserve capacity. One such critic has been the editorial board of the Bangkok Post. They point out that in May 2017, Thailand's peak power demand was 28,578 MW. Total EGAT installed and purchased power capacity in May 2017 was 41,903 MW, leaving a reserve power capacity of 13,325 MW, 46 percent of total May demand. Industry standard best practice is that a 15 percent reserve power capacity is sufficient to "...maintain a stable power supply." In July 2017, EGAT generated 16,071 MW and purchased 25,652 MW from other suppliers for a total of 41,723 MW.
Updated figures reported in June 2018 indicate that Thailand has the capacity to produce or purchase 42,547 megawatts. Peak demand as of 31 April 2018 was recorded at 29,968 megawatts. Thus Thailand has a reserve margin of 58 percent. The "internationally accepted ideal reserve margin...[is] 15 percent of peak demand."
EGAT continues to press forward with plans to construct six new coal-fired power plants by 2025 in spite of institutions such as the World Bank halting funding for new coal projects except in "rare circumstances". Rachel Kyte, the World Bank climate change envoy, said continued use of coal was exacting a heavy cost on some of the world's poorest countries, in local health impacts as well as climate change, which is imposing even graver consequences on the developing world. "In general globally we need to wean ourselves off coal,...There is a huge social cost to coal and a huge social cost to fossil fuels...if you want to be able to breathe clean air." EGAT "...has—in TV commercials—ridiculed renewable energy as expensive and insufficient to deal with rising electricity demand."
A persistent criticism of EGAT is that it has paid scant attention to the demand side of the energy equation. Rather than build more carbon-powered plants, working to reduce demand and use existing supplies more efficiently has taken a back seat to network expansion. Opportunities for big savings exist: on 29 March 2014, Thailand observed "Earth Hour." For one hour, superfluous lighting was turned off, resulting in a savings of 1,778 megawatts, the energy equivalent of a new power plant, and more than six million baht in power bills.
EGAT's plans for future developments have been dogged by protests by local residents:
In mid-2015, government plans to build an 800 megawatt coal-fired electricity generating station (EGAT Coal-Fired TH #3):13 in Krabi Province have generated protests and hunger strikes by those opposed to the plant who say that it would endanger Krabi's relatively pristine environment. EGAT has pushed forward with development despite not having completed an environmental impact study. It intends to start the bidding process without an environmental assessment in order to "save time". The Krabi site is one of nine coal-fired plants planned for southern Thailand to be constructed over the next two decades to off-set the depletion of natural gas fields in the Gulf of Thailand. Opponents of the plan say their demands—which include a three-year waiting period to see if the province can produce 100 percent renewable energy—have been ignored.
In August 2015, the prime minister ordered the formation of a commission composed of state agencies, EGAT, and citizen activists to find solutions to the power plant conflict. Gen Sakon Sajjanit was appointed committee chairman. It was agreed that the government put a hold on consideration of the Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Health Impact Assessments; that EGAT postpone bidding for the plant and the seaport; and that all parties allow Krabi to try to produce 100 percent renewable energy for three years with government support. EGAT broke the agreement as it proceeded with the bidding process, won by the Power Construction Corporation of China and Italian-Thai Development PCL. In November 2016, Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha put the project "on-hold". According to the Bangkok Post, this is a move to "buy time".
In early 2017, following a series of protests by those opposed to a coal-fired plant in Krabi, Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha ordered that new environmental (EIA) and health impact assessments (EHIA) be conducted for the Krabi project. He directed that the public must be allowed to have its say. "A new power plant will certainly be built, but how? We have to take a look at what is good, safe and can deal with power shortages in order to ensure power security. There must be a balance between fossil fuels and recyclable energy," the prime minister said. The new assessments are expected to take at least two and a half years to complete, which means the Krabi power plant will be delayed to 2024 from its original schedule of 2019. EGAT officials insisted that a new power plant is still needed in south Thailand to meet the region's power demands, which increase by four to five percent annually.
In February 2018 the Ministry of Energy put the Krabi coal-fired power plant "on hold" for three years pending additional EHIA (environmental and health impact assessment) and EIA (environmental impact assessment) studies.
In Songkhla Province's Thepha District, a public hearing on EGAT's plans to build a coal-fired plant was ringed with razor wire to prevent opponents of the plan from gaining access to the hearing. The hearing, the third and final hearing on the Environment and Health Impact Assessment (EHIA) for the 2,400 megawatt plant, was policed by 400 soldiers, police, and volunteers. Some attendees admitted being transported to the hearing by local village leaders, who also provided them with gifts and food coupons. Songkhla Governor Thamrong Charoenkul chaired the hearing despite questions raised regarding his neutrality. He told the hearing that the project will benefit Thepa residents. "Since Egat has proposed the project, Thepha is now known nationwide. Shouldn't we be proud about that?" he said. Anuchart Palakawongse Na Ayudhya, director of EGAT's Project Environment Division, insisted EGAT's hearings were lawful. "We have organised the public review step by step according to the law," he said. Anuchart said EGAT did not bar anyone from expressing their opinions. "It's impossible to cancel the project. Most Thepha people support it," he said.
On 17 August 2017, an expert committee of the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning Office (ONEP) approved the 2,200-megawatt coal-fired power plant's EHIA, removing one of the last hurdles to the plant's construction. The EHIA's approval was met with renewed criticism. The Bangkok Post commented that, "These...assessments turn out to be just another rubber stamp for operators — in this case...EGAT...." ONEP responded to criticism by defending its approval. A construction schedule has not yet been published.
In February 2018 the Ministry of Energy put the Thepha coal-fired power plant "on hold" for three years pending additional EHIA (environmental and health impact assessment) and EIA (environmental impact assessment) studies.
Thailand's Power Development Plan, approved in May 2015 (PDP 2015), outlines the government's plans to import up to 10,000 MW of electricity from Myanmar over the next two decades. Much of this electricity is expected to come from planned hydro-power projects on the Salween River ("Thanlwin" in Myanmar). Thailand and Myanmar have signed an agreement for the Salween dams project, five dams on the Salween and another dam on the Tenasserim River. EGAT has been pushing forward two projects: the 1,360 MW Hatgyi dam in Kayin State and the 7,100 MW Mong Ton dam in Shan State (formerly known as the Tasang dam).The Mong Ton dam, in central Shan State, would span the Salween and Pang rivers, covering an area the size of Singapore.
EGAT has been the target of several lawsuits brought by neighbours of several of its operations. The best known legal challenge took place in Mae Mo. Mae Mo is the site of a 2,400 MW lignite-fueled power plant run by EGAT. Coal-fired power plants such as Mae Mo can release up to 150 million tonnes of CO2 over their design life of 20–25 years, according to Greenpeace-Thailand. The plant has been the target of a series of lawsuits brought by locals who claim that the lignite mining operation and the burning of lignite fuel by EGAT has negatively impacted the environment and the health of those living in the vicinity. A 12-year fight by villagers for compensation for damages ended in victory for the plaintiffs in February 2015. The Supreme Administrative Court in Chiang Mai Province upheld a ruling by the Chiang Mai Administrative Court in 2005. The court handed down a verdict ordering EGAT to pay compensation to 131 plaintiffs, some of them deceased. Plant victims were awarded between 20,000-240,000 baht each, commensurate with their suffering. The total amounts to 25 million baht plus 7.5 percent interest.
Several days earlier, the court had ordered EGAT to return its Mae Mo golf course, adjacent to the open pit lignite mine, to woodland in order to help clean up the air pollution caused by EGAT's Mae Mo operations.
The Bhumibol Dam (formerly known as the Yanhi Dam) is a concrete arch dam on the Ping River, a tributary of the Chao Phraya River, in Sam Ngao District of Tak Province, Thailand. It is about 480 km (298 mi) north of Bangkok and was built for the purposes of water storage, hydroelectric power production, flood control, fisheries and saltwater intrusion management. The dam was named after King Bhumibol Adulyadej and it was Thailand's first multi-purpose project.Cheow Lan Lake
Cheow Lan Lake (Thai: เชี่ยวหลาน, RTGS: Chiao Lan) or Rajjaprabha Dam Reservoir (อ่างเก็บน้ำเขื่อนรัชชประภา, RTGS: Ratchaprapha~), is in Khao Sok National Park in Surat Thani Province, Thailand. It is an 185-square-kilometre (71 sq mi) artificial lake, inaugurated in 1987 with the construction of Rajjaprapha Dam by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) as a source of electricity.Chulabhorn Dam
Chulabhorn Dam (เขื่อนจุฬาภรณ์) is a dam in Tambon Thung Lui Lai, Khon San District, Chaiyaphum Province, Thailand. It impounds the Phrom River, a tributary of the Mekong. The dam has diverted the Nam Phrong River. As water leaves its turbines, it empties into the Choen River. The dam is named after Princess Chulabhorn of Thailand.Electricity Authority
Electricity Authority may refer to:
British Electricity Authority
Central Electricity Authority, United Kingdom
Central Electricity Authority, India
Electricity Authority of Cambodia
Electricity Authority of Cyprus
Electricity Authority (New Zealand)
Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand
Manx Electricity AuthorityEnergy in Thailand
Energy in Thailand refers to energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Thailand. According to the Ministry of Energy, the country's primary energy consumption was 75.2 Mtoe (million tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2013, an increase of 2.6 percent over the previous year. According to British Petroleum, energy consumption was 115.6 Mtoe in 2013.Global Roundtable on Climate Change
The Global Roundtable on Climate Change, convened by the Earth Institute at Columbia University brought together representatives from corporations, research institutions, and government organizations to discuss the scientific consensus, economics, technology, and public policy issues associated with climate change. Following preliminary research and discussions, the group first met in 2005 and held a series of public and private meetings over the next five year.
The Roundtable had five objectives:
Improve global consensus on the science, technology, economics, and policy issues of anthropogenic climate change.
Review technology and policy proposals for mitigating climate change while meeting global energy demand.
Support research and prototypes of technologies and policies that address climate change.
Provide a forum for discussion, analysis, and exchange of ideas from the represented groups.
Support proposals and initiatives generated by the Roundtable's discussions.Participants in the Roundtable meetings: ABB, Air France, Alcan, Alcoa, Alliant Energy, Allianz, American Electric Power, BASF, Bayer, Calvert Group, China Renewable Energy Industry Association, Citigroup, Coalition of Rainforest Nations, Columbia University, Deutsche Telekom, DuPont, Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Endesa, Environmental Defense, Eskom, Eni, Exelon, Fairfield University, FPL Group, General Electric, Iberdrola, ING Group, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International Gas Union, Munich Re, National Grid, NRG Energy, Rainforest Alliance, Republic of Iceland, Ricoh, Suntech Power, Swiss Re, Vattenfall, Volvo, World Council on Churches, World Petroleum Council, and many others.
The Roundtable was funded by a grant from the Lenfest Foundation. Jeffrey Sachs, Director of the Earth Institute served as Chair. David L. Downie served as Director of the Global Roundtable on Climate Change before leaving the Earth Institute to join Fairfield University.
On February 20, 2007, the Roundtable released "The Path to Climate Sustainability: A Joint Statement by the Global Roundtable on Climate Change". The Joint Statement outlines a post-Kyoto framework and has been endorsed by over 100 of the Roundtable participating corporations and organizations. The Statement outlines ways to effect change at the levels of policy and industry, particularly in regards to creating sustainable energy systems necessary for achieving economic growth.
In addition to its internal discussions, which were aimed at information exchange, education and consensus building, and development of the parthbreaking Joint Statement, Roundtable participants also participated in public forums. For example, David L. Downie organized two side-event panels during sessions of the global climate negotiations that featured presentations by Roundtable Participants, including himself, regarding how businesses and scientists were working together to lower greenhouse gas emissions. David L. Downie also discussed the Roundtable and related issues at other events during the climate negotiations and in other forums Hydroelectricity in Thailand
Hydro power in Thailand is the biggest form of renewable energy in Thailand, beating solar power in Thailand and wind power in Thailand, with a total capacity of over 7000MW of hydro power generation capacity installed in 26 hydroelectric dams in the country. The biggest hydroelectric dam in Thailand is the Bhumibol Dam, which has 8 turbines giving it a total capacity of 749MW. The dam was opened in 1964 and is owned and operated by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand.
Thailand also imports electricity produced by hydroelectric power stations in other countries. By September 2015, Thailand was importing 7% of the electricity it could produce. Electricity was being imported from Laos, Myanmar and China.Kasem Chatikavanij
Kasem Chatikavanij (popularly known as "Super K") was the former Governor of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand and Chairman of Bangkok Mass Transit System PCL (BTSC), the operator of the Bangkok Skytrain. His nephew, Korn Chatikavanij, is a prominent member of the Democrat Party.List of power stations in Thailand
The following page lists power generating plants in Thailand.Mae Mo District
Mae Mo (Thai: แม่เมาะ, pronounced [mɛ̂ː mɔ́ʔ]) or Mae Moh is a district (amphoe) in the eastern part of Lampang Province, northern Thailand.Metropolitan Electricity Authority
The Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) (Thai: การไฟฟ้านครหลวง) is a Thai state enterprise under the Ministry of Interior. It was established on 1 August 1958 by the Metropolitan Electricity Authority Act 1958 (BE 2501). Its governor is Mr Somchai Roadrungwasinkul.Nuclear power in Thailand
Thailand has no nuclear power stations. The Thai Energy Ministry periodically considers plans for nuclear power.Pak Mun Dam
The Pak Mun Dam (Thai: เขื่อนปากมูล) is a barrage dam and run-of-the-river hydroelectric plant located 5.5 km west of the confluence of the Mun and Mekong Rivers in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand. It was constructed by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) with support from the World Bank at a total cost of US$240 million, and completed in 1994.
The project has been criticized for adverse effects on the fisheries of the Mun River, insufficient compensation payments to affected villagers, and failure to produce the projected power output. The immediate impact of the dam was to flood 117 km2 of land and displace families. The original plan estimated the displacement of 262 families. In the end, 912 families were displaced and 780 households lost all or part of their land. In all, around 25,000 villagers claim to have been affected by the dam. Protests have been staged at the dam site and outside Government House in Bangkok. EGAT has paid out US$44.24 million in relocation compensation, plus US$15.8 million for loss of fisheries.Rasi Salai Dam
The Rasi Salai Dam (Thai: ฝายราษีไศล) is a dam in Rasi Salai District that was in use from 1994 to 2000. It was constructed by Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) with assistance from the World Bank, despite local protest. Living River Siam, a Thai NGO, helped villagers document the effects of the dam on their lives. EGAT promised that the dam's waters would be used to irrigate local fields, but in fact the dam flooded ancient salt banks which not only made the water unusable but made many nearby fields infertile as well. Angry villagers occupied the dam site for two years and petitioned the government to close it down. The dam's gates were opened in 2000 pending a permanent decision on what to do with it, and it has not been used since.Sirikit Dam
The Queen Sirikit Dam is an embankment dam on the Nan River, a tributary of the Chao Phraya River, in Tha Pla District, Uttaradit Province, Thailand. It is at the southeastern edge of the Phi Pan Nam Range. The dam was built for the purpose of irrigation, flood control and hydroelectric power production. It is named after Sirikit, Queen of Thailand.Sirindhorn Dam
The Sirindhorn Dam is located in Sirindhorn District, Ubon Ratchatani, Thailand. It impounds the Lam Dom Noi River, and its reservoir is the province's largest water resource. The dam was commissioned in 1971 to serve as a hydropower facility as well as to supply irrigation water. The dam was named after Princess Royal Sirindhorn. All of the electricity generated by the dam is destined for domestic markets. The dam was constructed and is owned and operated by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand and is located in the Mekong River Basin, just upstream from the controversial Pak Mun Dam.
Some 2,000 villagers were resettled to make way for the dam's reservoir. Many claim they did not receive adequate compensation for the loss of their livelihood and only received compensation for 80% of their land. Furthermore, they claim that the land in the resettlement village is of poor quality and few crops can be grown, and that a proposed irrigation canal was never built.The reservoir and dam power the Sirindhorn Hydropower Plant, which has an installed capacity of 3 units of 12,000 kilowatts each and annual energy production of 90 GWh.There is a park near the dam headquarters and a restaurant and bungalows for visitors. There is a golf course in this area also, at the north end of the lake.Somsak Kosaisuuk
Somsak Kosaisuuk (Thai script: สมศักดิ์ โกศัยสุข), is a Thai union official and politician.
He was the Secretary-General of the State Enterprise Labour Relations Confederation (SELRC), a union of government owned enterprises' employees, and in this position very active in organizing a campaign against the privatization of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand. Currently, he is an adviser to the union.
Kosaisuuk was one of the five leaders of the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD). When the PAD registered a political party, the New Politics Party (NPP), Somsak became its chairman. In late April 2011, he resigned from the PAD leadership in a split that separated the PAD from the NPP.
According to a poll conducted by Angus Reid Public Opinion during September 2010, Kosaisuuk was named the least liked politician in Thailand.Ubol Ratana Dam
The Ubol Ratana Dam (pronounced: Ubon Rat), formerly known as the "Phong Neeb Dam", is a multi-purpose dam in tambon Khok Sung, Ubolratana District, approximately 50 km (31 mi) north of Khon Kaen, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. It was the first hydroelectric power project developed in Thailand's northeastern area of Isan. The dam impounds the Nam Phong, which flows into the Chi River and thence to the Mun River, a tributary of the Mekong River. The dam was given its current name by royal permission in 1966, in honour of princess Ubol Ratana, the eldest child of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.Vajiralongkorn Dam
Vajiralongkorn Dam (Thai: เขื่อนวชิราลงกรณ; RTGS: Khuean Wachiralongkon), also called the Khao Laem Dam (เขื่อนเขาแหลม), is a concrete-faced rock-fill dam (CFRD) in Thong Pha Phum District in Kanchanaburi, Thailand. The dam lies across the Khwae Noi River (River Kwai) and was renamed Vajiralongkorn Dam after King Vajiralongkorn on 13 July 2001. Vajiralongkorn Dam is Thailand's first CFRD and supplies a 300 MW hydroelectric power station with water. The dam was built and is managed by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT).